Skip to main content

Full text of "The Scattered Nation: Past, P[resent and Future"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



3y 



4. /-: I 



S&/ 



X 

^0 



I . I 



I 






From THE INCOME 

OFTHEBEQUESTOF 

LEEM. 
FRIEDMAN '93 



|i©| Harvard College 
^^U Library 






^I' HF] 



SCATTERED NATION; 



PAST, PEESMT, AND FUTUEE. 



EDITED BY C. SCHWARTZ, D.D., 

Mumtn ov fuvxTT oxiMn, ion iTBin, iDftWAia ioaa. 



VOLUME I. 



1866. 



LONDON: 
MOBGAN AND CHASB, 88, LUDGATE HILL. 



*i /"'-r- 



/ 



1 

I 






HAMIkP "JIF*" LMtOOM 



/ LIBRARY 

PffCW THe INCOHIE 
■ THE BEQUEST OE 
LEE M. rWEPKWH 



The Scatter^ Nation,! 
Dm. 1» 1866. J 



nwEX. 



INDEX 



FAOB 

Algerian Jews, the....*; 168 

Anniyersaries, the 144,166 

Apostates. Bjthe Editor 26 

Attack on the Earl of Shaftesbury 91 

Bene-Israel of Bombay, the 240 

Consider it Prayerftilly. By the Editor 269 

Correspondence 97,196,266 

Correspondence between Two Brothers 89 

Correspondents, to 244,291 

Count, the, and the Babbi. By Dr. Delitzsch. . . 57 

David aType. By Rev. A. Saphir 197 

Day of Atonement, the. By the Editor 226 

Fair Proposals. By the Editor 221 

" Fast, the,- of the Fourth Month, and the 

Fast of the Fifth Month." By the Bev. 

Dr. Maigolionth 176,203 

of the Tenth Month. Do. 89 

Feast of Dedication, the. Do 7 

Pentecost Do. 107, 130, 162 

Tabernacles Do; ... 229, 249 

The Passover. By the Editor 86 

Gentile Chnrch, the, and Israel. By the 

Editor 69 

Giant Cities of Bashan 109 

Great Synagogue at Berlin 288 

Great Tribulation, the. By B. Stent, Esq.... 143 

Hebrew-Christian Alliance 126,163 

Union 96,124 

Histo ry and Prophecy. By the Editor. ..... 14 

InteUectnal and Social Progress of the Jews 118 
InteDigenoe, 21, 23, 44, 70, 92, 97, 119, 147, 

169, 192, 216, 241, 266, 289 
Israel in History. By Professor P. Cassel 

101, 127, 160 



Israel's Mission, and Missions to Israel. By 
Dr. W. Graham 12, 29, 77, 104, 207, 286 

Jewesses in Jerusalem, the. By Mrs. Finn 

33, 66, 134 

Jewish Messianic Family, a 179 

— — Missionary and Beligious Liberty ... 118 

— — Mission Schol near Damascus 288 

Jews' Home 20,48,72,96,124 

Jews in Bohemia 287 

of Spain smd Portugal, the. By J. 

Finn, Esq 6, 43, 79, 156, 234 

Journey of Sir Moses Montefiore to Jeru- 
salem 259 

Karaite Jews, the ...164,190 

Law, the, in Harmony with the Gospel. By 
Professor Sachs 160 

May Meetings, the. By the Editor 141 

Mission Stations on the Continent 214 

Movement of the High Church party with 
reference to the Jews 268 

Napoleon and the Jews. By the Editor 68 

New Hebrew Translation of the New Testa- 
ment 124 

New Translation of the Old Testament. By 
the Editor 102 



Our Title. 



Palestine Model Farm 17 

Past. BytheEditor 116 

Paul a witness for Christianity to Jews and 

Gentiles. By the Editor 189 

Poetry: 

A Lament 248 

A Lay for Israel 199 

Awake, awake, put on strength 224 



INDEX. 



fThd Be>ttwtd ygtog, 
L Deo. 1» 1868. 



Foetty ! 

Hiel, the BetlieUte 278 

LjTE Expectantdnm. Bj W. Stone, 

U.A 28,76,140,180 

Oarm of the Lord 248 

BoimetB ♦>,,. 114 

The Pig Tree, Bj Mrs. Finn 16 

Yoices of Sorrow and OonBolation ... 157 
Praotira.1 chafoot^r of the doctrine of our 
Lord's Second Advent. Bj the Bey. A. A. 

86 



EeaooDs for remaining a Jew. Bj the 

Editor 183 

fietroapect, a. Bj the Editor 149 

Romamfim and Babbinism. By the Editor 

206, 286, 256, 279 
Boih EeAhnnnBh, By the Editor 200 

SabbathaiSceTi...... 252 

Sabbath, the. By the Bev. Dr. Margolionth 272 
Sanctuary of Jehovah, the. By Gershom 

254, 281 
Second Advent of oiir Lord, the, in its rela- 

tioQ to IsraeL By the Bey. A. A. Isaacs... 63 
Selah, the word 228, 267 

Te«timoi:i J of EDcmiea. By the Editor 78 

ToonrEeadere 292 

TVinity Chapel ,...,. 48,72 



Twelye Tribes, the. By the Bey. Andrew 
A. Bonar : 

Benben 2 

Simeon 81 

Levi 68 

Jndah 88 

Dan 112 

Naphtali 187 

Gad 168 

Asher ^. 181 

Issaohar 211 

Zebnlun 281 

Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh) 246 

270 



UnfSEur Dealing. By the Editor 288 

Visit to a Synagogue 19 

War, the, between Prussia and Austria. By 
the Editor « 178 

Waving of the Sheaf and the Feast of Pente- 
oost. By E. S. Gahnan, Esq 186 

What did the ancient Hebrews know of 
Astronomy? By the Bey. Dr. Margo- 
Uouth 40 

What is required 218 

Where are the Ten Tribes? By the Bey. 
A.A.Isaaos,MJL 228 



^ 



THE 

SCATTERED NATION. 



JANUAKY, 1866. 



OUR TITLE. 

" Alt, joxa saccess depends on a striking title ! '' some say. And when they 
have uttered these weighty words^ they look at you with the greatest satirfac- 
tion^ not doubting that you fully sympathize with them^ and are greatly 
indebted to them for this piece of good advice. It may be that yomr 
countenance betrays some symptoms of a differed opinion^ and no sooner haye 
they perceived it^ than they repeat their grand mazim^ though somewhat 
modified, and with a less degree of self-complacency: ''A groat deal of your 
saccess depends on a striking title ! '' 

Does this mean to say that many are more attracted by sounds than by 
sense^ by words rather than by weighty truths f Are we to cater for a crowd 
that reads hastQy and forgets speedily ? We firankly confess that we cherish 
higher expectations of our readers, and strive after a nobler aim. It is the desire 
of our soul to describe^ as our title promises, the dcaMered nation, in its past, 
pi*eseht, and future ; to relate the history of the people ; to delineate the state 
of the land; to magnify the glory of the King of Israel. 

The Scattered Nation I A nation such as no other people ever was, and yet 
scattered; and then arain, scattered to such a degree as no other nation ever 
was, and yet a nation 1 There is but one nation with which God has entered 
into a special covenant, for whose deliverance He has stretched out his mighty 
arm, for whose formation He descended from heaven, for whose guidance He 
moved in a fieiy cloud. He distinguished that nation as his peculiar people. 
He gave it the Word, did for it what He has done for no other ; and, when they 
rejected Him, in whom they had been chosen, and for whose sake they were 
preserved, when they rejected the Messiah — ^Israel's Comer and Head-Stone— 
theywere scattered I 

X ou meet the Jew everywhere. The coldest region has not killed, the hottest 
clime has not burned him; flatteries and threatenings, barbarism and civilization, 
he has outlived them all; and though dispersed over all countries and among all 
the nations of the earth, the Jew is easily recognized. He is a stranger in the 
land of his birth, whilst a Jew in Europe is nationally united with the Jews in 
the most distant parts of New 2iealand ; for, though tney are scattered, they are 
a nation. One of their enemies testified : " There is one people scattered 
abroad and dispersed among the people in all the provinces of thy kingdom'* 
(Esth. iii. 8) ; and another, called to curse and compelled to bless, exclaimed : 
''The people shall dwell alone, and shall not be reckoned among the nations/' 
(Num. xxiii. 9.) 

You feel for the refugees driven from their native soil; you sympathize 
with the exile who has had to leave the ground where his cradle oncestooa; your 

VOL. L— HO. I. 1 



TEE TWELVE TRIBES. 



fTlM Scattered Katioo» 
L Jan. 1. 1886. 



heart is tQuched by the grief of the noble hero, who is ready to endure the 
loss of everything rather than forsake the land he tenderly loves ; and can you 
refuse your eood wishes, your tears, yoxir prayers, to the scattered Jews ? 

This is the day of nationalities, and laany struggle for their existence, and 
in a desperate fignt hope to throw off the crushing yoke, and to regain long- 
lost and ever ardently-desired liberty. There is a nation which, amid all 
mighty olianjel, lias stood th0 test i!f -eigMeeti cenfcuriep, and — why abalt I 
disguise ifr? — Has thercerimnty that it riiall' continue-to be « nation, as long 
as the heavens above cannot be measured, and the foundations of the earth 
cannot be searched out. Can y(»u be^ indifferent to the pains, the wrestlings, 
the expectations, the sure hope of ^t nataom f 

TeU me, you that are one of the scattered ones, — Why are you scattered so 
long among the nations of the earth ? Why hast thou been driven from the 
land Gk)d promised and gave to thy fathers for an everlasting inheritance ? 
Your heart looks longingly and prayerMfy towards the holy city ; tell me — 
Why is it trodden down under the feet of the Gentiles, and why art thou a 
. waiui^er in a land noi tkine* own T 

Tea thai beicmg to i&e naHons of the esrfii, tell me^-^Who preoervBS tbese 
scaMiared oms as a nition, watehe»orir«rtiiem, and proteoto'thvn, andpi^ofidas 
forthem ? Are they for ever to be owttewd f Are tliey nev^rto bereatored 
to ibeit own laxtd ? Are the land and the peoplB of pvomise never to be te*- 
unitod agsm ? Wilt H» Uka;^ scattcared tbdm: nsv^r mAer them f Wfll He that 
laidrtiia land wftitd never agmn sonlee it frditMf Is Ae hope of IsradicKt 
off for ever ? 

0od forbid I We^ Wf iMger fbr Ay dlOdreH, O Baxitel, for there is still 
hojjBein tinne end, that thy oKldremi shall comedo ^eir own borders, 6ai& tim 
Lord' GkKl. Bisf g^fts and caffing m^ without repentastvev All Israel d^ll be 
saved ere l&tig, &aA IJie reo^rnag of tihrem iff to be 1^ from tiie dead. ISiey 
shall pmse ifim who was angry inik them, and has now^ oomfortiid them; and 
thev sfacdl ory 0»l and shont, for QtoA has deae eaccellent thfaigs in their mldsfr ; 
and this will be known in all the eaarfh* 



THE TWEtiVB TRIBES. 



BT THJ! EEV; AimREW A. BOTNIB* 



TORftmSSf 

In the review we hope to be able to take 
of the twelve tribBs, <mr ' ol^jeot is net so 
mu^ to inquire into ttiebr InaUnry, as to 
tra^ tihe* descent of each, and mark how 
each got itB complexion firom its fbre^ 
father. 'Pot it is very remarkable that, for 
the most pttrt; each tribe iff i^ken of both 
in Jaeob^ predictkm and in Moses' blessing 
in terms tltat bear reference to the patri- 
arch t/ho fbancted it, and to drcitm- 
stanoesr connected with his personal history. 
As the sia of Adam spread its dark 
. ihaSotr over tA his raee> so in some degree 
the speoiid' acts^ of the twelver patriarchs 



afifeoted all generatitos of their desoendants. 
Mysterious truth ! but truth that cannot be 
gsdnsayed! 

We begin with JacoVs flrst-bom— - 

In €fen. rdx. S2, we have the record of 
his bxrtH It was with something like xn-oud 
exultation overBachel that Lecdi exclaimed, 
ji vj «« Behdfd ye a son ! Come and see 
what the Lordlwri^ ghen me!** She had 
been fbr a time suffering the consequences 
of the part she took in the deception praotised 
upon Jacob by Laban. She had fbH sorely 
ttie coohiBss of Jacob's love toward her, 
and* had discerned also the apparent 



Jan. 1» 1M6. J 



THE TWELVE TBIJBB8. 



fro'wii of Jehovah in her temporary barreii- 
ness. Bat now the son has shone through 
the doudy and very beautiftilly does &he 
acknowledge the giver: " 8u/rely Jeh4yvdh 
TuUh looked upon my affliction.** She traces 
events to their true caase, the loving-kind- 
ness of "The Father of lights," who sends 
every good gift. Family trials, as well as 
&mily mercies, are all from Him. Secret 
wounds, heart-bnmings, gloom, and smiles, 
are not tmnoticed, nor nncared for. Then 
farther, Leah expected much comfort from 
this gift. •* My huehand wtU love me." This 
is to be one result This son shall be the 
comer-stone of the fiunily building. " See, 
a son!" This is another expected result, 
combined with the anticipation that of course 
she shall be looked upon with wistful envy 
by others. But alas 1 like Eve with Cain, 
she was destined to be disappointed in the 
main sulgect of her exultation. As Eve 
fondly hoped that Gain, *'a man gotten from 
the Lord," was to be her comfort and joy, yet 
found him her bitterest sorrow ; so did Leah,* 
too, soon discover that this son of her womb 
was to be a sword in her bones, when in after- 
years " he defiled his father's bed" (xxxv. 22). 
Sad indeed was the after-history. Jacob 
(G^. xlix. 4) felt it profoundly, and was 
directed by the Holy Ghost to express €h>d's 
abhorrence of the incestuous act by that 
prediction, "Unstable as water, thou shaU 
not excel:" effervescing, or boiling over 
(viQ) in insolent pride and uncontrollable 
desire, thou shalt pay the penalty. 

"Brab«n, tboa uimj flnt-bora, 
Hj might, even th* fint froit of mj tHrmngth, 
Pre-eminent in dignity, pre-etninent in power." 

This iiiou art by natural right; yet 
because of thy sin, the trowa. of Jehovah 
visits thee and thiue ; 

" 7%ou ihaii kov§ MO fjattmUoM," 

no distinction above thy brethren. The 
leadership of Israel is thus withdrawn froia 
him, along with the birthright, as 1 Ghron. 
V. 1, 2, particularly notes. Neither he nor 
any of his tribe rose to commanding influ- 
ence in Israel. 

Sorrowfrd Leah! With thee, in thy 
crushed hopes, weU could Eve have sym- 
pathized. If thou moumest over an 
adulterer of no common degree, she mourned 
oyer a murderer, a fratricide. Let no 



parent after this embark too much hope in 
such bulrush-vessels. The gift may be 
prized, but must not be over-valued nor 
trusted in. There is only one such vessel of 
which it is safe for us to boast : it is not Cain, 
nor Reuben, but another son, " The Son given 
to U8** (Isa. ix. 5). Of Him let us boast. 
<' Behold a Son indeed!" Gk>d's Son. He 
disappoints no hopes, and to Him must Eve 
repair in her bitter grief, and Leah wiUi her 
blighted prospects, and Eli weeping his eyes • 
blind over Hophni and Phinehas, and David 
groaning till his kingdom hear it, over 
Absalom. "Behold a Son!" (l^) «n). The 
true Beuhen is Gk>d*s Firstborn. 

When Moses (Deut. xxxiiL 6) speaks of 
the tribe of Reuben, it is quite plain that 
the same Spirit is guiding his utterance. 
There is the same tone in his words — 

Zft not JUvUh 4U, audhii mtn Uftm P* 

This is all. No pre-eminence, even thouglr 
his tribe multiply as to numbers. His people 
are to be bt>P " mortals," not " warriors" 
in any remarkable manner. It was at best 
the blessing that came on Ishmael, '' Oh that 
Ishmael nUght live before thee** (Gen. xvii 18). 

The sin of this patriarch-flkther deserved' 
death in every sense ; extinction from Israel, 
as well as degradation. But pardon is 
granted: he is to "live, and not die;" 
though from him must pass away the birth- 
right office of chief-ruler, and all notable 
pre-eminence. His history sounds through 
Israel's hosts in all generations: "Ftoe 
youthful lusts ! " " Whoso committeth adul- 
tery, lacketh understanding: he that doeth 
it destroyeth his own soul: a wound and 
dishonour shall he get; and his reproach 
shall not be wiped away" (Prov. vi. 32, 38). 

Still, Reuben was spared and pardoned ; 
his name was on the High Priest's breast- 
plate, and a loaf stood for him on the golden 
table. And we find him in after-days walk- 
ing softly (may we not say P) in his appointed 
lot beyond Jordan. He did nobly in the 
seven years' war under Joshua for the pos- 
session of Canaan, when associated with 
Oad, and the half tribe of Kanasseh, and 
along with them received the meed of praise 
for brotherly help and faithftilness to his 
pledged word (Josh. xxiL 1 — 9). But this 
is the one only time that Reuben shines. 



THE TWELVE TBIBES. 



pThe B«sttored ViAkn, 
L Jan. 1, IMS. 



and even then he has no pfre-cminence above 
G^ and Manamteh. So also when he con- 
tribates Ms share to the 120,000 valiant men 
who came to David "with all manner of in- 
struments of war *' (1 Chron. xii. 87), there is 
no superiority claimed for him. On the other 
hand, he shrinks back in the day of battle, 
when Barak and Deborah go forth (Judges 
V. 16). 

«« At tfa» rtrevBt ot Bm^m 
thtf W6f p eat HtotTea of h— r» {'* 

but what did they end in? In inactivity 
and unbrotherly withholding of help, unlike 
his earlier days (Josh. i. 12—15) ; so that the 
prophetess upbraids him, and stigmatizes 
his unwordiy attitude : 



To hearths bUaii99tifiheJlo<ik»r 

rather than come on the battle-field, and 
hear the trumx)et and the dash of arms. 

We read of the early captivity of this 
tribe (1 Chron. y. 6). It was among the 
firai of the tribes oarried mto exile : proud 
Nineveh witnessed the spectacle of Beerah, 
Priaeo of Beoben, led aJong her streets in 
chaiBS— the hat prinoe of the tribel Bis 
brel^ireii, left behind in their hAd, were 
rottud to e£fort» and, mder energetic chiefe, 
recovered possession of tbe region " from 
Aroer to Nebo" (IChron. v. 7, 8) ; and finding, 
the paflturea of Gilead unoccupied* quietly 
settfed down upon them, enjoying a short 
seaMu of tranquillity. But it was osly the 
lamp shooting up " a flidcering flame" ere 
it sa&k away in its socket. 

We said tlmt once only did Reuben's light 
shuie brilliazvfcly. Weniay,hQ3iv«ver, add thaife 
in Ihe days of Saul they got sometenown by 
a vietovy over the HagariteB(l Gfaron. v. 10). 
In after-times they mnk out of view. Once 
on^ was their territory signaliaed by a«y 
remwrkable exploit. That one even* was the 
B(Me of Medeba (1 Chron. adx. 7—19), 
WitibuL thfiir boundaries also stood that 
manrtain* never to befo9^tten» viz., Ngho, 
with its wmmiit, Piagah, whence Moses 
viewed the land; a mountain of melanohdy 



interest, a grave and a monuments And let 
us note that Heshlxm and Blealeh, of whioh 
Isaiah says (Isa. xvi. 9), "I will waiter thee 
widimy tears;*' Jaaer too, and Sibmah, 
over which Jeremiah (Jer. xlviiL 32) plain- 
tively laments, " I will weep fbr thee with the 
weeping of Jazer," were in Reuben's land. 
Dibon also and Bi^ith were here, to the 
high places whereof " they went up to weep." 
Altogether we see the stamp and gloom of 
their fore&ther's sin ever re-app^Ering in 
this tribe. 

Nevertheless in the latter day, Beuben's 
stains shall no more appear. In Bcek* 
xlviii. 6, 7, wefind his portion hehoeen Eph/toMn 
aivd Judahr-Vk position of honour surely, 
indicating restoration from the fidl in which 
his forefather involved him P " Oh that the 
salvation of Israel were come out of Zion ! " 
Let Israel know that spiritual adultery, 
as a people, has been their ruin. They left 
Jehovah: and when He came to his own, 
clothed in our humanity; when He stood on 
their hills, and wept over them ; they sternly 
rejected Him. And never since that hour 
have they prospered. " They 8%aU not excel,** 
is IsraeFs doom, as it was Beuben'si until 
they shall come in the latter day to wash 
away the stain of their enormous sin in 
" the fountain opened for sin and undeon- 
ness" (Zech. xiii. 1). Then shall thoy return 
to honour and exoellency. 



PISOAH UTTHB TRtBV OF BStTBfflT. 

** SwsBT was tha jouraej to the Aj, 
The holy prophet tried ; 
'dimbvp a«««Mrt,* mM GM| ' Mddie:' 
The prophet dimbed end died. 

«« Softlj, with Ikliitiiig head, h§itf 
Upon hk ]Ceker*8 broMt ; 
His Maker MotiHd Ut eevd §mvf» 
And hiid his fleeh to rest. 

" In God's own arms heieft the breath 
Which God's own Spirit gare ; 
Hli was the noUest road to death. 
And Us tl wi w ee t ii l gMTOk** 

W^ 



THE JEWS OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.— I. 



3T JAHES riim, ES<i. 



fSAnZK I. 
AjfANfi tine Jews ddflperaad over Bdtope, 
iSaoaexif' Spain «nd PortBgal liave «v«r held 
a rititirnggiflhed gMdc» eqaeaklly dariag mhai 

agBi, sirpastiikg their bDcdvem k)catad in 
the JBSsBt (^ £]2D0|)e, in vreatth, poMticil in- 
flaence, literature, and the fine arts. This 
was the natural eieet of their exceptional 
drcnmstances, and arose especially from the 
fact of the Mohammedan possession of the 
Pemnsnla for seyend ^sentories tmder the 
brfiEant role of Arabs and Moors in Seor^e, 
Ck>rdoTa, «id -Granada. The Jews were the 
natoral alfies of those Oriental conqnerors, 
and consecfuently their literatrtre, consisting 
largely of commentaries on Scriptnre, of 
graumiars, diddonaries, works on astronomy, 
chemistry, and saered ^joetry, were more 
deepfy imbned wii^ a true Asiatic diaracter 
than could possibly be the case inih. those 
Jews who settled down among the gross 
barbarians of Eastern Europe who had ^o 
knowledge of, er interest in, the lands and 
cHmes of the Bible. 

The Jews were «s much at home in 
Sonthem Spain as the Mc^tammedaais were. 
7%epalm^ees tf£ Cerdorva, the kmdped Ian- 
guappe, with the kindred nnamers and ous- 
toxtts of ihe two peoples, and the siiBilar 
Haste Ifor spleiidovr and poelij— 4il this 
tomed a bond of nskm peooiiariy ^Mranr- 
able to literature and reftnwawt ; aad this 
impMes^xwftintiesto the present time^unong 
the vemnMct of the saoLO people now soat- 
t«red o^er Bmtf or Holland, oftd JHooDg 
ooa|;regatioQs pkusted matt ^raoi these into 
other Eovepeaa naitionn. 

itisoor intentiMitofonnshAidBetoh of 
this diTBuon of Israelites down the stream 
of Xnvopeaa history, proaiising thatprerious 
to AO). 1136, Spain ind Portagal temed one 
couniflry: at that period the Portognese 
separated themselves from Spain, and in 
li62 tiie Jews wero totilly expelled from 
both Spain and PortugaL 

We shall follow, the ftntr nstoral divisions 
of Spsniflhkistory:— 1. TheBoBMn; 2. The 
aotihio; 8. The Arab and Moorish; 4u The 



Qst h o iic . The people wider our oonsidera- 
tien designate themsslves as ^6ephar^Bm," 
or betenging to Bepkmrad, believing that 
theyare apolEmi of in ^ke pn>pheey of Oba- 
diah, verse fiO, wfasve itis foretiM that «the 
captivity <tf Jerusalem, which isin depharad, 
shall possess the cities of the sooth.*' ^e 
Tai^gmm «f Joosi&aii, written yery early in 
the OhristiBii era, has trsnskted Sepharad 
as Aspsania* bat if Aspamia means Spain, 
neither his amthorky, nor that of Kimdbi or 
'Bashi moe his time, is snffiomit to counter* 
Toil the Ihot tfot Spaaish Jews, if there were 
any, did not on their own showing, return 
under ZercdWbabel to drive out the Edomltes 
uid possess the dties of the 6otri^ of Jtidah, 
asprsdiotedbyObadiah. However, after the 
lapse of so many oentosiee it would be in 
vain and to no purpose to attempt to <^aage 
the old name of S^hardhn. They have long 
oiiaamed fw thenmelves an antiqaity of settle- 
ment in Spain ooevidwitAi the destraetion 
of the first temple in Jerusaleni. At Toledo 
in a:jd. 1080, on the ccmqnest of that oity by 
King Aknso, they being in dread of massacre 
as unbelievers, pleaded that their ftfihers 
were not in Palestine at the time of the «ru- 
cifiiion of Jesus, and therefore not guHty of 
that orimis. They even pFodneed a Hebrew 
lettor to the ignotMiat soldier-king, which 
they said was a oopy of the letter which 
the synagogue of Toledo had addi^sed to 
Qaiaphas , the High Priest, dissuading him 
friom his wicked intentions ; and with the 
same objeot in 14^ tiiey appealed to an an- 
cient inscription in the Flaaa ma^or cftho 
same city, which theysaid was an attestation 
by some anoient bishop that the Jews had 
been in T(dedo Mnoe the days of thoftrst 
temple. Abocrt the same ixase one Babbi 
Moses Shem Tdb, in his work on pootry, 
called the " Ways of Pleasantness," related 
ih&t at Mnrviadro he finmd an epitaph in 
riiyme^ partity broken, but ending with the 
name *' Amasinh;*' and he therefore con- 
duded that this ^ntaph was of the period ot 
Amamah, Xing of Jodah. 

In 1630 there was a question raised by 
some Jesuit authors about a Hdbrew sspul- 



6 



THE JEWS OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 



pThe Scattered Kation* 



Jan. 1, 1866. 



diral inscription at Murviedro, that liad been 
seen in 1482, and was said to record that 
Adoniram, the tax-collector of King Solomon 
(see 1 Kings iv. 6), came to collect tribute 
in Spain and died there. Eesearches were 
made on the subject, and a Hebrew epitaph 
was discovered, but not that one — ^it was one 
which, if read correctly, would imply that 
one Oran Nebach, a President, rebelled 
against his Prince (and then after some 
Illegible words), "and his glory to King 
Amaziah." This probably referred to a 
secession of some synagogue ruler from the 
Patriarch's jurisdiction. In the middle ages 
the titles of Presidents and Princes were 
used in the above sense. The people of the 
city had, however, a tradition that the He- 
brew inscription was an epitaph on King 
Solomon's collector of tribute. But much 
more evidence than this is required to de- 
monstrate that in the time of either Solo- 
mon or Amaziah, the Jews in Spain were 
sufficient in numbers or wealth to justify the 
sending to thmn for tribute to Jerusalem. 
The writer of this knows from experience 
bow difficult it is to road with correctness old 
Hebrew tombstones corroded by the expo- 
sure of ages. 

Some modem travellers have seen, still 
ensting in Spain, Hebrew tombs Mrith epi- 
taphs, and it would be wonderfiil if none at 
all remained, notwithstanding the known 
fanaticism of the people in that country. 

Spain was in ancient times a land of im- 
mense metalUo resources, and that this was 
known to the Jews, appears in 1 Maccabees 
viiL 3, written 300 years B.C. 

But to come to Babbinical authors. 
Abarbanel in his commentary on Zech. 
xii. 7, '* The Lord also shall save the tents 
of Judah," affirms that at the desolation of 
the First Temple, two families of the house 
of David came and settled in Spain — one at 
Lucena» the other (the Abarbaneb) at Seville, 
" and from those came a thousand offshoots." 
This he quotes from an earlier author, Isaac 
Ben-Gheath, but in the works of the latter 
that now remain, there is no such state- 
ment to be found. In the seventeenth cen- 
tury Manasseh Ben-Israel, who had married 
a daughter of the Abarbanels, traced their 
origin in Spain to the Second Temple. 

The " Sceptre of Judah," a work com- 
piled since the expulsion fr'om Spain, gives a 



conversation in the thirteenth century be* 
tween a philosopher named Thomas and 
Eang Alonso, whence we may learn, if we can 
believe it, that a King of Spain, who had 
assisted Nebuchadnezzar in reducing Jeru- 
salem, brought an enormous population into 
Spain, all from either the family of David, 
or at least from the tribe of Judali, and that 
the royal family resided first in Seville then 
in Granada^ adding that the exiles afterwards 
had their numbers greatiy increased by 
fugitives from the desolation of the Second 
Temple. 



CHAPTE& u. 
The fulness of information, and the lucid 
style of the histories by Josaphus upon the 
desolation of Judea by the Bomans, will 
always secure attention, and carry conviction 
of their truth to the readers in all succeeding 



Babbinical writers in their statements 
respecting that period, none deserving to be 
called histories, and none of them contem- 
porary with the events, have not the same 
merit, and cannot be frdly relied on for 
authenticity. 

A chronological work, called "Seder- 
01am," in our third or fourth century, tells 
us that the conqueror Aspasianus destroyed 
the temple and removed many families of 
the house of David and Judah into Aspamia, 
which is Spain. The same statement was 
made about the same period to Jerome, only 
changing the name Aspasianus into Adrian, 
and enumerating the families thus banished 
at fifty thousand. 

At a conference held in Aragon, before 
the Anti-pope in I4I4, this number was also 
given by the Jews. Abarbanel afterwards 
gave the same number, but divided it into 
forty thousand families of Judah and ten 
thousand of Benjamin and the priests. The 
'* Sceptre of Judah** still later says, that the 
number of Israel brought out of all Pales- 
tine into Spain at that time, exceeded the 
number of those brought out of Egypt by 
Moses. 

All this carries palpable exaggeration on 
the face of it. 

Yet there may have been fr^m the 
earliest ages of Christianity numerous Jews 
in Spain. The climate was congenial ; the 



The 8catt«red Nstion.'l 
Jan. 1, 1866. J 



TJSE FEAST OF DEDICATION. 



ports firom Barcelona to the Tagos adapted 
to mercantile pursuits; the produce of 
agriculture abundant; and oppression un- 
known during the remainder of the period 
of Boman dominion. For we know that 
the struggle of ^Epiring Heathenism for as- 
oendano}r, as in the Easfcem portions of the 
empire, was not found beyond the Pyrenees. 
Christianity in Greece and Syria had to en- 
dure unexampled trials, while Judaism was 
afc peace in the West. 

' There the children of Israel multiplied 
and iM*oepered — their synagogues each 
formed a nucleus of families — ^their ritual 
and hoLj language were perpetuated, and 
their feeing of brotherhood was fostered by 
the ezolusicm from other races of people 
which drove them inwards. They sympa- 
thized in each other's woes, and rejoiced in 
«ach other's welfiure, cherishing all the while 
anticipations of future bliss, however mis- 
taken in its nature, but of which no external 
drcumstances could deprive them. 

They were still coimeoted with the East, 
and subject to the Patriarch of Tiberias, as 
%hmr brethr^i eastwards from the Jordan 
were to the ''Prince of the Captivity*' at 
Babylon. 

Some Boman Ca^olic chromders have 
asawted that previous to the Boman destruc- 



tion of Jerusalem, the Jews were so nume- 
rous and intelligent in Spain, that they sent 
a deputation to the apostles of the Lord 
Jesus, inviting them to come and preach to 
them the new Divine revelation; that St. 
James came in consequence, and not only 
proclaimed the gospel generally over the 
land, but according to the apostolic rule, 
commenced in every town by preaching to 
the Jews (De Vargas, Flavins Dexter, and 
others). This fiction maybe appropriately 
classed together with that of the Jews in 
Toledo writing to the High Priest Gaiaphas. 

There are Jewish writers who argue for 
the antiquity of their people in Spain, from 
the resemblance of o^rtain local names to 
such as are found in Palestine, as Escalona 
named from Ascalon, Magneda from Me- 
giddo, Jepes from Joppa^ Toledo from Tole- 
doth, meaning genealogies, and Spain itself 
from ]0D Saphanf the Hebrew for a rabbit, 
which animal is the symbol for that country 
upon the Boman coins; but this is not suffi- 
cient» seeing tdiat such etymologies might be 
equally derived from the cognate languages, 
PhcBuician and Arabic, which have been at 
times localised in Spain. 

We shall in our next proceed to more 
d^nite and certain matters of history than 
we have as yet discussed* 



THE FEAST OP DEDICATION. 



BT THE BSV. DB. MABGOUOUTH. 



OuB first number makes its appeaaance at a 
very opportune time of year. The natural 
and the spiritual diildren of the " father of 
the &ithful," even Abraham, regard this 
season with the liveliest thanksgiving. We 
— whOf through divine mercy, can glory in 
the^ twofold sonship of that patriarch, the 
''Friend of God" — commemorate tlus 
period with the most solemn, as well as 
most profound, gratitude. Salvation's joy- 
ful sound thrills through our heart and 
soul, as the record of the praise sung by 
the ** multitude of the heavenly host," is 
brought to our recollection. Charles Wes- 



ley's grand Christmas Hymn springs to our 
lips; we join heart and soul in the dulcet 
and jubilant melody : — f 

« H«rk 1 ttie herald angels ting. 
Glory to tke new-boni kiDf I 
Peaoo on earth and meroy mild ; 
Ood and 8innt« reoonoiled. 

*' Hail, the heeTen-bom Prince of Peace I 
Hail, the Son of HiKhteoaaaaea t 
light and Ufe to all H.^ brioira, 
Biaen with healing fa& hia fiinga." 

The sons of the '* house of Jacob " who 
do not yet walk in " the light of the Lord," 
"the Light of the world," celebrate this 



8 



THE FEABT OF BBDIOATION. 



riUBotttofd Kalioa, 
L Jan. \, li06. 



BQOBOxi with joy and gladneafl, ia memory. <^ 
a mmor deliveranoe, abcL in reopgniUoii of a 
Tnfraonloae mterposition whick was bat 
traasitory in its duration, and oiaroasnocribed 
in its beneidal offeets apon the world at 
laif^e. It 28 our aim, in oar fmblication, to 
bo the mutual friend of oar bvethivn in 
Christ from amongst the Qentikg, and of 
oar brethren in the floah* ovon of the hoaee 
of lamel; it will thoceCere bo our endeoroar 
to make both intimately aoqanintod with 
eaoh other, by.pouitmgoat the featoifie of 
reacsnblBiioe whieh chaoKMiteriae hoth in tlie 
oelebration of kindsed events. We {pvopoae 
to biiog before our .readers -abctoheaof ithe 
^wiofOA Jewish <leattvttls «ttd iaato^ and 
make auoh obaervatioae on them as we shall 
deem profiteJale to "iiiatwwti(miaTightaawfi» 

MSB." 

We begin wi^ i^ fimti^ tmn (Sum- 
ucoah-— as the Jews tormit^ er *^ the feast of 
the DedioatMO," as St. Mm esUs it,* or the 
" J'eaat of Lighto," as Joaephns f^boasea it,t or 
the " J'eastof tibe DedioatiMijof ihe^tMr.Vias 
^ hiBtarianof the MasQahoBs^fioke of it^t^- 
booaose it hapiMxtfi to synohroniae with the 
first appearance of this cur.peciadieal be* 
foce the pnUio. .It uoad hardly be -stated 
ihat the festival is a poatiBihhQaL joattetian 
— ^that is, it owes. its origin to an. erasit fMs- 
terior to the close of the canon of the Old 
Testament Scriptures. It is not every one, 
whether amongst Jews or Christians, that' 
has the particulars of that event '' on the tip 
of his tongue," or at his " fingers' ends ; " we 
shall therefore iutroduce our present sket^hC 
with a page or two from our MS. " History 
of Israel." 

About 170 B.C., there sat on the throne 
of Syria one of the Antiochuses ; the Grreeks 
flattoffiad him witih the apyeWntieti of Spi- 
phanea, the tHueirimt/^. The Jo«rs had good 
reason to change that iumie.intO'Spia[UHiae, 
ihe crazy, theferocUyiM, and by that soubriquet 
the fell tyrant and monst er was spoken of 
amongst the latter. Unhappily the religious 
condition and constitution of the Jews, as a 
body, was most miaouiid at that time. The 
supreme pontifical power of the Temple, as 
well as the governorship of the nation, be- 
came subjects of barter, contention, and 
usurpation. About thart) time there were 

* John z. 22. t Jo«n>^n8 Antiq* zii. 7.7. Cont. Apioa ii. S9. 
X 1 Mm. ir; 



two rival high^nests w^ho stvova for the 
mastesy, and str^g^ed, by adnlatian and 
bribery, tooatvie each other in the Jftvoor 
of the rajgnifg iiing of ^yria. Joshoa, 
whiah was the jaame of one of tho^s xaer- 
oenaoT' enelaaiaatiefl, eleeted to be oatted 
Jaaour after thoC^reek. Onias, which was the 
name af the oompatiug .pontifiioaJ asfmiaat, 
aHsamad the «amoof Moaelaas. The latter, 
by ziehar .gifts than hia rival ^nBSonlad, 
gained the day. Antiochns aecorded to him 
the light to be supreme nil^ of the-peoplo 
of Isvael, and premised to maintain that 
.jsight to.him. 

OniM, at Maaohiua, pio¥od a faarfial 
soeai9etohiapo<^; his <q» ^oo ai o o s ^wwe 
nnbeambly omsfa^ag, and the aeiiseqnoBce 
Wtta an ahmuag aad formidaUo iio|^4MML a 
ganaMd crjr to ihe effoet. " Down with the 
opfmrnMorV* This happened 167 bx. Xhe 
oppaattioii to the pon^aaed and abnaed 
pnaatiftoftl power *waa re^reaented to .Aatio- 
chus as a deteiMAodtfebQihon ^igainsthis 
aiUhority* Tilpimaiinfl 4oat no time in mvad- 
ingti»BHolyQity« la three shaitdaja—ibr 
it was winter** he MMtfdered forty Ifcawsind 
of \the inhabtenia, and mose than that 
number he sold into slavery. JSo sasri- 
logioiwly ontened the Ten^le, robbed it of 
all that aras.^aored and {»'ecioH9,,a»dthen 
desecrated and polluted the hallowed place 
with all manner of defilements, and by 
unclean sacrifices ofiered to the idol Jupiter 
Olympius, whose image was placed on the 
altar of bumt-ofierings. His next step was 
in the direction of systematic extermination 
of the name and religion of Israel. He oon- 
'Sigaedtheexecatioii^f his dread scheme into 
the hands of one Apollonius. In a very short 
time that infamous minion of Antioohns 
eKtirpaitod the nanae and saoe of laEaeL^nam 
the .fioly^City t the dty itself mm aet > on 
fipe, and -a Syrian ifertreaa was onaotod uan 
Mount ^ion, on which heathen senthaels 
were.plaaad to presvoBit any member of iAkQ 
8C4:V39mii> mahw oaming.and sheddiBg 
a tear of I^chxbod over the nana of hie 
ancestral city and saoctnary. The next 
crashing -st^ of the iafttriatod i^rrant^waa to 
iaterdict, on pain of instant death, tiie 
observance of <the "Satfir of Moses; ond :the 
next was to present t^ j^raatLro, ^either 
the adaption of the idolatry of Greece and 
live, or the rejeotion of it and die. Haiti- 



Jan. 1, 1866. J 



TSB FEA8T OF DBHtCATlOi^. 



9 - 



tufl§d of martyrs adorn tliat sad chapter itt 
the- BRstory of Israel. 8ti. Paiil ranks them 
antfCrngst the " great clond of witnesses." 
(Srt). 3d. 35 — 40; xi. 1.) At the same time 
th«re trer© numerons cowardly apostates. 

To compass the ntter extinction of every 
sparK of true religions light, Antiochns ap-» 
po3Ked commissioners and delegates to dif- 
ferWM; cBstricts of Palestine, to carry ont his 
detffrtlctive plans: "the Son of Perdition" 
hiiflself could not hare executed the work 
m6re maliciousfy. One of those delegates, 
ApeHes by name, arrired a^ the town of 
Modin — supposed to have been situated in 
tho neighbourhood of Lydda, not far from 
tho modem Jaflfe*— to execute his fi^enzied 
master's horrible design. The prindpal 
iatSftily in that place was that of Mattathias, 
wlSicfe consisted of ail aged father and fire 
softs; of the tribe (^ Levi, of the line of 
Aardtt. The poKtio Apelles commenced 
maltimg overtures to that influential family; 
first offering all manner of promotion and 
wealth in case of apostasy, and then 
thteatening with the most dire vengeance in 
caSB of obstinate resistcrtice. The aged priest 
and His five sons replied, that they would, 
one and all, elect death rather than prove 
unf&ithfdl to their God. By way of insult- 
ing' the determined Matiathias, Apelles 
orillrrcd a Jewish apostate in his ttain t6 
ofSft a sacrifice to the very idol whose wor- 
ship Antiochns had decreed^ Ere the 
retiegado had time to Constimmate the 
h£M;ef^l deed, the aged pffiest killed HMl with 
hi#^ own hand. The insult, on the part of 
A^&Hetf, did not remain long unavenged by 
th^insulted. Apelles and hlsf suite did not 
autvive the Jewish idolater many hoiirs. 
Sttrft destruction" cam9 upon them at tho 
haWdi of fche insulted Hebrews of Modin. 
ffirtritfg thus struck the bold blow, **Mat- 

• it U tli« mitcK^t coBviotion, that tho B»me of the 
^00 is mentioBed in the Hebrew of Jadgee ▼. 10, in the 
•e^teiftj^ (*^^*ltt^, whidi should h»ve bran rendered, 
** T» t lMl^nfl hrn^mv:* TheMuMHieAHehr^eritie, 
Babbi David Klmehi, puts the sftme oonitraotioli on tliet 
pmrt of Deborah's song* (See his note vn loeo.) The 
Bn|t&h translators, whd have rendered the sentence " Ve 
tki»«l»tefMgmeBt»" totre wmflSealfy folhxrM naeHtTdrfl 
Ptfapfcrastfi, Leftva lt«^ that the Yerj BevereBd* thtf 
Deaas of St< Paal and Westminster will reconsider their 
reepeotiTe versions of that song, if oaHed np'on for new 
MMlliit 'Or Xmttt w&f'ks Oil J##Mk hflfoi^. fioth. Dr. 
Mflman and Dr. Stanle7, have fallen Into old errors. 
ISwald is by no means a safe guide, even in the simple 
matter of verbal Hebrew criticism. 



tafliiasf mffi l^nrbn^ont the city with alood 
voice, saying, Who&owrer is seidous of the 
law, and mcuiftaiiitAlL iiie oov^ant, let him 
follow me. Bo he and his sons fled into the 
mountains, and \t^ idl that ever they had in 
the city."* Thel% the aged priest and hk 
^ons raised ihm standard of independenoe, 
And unltirled the banner of freedom.t Many 
loyal and patHotio Israelites soon rallied 
ifoUnd ^e stuadird, believing that' their 
national deliverance frcym the oru^ op- 
pression of Ei^Bumes was at hand. The 
pa^aiots were content to remain, for a time 
in thm modntaiiioas sechision, to be drilled 
and exercised in the art, tactics, strategy, 
and vasaoswn^ of war. They made oo 
casional sallies, according to infotmatito 
redetv^« attac^«Nl certain garrisoned towns, 
pidled down tli^ altars of idolatiy erected in 
^em, rofioted th^iieMKen usurpet's forces, re- 
established the k«if^ng of the law of Moees 
and the worship of tlse Gkid of Israel. 

Mattethiati v^Mtoo aged to expect to wit- 
ness with Hfl bodiljr eye the issufe of ttie 
great ootifiiot. He was permitted to behold 
a fbw achievements, as earnests of ihe mighty 
conqfueet ferwkdc* his great soul yearned, 
and wMch his eye of fisith discerned. He 
was then summoned to defnirt heiice. Like 
Jacob of old, he gathered tdgether hiff aons 
cLroundhis dyi£rg cou^, and hsrangu^ tii6m 
in one of the most pathetic valedictory 
adlb*e8d^ on[Teooi«k He named his secoiid 
son Stoon, as <^i^ ccmnsellor and adviser ; 
hii l^iird fi^n, Jiidas !M accabsofus, he appoidted 
chief catptain. ThoSe two brothers were the 
Melancthon atfd Lff^!^ of the Maoeabmm 
re!brmal»cwi. The lafcter proved himself ftilly 
worthy of the honour which his sfre c<m- 
ferted upon him. 

Fof some tiriie he continued, by adven- 
turous surprises and skirmishes, io tredn 
his troops fbr daring and prowess. In this 
way he rescued, garrisoned, and fbrtified 
many a city of Isra^. Convinced at length 
of the galhait bravery of his forces, he deter-^ 
miued, on hearing of the a*>horred At)0lte^U8* 

• 1 l£ft<J. M. 27, 2«. 

-r I»i» tf^i&Mldlj bcai9v«ff ths*' J>Bd», tli« thM soBitf 
KftttafBMrhad inaeriBM on his banner the initials of the 
Hebrew words, mrr D»b«:i rD03"»0 (•« WhoisUkennto 
Thee, O Lord, among the gods ?" St. xv. 11.) which make 
the word *^0 Maocabee. according to the fifth JewUi 
eaoon^ Aiyad n hi lM pi e iiti oBC*-8erf (htf wifter*k " FniRla. 
mental Principles of Modem Jadaism Investigated." Pp* 
16, 16. Hence the weiC-knolm name Judas Haccslneai. 



10 



THE FBABT OF DEDIOATION. 






expedition against him, to give liis enemy 
battle in the open field. The Hebrew 
general was not disappointed in his expec- 
tations ; he not only remsdned master of the 
field, but also killed ApoUonins in single 
combat, possessed himself of his foeman's 
Bword, and henceforth used it with the dead- 
liest effect npon the enemies of his people 
and Gonntry. With tremendoos slaughter 
Judas Maccab»us next defeated 8eron, 
governor of CoBlo-Syria. 

Great was the consternation of the royal 
tyrant when he learnt of the haToo which 
the handful of Hebrew patriots had produced 
amongst his ranks ; he therefore ordered an 
overwhelming host to proceed against Uie 
small Hebrew army. No less a force than 
forty thousand foot and seven thousand 
horse was on the march against Judas Mao- 
cabcBus. Nothing daunted, the Jewish com- 
mander-in-chief met the terrible army with 
about three thousand troops, very indiffe- 
rently equipped, utterly vanquished and 
routed foot and horse, as well as captured aU 
the wealth with which the Syrian camp was 
endowed. We do not wish to linger on 
minor and secondary engagements; we 
hasten to the crowning battle which proved 
the prelude to the recovery of the Holy City, 
the ]inrification of the Temple, and the ap- 
pointment of the festival of roin or Dedi- 
cation. 

B.C. 1^, the third year after the great 
struggle began, Lysias, the king^s lieutenant, 
raised an army of sixty thousand foot and 
five thousand horse, with which he marched 
against the intrepid Hebrew general. Judas 
Maccabssus could only muster and command 
ten thousand men altogether; but he com- 
mitted his cause to Him who can save by few 
as well as by many. His fervent invocation 
to the God of battles, for help on the occasion, 
is recorded in the fourth chapter of the first 
book of the Maccabees. Confident that his 
supplications reached the ear of the Gk>d of 
Israel, he headed his comparatively small 
army, engaged Lysias in a pitched battle at 
Bcthsura, in the vicinity of Hebron, utterly 
discomfited the vast Syrian host, and cleared 
his way for the recovery of Jerusalem. Thi- 
ther the patriots hastened with soul- stirring 
exultation. 

Who shall depict the horror which har- 
rowed up their patriotic spirits on beholding 



the abject and degraded conation of the 
once glcnious city and temple? We read 
that " when they saw the sanctuary desolate^ 
and the altar pro&ned, and the gates burned 
up, and shrubs growing in the courts, as in a 
f<n^st or in one of the mountains — ^yea, aad 
the priests' chambers pulled down — ^ihey rent 
their clothes, and made great lamentation, 
and cast ashes updn their heads, and fell 
down flat on the ground upon their feces,, 
and blew an alarm with the trumpets, and 
cried toward heaven."* But Zion's mourn- 
ers did not allow their tearful lamentations 
to extinguish the fervour of their zeal. With 
grateAil hearts and vigorous hands they 
began to repair, to cleanse, to purify, and 
re-consecrate the once-hallowed pile. The 
altar of burnt-offerings, which had been 
polluted by the idol Jupiter Olympius and 
the heathen sacrifices offered thereon, they 
pulled down. " Then they took whole stones 
according to the law, and built a new altar, 
according to the formen^f 

The sacred vessels — ^the tables of shew- 
bread, the candlestick, and the altars— they 
restored anew, and an august dedication was 
celebrated for eight successive days, begin- 
ning with the 25th day of the ninth month, 
known as n^3 Kislev. The dedication was 
celebrated with every possible demonstra- 
tion of joy and gladness. Brilliant illumina- 
tions lighted up the Temple and the Holy 
City every night. An illumination seemed 
part and parcel of a festival of thanksgiving 
for deliverance: thus we read when Hitman's 
scheme of a national massacre was fhi8trated> 
Mordecai raised to power, and his people 
taken under royal protection, '* the Jews had 
LIGHT, and gladness, and joy, and honour."^ 
The same symbolical and emblematical cere«> 
monies which were used on the Feast ci 
Tabernacles diaracterized those eight days 
—namely, the restored Israelites on those 
eight days " bare branches, and feir boughs, 
and palms also, and sang psalms tmto Him 
that had griyen them good soooess in deans^^ 
ing his plaoe."§ 

The ancient Hebrew chroniclers relate 
a traditionary legend— it is problematical 
whether there is any feundation for it — ^tiiat 
when everything was complete for the dedi- 
cation of the restored and cleansed Temple, 

• Hae. W. 88-40. f Vao. ir. 47. t Btiher tlB. 16. 
} 3 Mae. z. 7. 



The 0Mtt«r«d IVitioo,! 
.Jmi. 1» 1866t J 



THE FBA8T OF BBBWATION, 



11 



no ooaseoratod oil oodM be ft>HiKl'fltartlie 
** ahrays-biimmg lamp.*** Several cfoys 
most needs ha^e elapsed before the required 
oil oonld be procnred. After considerable 
searcb, a smidl cruse of consecrated oil was 
disoorered, sealed with the signet of the 
high priest, bat the quantity of oil was only 
sufficient for one night's light. Neverthe- 
less, He who of' old multiplied abundantly 
the little oil of the cruse of one widow, and 
of the pot of another,^ multiplied miracu- 
lously tiie oil found in the Temple, so that it 
sufficed to bum continuously for eight days, 
till new conaeoraiedoil could be obtained. 
Hence the joy and gladness during all the 
eight di^s. We do not fed caiQed upon 
either to endorse or to smile at the legend ; 
we siBiply give it, as we find it^! 

However, a festive anniversary under the 
name of ra^n or Dedication, haa been or- 
dained in the House of Israel, by Judas Mac- 
cabeaus, to commemorate the inauguration <^ 
the restored Temple. To the present time, 
throughout the Jewish world this festival is 
observed for eight days, beginning with the 
25th of the ninth month. The gceal feature 
of the commemoration is the ceremonial 
Hghthig of tiny lamps, or candles, in the fol- 
lowing manner, immediately after sunset, for 
eight successive evenings : — ^The first night, 
one lamp or candle is Hghted; ^e second 
night, two; the third night, three; and so 
on till the eighth night. Should more than 
one ftimily reside under the same roofj the 
head of each fiunily is enjoined to light ^e 
dedication lamps, or candles, in the manner 
described. So that, in some instances, a 
great number of lights illumine a Jewish 
house on the Feast of Dedication. 

There is a thanksgiving collect, on 
aceount of the remembered deliverance, in- 
troduced into the Litany of the Jewish 
Liturgy, termed rrwi^nJoWiS^'inonali EsroApi 
(by reason of the eighteen short petitions of 
winch it is composed) which details the con- 
fliole and conquests of the Maccabees, and 
the appohitment of the festive season. When 
the lamps or candles are lighted, the follow- 
ing blessings are chanted or intoned : — 

(a) •'Blessed art ^Hiou, Lord our Gfod, 

t 1 Kings ztU. 16] S lingi It. l*-6. 
X Tftlmod, TreatiM SbablmUi; Midnahim; MegiUAth 
Antio«hui. 



King of the Universe, who hath sanctified 
us by His precepts, uid enjoined us to light 
the lamp of dedication. 

(b) " Blessed art Thou, Lord our God, 
Elng of the Universe, who hath done won- 
ders for our fathers in days (^ yore at t^is 
season. 

(g) "Blessed art Thou, Lord our Gted, 
King of the ITnivm^e, who hath kept us 
alive, and established us, and enabled us to 
reach this season.'** 

After iHiioh is recited a brief, spirited 
narrative, accounting for the custom and 
cerenony just performed. There is no 
abs^ence from labour imposed during the 
festival, exo^ fbr the half hour that the 
laaape or the candles last. Secular work is 
■trietly prohibited to be done by the light of 
the dedication lamps. Modem Jews have a 
t<derable saored bf^ad, commencing "riY rmo 
♦ronm* " Strong Eock of my salvation," 
which records the principal deliverances of 
our nation and a very indifferent ditty, 
commencing, DOounD "jIjdm "Eat ye dainty 
things,** both of which are said or sung 
during the half hour that the lamps bum. 

We cannot take leave of this most inte- 
realnng festival without recording some of 
the thoughts which the theme suggests to 
the minds of the ^brew believers in Jesus 
as ♦*ihe Light of the Lord,** «the Light 
of the world." It is a most noteworthy 
colnoidenoe that the 25#A day of the imm^h 
is celebrated as the anniversary of the 
festival of dedication (md lights amongst the 
Jews, and the 25^^ day of Hh** iii^nth is cele- 
brated as the nativity <Mf our blessed Be- 
deemer, pronounced from his very inflmcy 
"A light to lighten' the Gentiles.** It is 
true that the respective events are not always 
celebrated by the Church and the Synagogue 
at the same time, but the discrepancy is 
obviously owing to the alteration and confh- 
sion of the calendar amongst Christians. 
Had the times and the seasons remained 
unchanged, we verily believe that the re* 
speetivefisstrrals would synchroniEe to a day. 
Even as it is, they often take place at the 
same time. Tliis year, 1865, the dedication 

* The laat benadiotioii, aarkod (c), is onJj ^byiMi tm 
the flnl day of the fettiTiii. Tlie ohuge from the leoond 
to the tidrd-pMMH* whea ■pQgtrophirfny Del^, ptoret 
thftt the benedietory tentimeiits wwe oo mf iMi iom mifk* 
phonal QM. IffDoraaoe of this oiroomstaaoe nuikei aomo 
Bkie-tniMlftte (hem* 



12 



ISRAEL'S MISSION, 



rTb» BeaiterM VtAkm, 
L Jaa. 1, 1866. 



festival begins, aooording to the OhristittQ 
calendar, on December the 13th; last year 
it cominenoed on December the 24th, on 
Ghbisticas-Evb. 

It is interesting to think that onr blessed 
Lord, whilst on earth, attended the Dedica- 
tion festival in the Temple at Jerusalem. 
The allusion to the droumstanoe by the 
bdoved disciple ia sig^nificant. A careful 
examiiiation of John viii. 12 — x. 22 gives the 
impression that the events recorded in that 
portion of Scripture took place in tiie course 
of the eight days of '* the Feast of Dedica> 
tion." If so, how significant the opening! 
"Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, 
I am the Light of the world; he that foUoweth 
Me shall not walk in darkness, but shall 
have the light of hfe."* The previous iamid 
that the Bedeemer addressed the people in 
the Temple was on the last day of ^e Feast 



of Tabernacles. He then took advantage of 
the existing custom of drawing water from 
the Pool of Siloam, and pouring it upon the 
altar, and said, ** If any man thirst, let him 
come unto Me and drink.'** On the Feast 
of Dedication, He made the customary lamps 
subservient to the assertion of his surpassing 
glory. One can hardly tear himself away 
from the august theme ; multitudes of Scrip- 
ture illustrations are present to the mind of 
the writer on such a topic, but stop we must. 
We close with a line from the sacred ballad 
mentioned above :-* 

ro>w*M ^ 3^pi '[tirip jwt pi'jwtt 

"Make bare Thy holy arm, and speed the 
consummation of salvation." To which we 
add, |D« '.ynpl 'onDO, " In our day speedily." 

Amen, 
December^ ISGS. 



ISRAEI/S MISSION, AND MISSIONS TO ISRAEL. 

BY DB. WM. QBAHAM, Or BOKK. 



I. WHAT ABB THE JBW8 P OB, THBIB VATIOVAL 
CHABACTEB. 

1. I answer, these wandering tribes 
whom you meet everywhere, with the dark 
eyes and the Abrahamic features, belong to 
the oldest of historical nations. Abraham 
lived one thousand two hundred years before 
Eome was founded, so that his descendants 
have a history extending through the period 
of three thousand eight hundred and sixty 
years I They are a people of noble pedigree, 
and wonderful extremes meet in them. They 
are a united and yet a scattwed people: 
they are conservative in principles and most 
pliable in means : they are alike the pec^e 
of the curse and the people of the blessing : 
as a nation they are poor, yet many indivi- 
duals among them are exceeding rioh: in 
the language and in the proverbs of the 
nations they are identified with cunning 
and avarice, and yet no people can present 
brighter or more numerous examples of 
cSiarity and benevolence. They have been 
persecuted for ages, and yet tJiey never in 
any instance possessed the power withoat 
persecuting in return. 



Their hatred is intense and unchange* 
able. In Sechem the Jews and the small 
Samaritan remnant, fifty in number, hate 
each other as in the days of the Saviour 
(John iv. 9), and call each other dogs and 
swine with a malignity intensified by the 
mutual execration of two thousand years ; 
and yet there are among them at the present 
time examples of self-denial, self-sacrifice, 
and human brotherliness as beaulaful as 
was the love of Jonathan and David. Their 
character is as various as their history is 
wonderful. All times, places, countries, 
customs, and climates, are alike to them, 
and yet their Jewish individuality rOTtiains, 
subduing and subordinating all things to 
itself. They have a will and a resolution 
which seem unconquerable and irresistible. 
They succeed where others fail; they go 
fbrward where there seems to be no pas- 
sage; they find occupation and means of 
existence which no others would think of; 
and they live in the pangs which others die 
from ! They were the most united people in 
the world, and for ages they have been the 
most scattered, yet the unity of race remains ; 

• JohatiLSr. 



Tiie fV»iter«d NatioD,! 
Jitn. 1, 1860. J 



A2W MISSIONS TO ISRAEL. 



13 



they were altogether agricoltural, and now 
they are wholly mercantile : formerly they 
spake only one language — ^the Hebrew — and 
now they speak all langoages with equal 
facility, so that they are the best linguists 
and interpreters in the world ; they were a 
bold heroic race, as the servants of Qod 
should be, but now they are timid and 
time-serving, and flee when none pursuet^ 
(Lev. xxvi. 17.) When in their own land, 
> imder the eye and government of Gk>d, they 
, were ccmtinually fidling into idolatry, and 
now, when scattered among the heathen, 
without temple, or sacrifice, or priest, or 
prophet, they maintain the strict unity of 
€k)d, and never bow the knee to idols. 

2. Their national experience is immense. 
They have been slaves and free men ; they 
have been a migratory race and a quiet 
settled nation ; they have dwelt in tents, send 
they have dwelt in houses ; they have lived, 
and prospered, and multiplied equally in 
Egypt, the wilderness, and the Promised 
Land — equally under democracies, theocra- 
cies, aristocracies, republics, kingdoms, and 
empires^ equally under heathen, Moslem, 
and Christian dominion; equally in fertale 
regions or in barren wastes, under burning 
suns or among eternal snows, under wasting 
tyrannies or free institutions. There are no 
heights which they have not scaled, no 
depths which they have not explored, no 
rivers which they have not crossed, no seas 
over which they have not sailed, no burdens 
which they have not borne, no storms which 
they have not breasted, no honours which 
they have not shared, no joys which they 
have not tasted, and no bitter cups of sorrow 
which they have not drained to the dregs. 
They live and prosper in the filth of Saphet 
and Tiberias as well as in the palaces of the 
Bhine,the Seine, and the Thames! Their 
cry of recognition (Deut. vi. 4) is uttered in 
all places, circumstances, and l anguages of 
the globe. Joseph Wolff heard it in Bok- 
hara and Timbuctoo, and in both it found 
him a cordial reception among his Jewish 
brethren. 

3. Combine then these elements of cha- 
racter into a sin^e sentence, and let us say, 
they are a blessed and a severely punished 
race--a united and yet a scattered nation— a 
nation of pedlars and lingnistSy always either 



persecuting or persecuted, always dying and 
yet predestined not to die, always contra- 
dicting and denying, yet the great fountain 
of belief. 

Faith can do nothing with them, and yet 
they are a file on which infidelity breaks its 
teeth; they are trees rooted in the rock of the 
divine purpose for ever, but without leaves 
or fruit, and blasted by the storms of earth 
and the thunderbolts of heaven; they are 
dark links in the chain of providence, con- 
necting the present with the past» and 
silently testifyh^g everywhere to the justice 
and judgments of Gk>d. Wherever you see 
these dBrk Abrahamic features, you have 
proof positive that the ancient oblation has 
ceased, l^t the beautiful house is left de- 
solate, and that the curse which follows 
rejected grace is accomplished. Scattered 
over the world, like a spider's web, they are 
yet mysteriously interwoven with the na- 
tions by golden threads. 

Ton are to look upon the Jews as aigna 
in which (md by which the everlasting God, 
ever concealing and yet ever revealing Him- 
self, is speaking to the ear of reason con- 
cerning sin and righteousness and judgment 
— symbols (as in Algebra) of unknown 
quantities of suffering and of glory, in the 
great problem of humanity which is woiidng 
its accomplishment in history, prophecy, 
and providence. They are vessels of wrath, 
now hardened and burned in the frir- 
nace of affliction, yet ready in the Lord's 
time to become vessels of mercy meet for 
the Master's use. Be kind to the scattered 
people. Trace something more IJian thunder- 
scars in their dark melancholy features 
See in them tho brethren of the Divine 
Sufferer, and for his sake seek the welfare 
and peace of Jerusalem. Bemember too the 
warnings of the Apostle : " If Cod spared 
not the natural branches, take heed lest He 
also spare not thee." (Bom. xL 21.) 

' Cold indeed must be the heart which can 
contemplate thesr history without sorrow, 
and weak and dull must that faith be which 
does not see in their miraculous dispersion, 
and still more miraculous preservation for 
so many ages, some mighty purpose of the 
providence of God. What that purpose is 
we shall seek to unfold on a fbture occa- 
sion. 



14 



HISTORY AND PEOEHECY. 



BT THS WOVrOB, 



Thb Messiah is the key to^ suid the aim ol^ 
all histoiy and prophecy, and He catuiot be 
rightly apprehended if either of these forms 
of revelation be aegleeted, or if the relation 
wherein they stand to one another be not 
fdUy appreciated. We axe fully aware that 
there are many who reject the idea of a per- 
sonal GU)d» manifesting his sovereign power 
in the events of history, and aeoomplish* 
ing his eternal desigas in the development 
of nations and eountriea. Others deny that 
the prqphets really foretold fotoie eveaats, de- 
claring thaii HbBse men of Qod were nothing 
but dever politicians, who, by a dever com* 
bination of events were able to foresee and 
foretel what was likely to happen inafter-days. 

It is very difficult to discass thoroughly 
the workof God inhistory, and the part whic^ 
the Spirit takesintherevelaitionQfihe Word, 
as the discussion most be carried on with 
those who ore not only prejudiced against 
the truth, but also lack that sense which is 
indispensable to a right i^preciation of the 
work and word of the Spirit. For however 
offensive to the natural heart the declaration 
of Paul may- be, that "the natural man 
receivath not the things of the Spirit," 
still it is an undeniable truth that none can 
' rightly judge of the Spirit's work unless he 
himself has received Him in his heart, and 
experieneed his renewing and sanctifying 
influences. How can it be otherwise? If 
any one be devoid of asense of the charms 
of poetry, or laek a musical ear, or have no 
eye for the beaiuties of pain^g, would we 
not, however varied and numerous his 
acoon^tofamentfl^ deem him incomftetent to 
advance any opinion or, <Mr to oritidse, the 
productions of men excelling in these arts P 

If then, we cannot form a dear oonoep* 
tioB of these creations of the human mind, 
or rightly appreciate their valuer while 
there is no sympathy with them in our 
hearts, how much less are we able to 
know the things of the Spirit, unless the 
Spirit tha^ calls them into existence also 
anima^bes our sools 1 Yea» vrp do not hesi* 
tate to say that this very truth cannot be 
understood unless we have been brought 



undertheteaehingso^UieHbly %mitk We 
know that these t^inions will be branded as 
the utteraaoes e£ a dreamer or the effusioiis 
of a luget, hat still they are altogether in 
acoDirdanee with the teaohing of Scripture 
and daily €aiperi«aee confirms them. 

It cannot be denied that the paeft'hiatory 
of Israel is iaeompMewtthent afoture; The 
problem whieh ite present condition oSen 
to every refleeteg mind, can on^ be eolved 
after we havet leaamh to undA^stand the da- 
sigii»of Qod'w^ his peo^ in tiie diskys of 
old as well as in times to oosne. Tlussim^ 
truth dearly proves the intimate eonneotien 
wMflk eadsts b etwee n history and pr^hesy. 
Theagh cav^felly to be d&Btihgnished, they 
are never te be aepaaraited; aad it ia only by 
connecting and sttpplementing one with ike 
other thiit we can arrive at a natfiftbotory 
oondnsioB^ 

During a loag period many interpveters 
of Sni|>teree eitiier failed to pereeive or 
xnt^vtieiMAly ignored this ooosieotion; they 
did not take into aeootiBt t^at the word 
of profi^eey ifas adapted, to the oonditioB 
of those to whom it was origiBaUy ad« 
dressed; that it is not to be separated fisom 
the times aad oiroumstances in wftich it^ 
waa spolDBa, and of which it was the im- 
mediate resalt. They did not endeavourto 
aseertiin the relation whidt different pro- 
pheciee beasr to each other, nor the meaoing 
attadied to Ihem by those in whose hear- 
ing they were uttered ; and by n^leot* 
ing the peeoKarities which dbaraoteriae 
eaeh of tibem, they have destroyed their 
individuality. Thidj contented tiieBUelves 
with notioittg 1^ general truths ooatained 
in the diffarent prophecies, 4mttgmi>g that 
it would promote their edifieation aad in* 
crease their spiritual life, if they rather 
attended to what they called the kernel, thsm 
took care of what, in their estimation, was 
only husk. And thu% though unoonscioualy 
and nndesigDedly, Idiey have given rise to 
an exegeais of ^ Word, whieh by q>iri« 
tualisingaiid ideaKffang the reality of Serip- 
tuze» defvives the prophecies of tmi& and 
strength, and gives us, instead of the pure 



ne Beattored KftUonn 
Jan. 1, 1806. J 



HISTOBY AND PBOPHECT. 



15 



word of the gospel, a general indefinite 
Gliristianitj without vitality and vigour. 

Others, on the other eide, as we have 
already hinted, perceiving the evil conse- 
qnenoes to which such a system necessarily 
leads, have brought prophecy into such in- 
timate connection with history, that, ac- 
cording to them, the prophets could cmly 
foretel those events which they were able to 
foresee by prudent calculations and by care- 
fully observing the signs of their times; 
while others, again, pretended to discover in 
prophecy such clear indications of future 
historical events, that, not satisfied with the 
general outlines, they endeavoured to trace 
every particular fact to a particular prophecy, 
so much so, that they fancied they d^covered 
the minutest incident in one verse of a 
prophet or in one word of the Bevelation. 

Historical events, though they were the 
occasion of the uttering of prophecy, were not 
its full measure ; and prophecr^r, though based 
on historical facts, has yet another and a surer 
foundation. History does not rise above 
prophecy, but prophecy above history; for 
prophecy, as a (German divine expresses it, 
does not listen to the withering grass grow- 
ing in histoiy, but listens to the divine mind, 
and is the expositor of divine thoughts. 

It is of great importance to observe, that 
the prophets saw all things in perspective ; 
hence, in announcing future events, they do 
not always define the exact time when they 
are to take place. It frequently happens 
that similar events, though belonging to 
different periods, are connected together 
and represented as one ; as, for instance, de- 
liverance from a neighbouring enemy — such 
as Assyria or Babylon,-*and the final victory 
to be achieved by the Messiah, are described 
in two closely-connected prophecies, in the 
tenth and eleventh chapters of Isaiah, it 
being left to history to show us the ages of 
their fulfilment at the appointed time. Dis- 
regard to this simple principle by Jews 
as well as Christians, has rendered it 
almost impossible for them to arrive at a 
right understanding of prophecy; whilst 
many of the objections raised by Jews 
against Jesus Christ as the promised 
Messiah, because He did not at once realize 
the prophecies regarding his work, by 
establishing a kingdom of peace and joy, 
are satisfactorily met by it. 



In communicating to us the words of 
the Spirit, the prophets did not perform the 
part of mere writing-machines : the writings 
they have transmitted to us are as truly their 
own words as they are those of the Spirit. 
Nevertheless, we may take for granted, that 
the prophets themselves did not b1wb,js fuUy 
realize the meaning of the words they 
uttered, but rather, as Peter declares, " in- 
quired diligently, searching what, or what 
manner of time the Spirit of Christ, which 
was in them, did signify." (1 Pet. i. 10, 11.) 

It is difficult, if not impossible, to point 
out how far the same woxi may be called 
the word of the {»*ophet, and at the same 
time the word of God; it is difficult to 
explain how far the prophet maintained his 
own independence, so that the word spoken 
by him was really 7ii$ oum word; whilst he 
at the same time was so completely de- 
pendent on the Lord and was so inspired by 
Him, that he did not give us his word, but 
ths Lord's word. For us it is sufficient to 
know that the human and divine are as 
really and as inseparably connected in the 
word which was written, as in the Word 
which was made flesh. The result of it is, 
that there is a wondeifdl variety in the de- 
scriptions given, in the similitudes used, in 
the figures employed, whilst all of them are 
animated and guided by the same Spirit. 
In this marvellous combination we find the 
most perfect testimony for the truthfulness 
of the prophets, who come before us as true 
men, as really men of Qod. 

We must content ourselves with these 
few hints regarding a subject, the discussion 
of which has engaged the attention of 
centuries; but enough has been said, we 
trust, to state our views on this important 
matter, and to induce our readers to give us 
a kind hearing, when in future numbers we 
shall lay before them an exposition of God's 
dealings with Israel in history, and of Gted's 
designs with Israel as recorded in the word 
of prophecy. As Israel's history is of a pro- 
phetical nature, and all prophecy is destined 
to become history, and as. the Spirit of pro- 
phecy and of Christ is the same, it will be 
our endeavour to compare Scripture with 
Scripture, and to point out how the New i» 
hidden in the Old, whilst the Old Testament 
is made patent by the light it derives from 
tiie New Testament. 



16 



THE FIG-TEEB EEVIVED BY MEANS OF FIRE. 
A TYPE OF ISRAEL . 

BY MBS. JAllES TUTS, 
Antbor of "Home in the H0I7 Lend." 

It is the custom in P^estine to cat dcmn any fig-tcee that presents an uAhaalthjor 
diseased appearance. Subsequently, when vrmt&r has arrired, and the sap has deeoendttd, 
brushwood is collected and piled upon the stump. This is set on fire, and the whole bvmt 
toiihe ground. After the next spring rmm a yigorous yoilng^ shoot appettra firom the old 
roiDt, and this, Under careful treatment, scxm beoomes' a frtut-beanng tFee» 



A PABABLE. 



Tas Hnsbandman w«nt fbflh to view his luaA : 
Long wintry storms hAd swept the motrntain 

ii^, 
AjA stfript tiie sraiKng vfaeyards ba*e of le»y^, 
And dashed upon the ground the maanmer fruits. 
The sonny ohiflterfl and the rich ripe figs ; 
The lingering oliTOS from the topmost boughs, 
All scattered were before the driving blast; 
For « dark and clondy days "* had brooded long 
Upon the monntaing and the lonely plains. 
The land all bare and desolate and sad, 
Lay waiting for the husbandman to come : 
AK I slowly passed those dark and clondy days. 

At last the sun burst forth, and storms Were 

hushed; 
Tlie hard and icy gromid began to yield ; 
The cyclamen nncdosed her bhuhing bndd, 
Where firiendfy nocks gvre skater from the cdd 9 
WitAdn the vines fresh sap began to rise, 
And it was time to hope for blessed spring ! 

The Htnbsndnum went f eritk to view his laad; 
His favoured vineyard in a froitfiilhiU. 
He sought the highest point, for there had stood 
A noble fig-tree with wide-spreading boughs. 
The Husbandman Himself beneath its shade 
Had rested. All the little birds their nests 
Had built, and sung their morning hymn of |)raise 
Among its branches, rich hi countless leaver. 

All this had been. But now no tree was there : 
A bare, unsightly, weather-beaten stump 
St6od mournful where its glories, now decayed, 
Sttfftrelled, and Anmk, had daisied lOl man- 
kind. 



'TwM He, allM } the Hnsbanditian Hims^, 
His own right hand anpitying strook the blow. 
Had cut it down, as cumberer of the ground. 
Barren of fruits and yielding only leaves. 

Long had^he Htttbandnsan refirained Hhnsi^, 
Allowed the storms to beat iq>on his tree, 
And alltte passsrs^jy to showit soona, 
While He with yeanodg heart had stood aloef. 

But now the term of punishment was past. 
The blessed hour of grace and mercy come. 
When this great tree should be rocidled to life. 
Meli stood c^ar and watched the Husbandihan 
Cast hea{]ii9 of fhd rotmd the ancfent stump, 
Drf weed, and brftnohes pried upon ito head : 
And theit T^ kinAed^fire, and burnt it d^vrn. 
All di^m in fliiM totiie very root. 

Oh, cruel Husbandman ! oh, dreadful doom ! 
Is this thy pity ? these thy proofs of graoo ? 
Ah, cursed tree I now art thou wholly gone, 
l)estroy6d, consumed, and justly brought to 

nonght, 
tvhflebotter phnrtsthan thou shall take thy place. 

Te fMs, and slt^ of hieatt to understand ! 

The ^MbaiidBtea hath sworn his tree sluU live ; 

He knows the meaAs : He oaittiotbr^ak Urf word. 

Wait but a little for the latter rain, 

And from these ashes tender leaves shall spring. 

And strong young branches raise their comely 

heads. 
These roots shall downward strike and bear rich 

flNIit, 
Drbwn fbrth and ripened by flie blessed sun. 
When He shall shine wiHi heallag m his wi^, 
Atfd never nmireiHtfairaw fiMin his desr Land^ 

''Behold the fig-tree, and all the trees ; when they now shoot forth, ye sec and fcnow of 
ywir own solves that summer is now nigh at hand. So likewise ye, when ye see aU these 
thmgs come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of Oodis nigh at hSlnd.'^— Lukb xxi. 29-^31. 
* Xsefe. znlY. U,^* Ike oloadj end dark d^." 



17 



THE PAUagnNE MODEL FARM, 
Am) INDUSTEIAL mffPrrUHlON POB JEWISH CONTBRTS. 



Im the spring of 1654, a lao^ iramlber of 
GMstMnsinet, «ffc tke nrritotion of ^e late 
Bev. Bidley HerscheM, in ^e tsthooi^room. 
€Oimo0ted ivdt^ ^Frinaty C^pel, IMIgware 
Boed. IPhe primairy dt^eet ti£ iAie meeting 
was for social inteFoeoxree; bot'the eminentlj 
practical mind of that earnest seryant of 
God conld not fail to attempt to give it a 
nseM ^Breetion. At ihat time the Holj 
LsBd h«dlMen'i4sit^l^ alaminedf nnusnal 
severity. It was known that many had per- 
islied from its eife^ts-; tmd- am»pg the poor 
Jew* of Jei-Bsa}em its iwrages ^lad been 
iBO«t smsiblyMt. It-was proposed by Mr. 
H^mebeil that advantage fiheiildi)e't^en of 
the^QslsBg aistress to i^iow the lore which 
J0mdk as well as Gent^ CHirifltians bear 
tewasds ^t^ Land <^ Promise and ihe 
asieient people of €k)d, and l^iat offers 6t co- 
operation should be made to ihe inflnential 
Jews who were at that time raising frmds 
for tim-reHef of ike -sufferers. A oo m m i fa te e 
was promptly formed for c airjln g <mt this 
ofcgeet. 'Rie names of Sir CKiHing Eardley, 
Sir Harry Goring, and Mr. George Hitch- 
cock, who are all now gone to their eternal 
rest and reward, appear amoog ttie number, 
and a meeting was arranged in the honse of 
lEr.'ffitohcoc^, in order "to give form and 
consistency to the object in view. It was 
soon ascertained that the leading ' Jewr were 
indisposed to receive the acfci<ve co-operation 
of any o&er committee liian l^ieir own* 
The subject, therefore, took anoUierdirec- 
-tion— -via., "lihe beet means of Jiffording relief 
to'^iose co n ver t s and inquirers who, in tiie ' 
East in particular, had given up all tilings 
for tiie sake of their MessiiJi, the Lord Jesus 
Christ. 

'She testimony given by missionaries and 
praelacal men, who had been long Tesident 
in Byria, was to the same point ; that the ' 
soil of the country afforded tiie best means 
for giving employment to converts, and tiiat 
under a ^nroper system of ctdtivation it 
would yield an ample return, lir. Hersdiell 
at that time undertook a journey to the ' 
East ; and this view of the mattw was fcdly 



tsorroboratedby afl those with whom he con- 
sulted. In particular, at a meeting held at 
the house of Bishop Gobat, at Jerusalem, 
every encouragement was given to the 
imdertaking, and a series of resolutions 
were passed^ subscribed by himself and by 
atte late Bishop Bowen, who acted as secre- 
tary, expressive of their sympathy, and 
suggesting, among other places, the neigh- 
bouriiood of Jaffa, as one of Utie most suitable 
spots at which to commence the work. It 
was at that time thought that a company 
mif]^t have been formed to carry out the 
project upon a commercial basis ; but the 
uncertainty wiiii regard to the tonure of land 
in the country, and the incompatibility of 
attempting to unito a benevolent with a 
commercial enterprise, determined the com- 
mittee to abandon this idea. 

Another twelvemonth rolled away. Many 
consultations took place, but no progress 
was made. At last it was suggested that it 
would be desirable that the administrative 
committee should consist entirely of Chris- 
tian Israelites. It was considered that a 
work so conducted would afford a conclusive 
testimony to the world of the re^ty of that 
religious change whieh was going on among 
the Jewish people, and would afford a pal- 
pable evidence that €k>d had "' not cast away 
his people whom He foreknew." From that 
time a new spirit was thrown into the woric ; 
and at a meeting, which was presided over 
by Lord Shaftesbury, and at which Bishop 
€k)bat was present, it was proposed that 
advantage should be taken of a visit which 
the honorary secretary, the Bev. A A.Isaacs, 
was about to pay te the Holy Land, to ascer- 
tain whether a suitable parcel of ground 
could be purchased in the neighbourhood of 
Jaffa. 

The want of space forbids our attempt- 
ing an accoxmt of the remarkable circum- 
stances under which the property was 
acquired of which the farm now consisto. 
Difficulties that appeared great were in the 
gracious providence of God removed. The 
Turkish law had just been passed by whidi 



18 



THE TALESTINE MODEL FARM. 



[• 



Tha Scattered Katicn, 
Jan. 1, 1868. 



foreigners were permitted to hold land in the 
Turkish dominions, without the necessity 
of their becoming subjects of that state. 
The property was conveyed to the Rev. A. 
A. Isaacs, in ihe Court of the Cadhi, directly 
as the representative of the committee, 
and in his own name as a British subject. 
This set at rest all misgivings and questions 
as to the tenure of the land, and gave per- 
fect security to all the operations of the 
committee. The sum of about eight hun- 
dred pounds was expended in the purchase 
of the land, the fine fruit plantation, and 
buildings ; and steps were taken to carry out 
the undertaking with vigour and earnest- 
ness. Mr. P. S. Hershon, who had been 
many years at Jerusalem, was appointed to 
be the first superintendent, but relinquished 
the post at the end of two years. At that 
time the British Society for the Propaga- 
tiosi of the Gospel among the Jews com- 
menced a mission at Jaffa, and the funds of 
the farm being inadequate to the payment 
of the salary of a superintendent, the com- 
mittee thankfully availed themselves of the 
services of the Bev. Dr. Philip, who was ap- 
pointed to that post. Under his direction, the 
twofold olgect has been carried out, of afford- 
ing a reftige to Jewish converts, and giving 
the means of employment to unconverted 
Jews, who are thus brought under mission- 
ary influ^ice. Although the first-named 
part of their work has not resulted in all 
that was expected, yet there is the fullest 
scope for the second; and the committee, 
in their last Beport, regret that their limited 
funds have not permitted them to take 
advantage of the opportunities they possess 
of thus bringing unconverted Jews under 
Christian influence. The past year (1865), 
moreover, has been marked by one of the 
most distressing calamities with which 
the land has been visited within the me- 
mory of man. We refer to the plague of 
locusts, by which the fruit and every other 
crop on the farm has been destroyed, and 
even every green leaf consumed. The in- 
come from the fiorm for one whole year has 
thus been lost, while an increased expendi- 
ture is demanded to repair the damage which 
has been done. 

The ill health of Dr. Philip, and the 
deaths which have occurred in his &mily, 
have led to his removal from JafiGft to Leg- 



horn, where there are also better means for 
the education of his family. Gk>d is always 
wont to prove his own work, and the con- 
stancy and devotion of his servants by trials 
saah. as these. But every year the roots of 
the undertaking are striking deeper into the 
soil, and if its beginning be one of trial— 
its end, we cannot doubt, will be one of 
abundant fruitfulnees. 

The previous brief history of this excel- 
lent and interesting work wiU prepare our 
readers for the following 

▲PPBAL 

which, at the request of the committee, we 
have much pleasure in laying b^ore 
them : — 

"During the last nine years, the oom* 
mittee have been steadily carrying on their 
unobtrusive but useful work. The annual 
rq>orts« which may be had by application to 
the honorary secretary, bear teetimoi^ to 
its usefulness, and to ^he careful and econo* 
mical principles upon which the expenditure 
has been conducted. The amount of annual 
contributions has sufiSced for its present 
necessities ; but the withdrawal of Dr. Philip 
from the mission a.t Jaffift places the oom« 
mittee in an altered position. Hitherto the 
salary of the superintendent has been paid 
by the British Society, whose medical mis- 
sionary fiUed that post, and occupied the 
isarm dwelling* But now the salary of the 
superintendent must be found by the com- 
mittee, from funds which are barely adequate 
to the ordinary expenditure. This demand 
comes, moreover, at a time when the desola- 
tion caused by the locust visitation has swept 
away all prospect of any return from the 
&rm for the current year. 

"In order, therefore, to roaintain the 
institution in a state of efficiency, the sum 
of £200 is necessary in annual subscriptions, 
in addition to that which is contributed at 
the present time. The striking peculiarity 
of the work, its essentially Jewish charac- 
teristics, the spiritual as well as benevo- 
lent objects which it has in view, are in 
themselves so interesting, and present such 
claims upon the sympathy and co-operation 
of Qentne Christians, that the committee 
can hardly doubt that the true hearted lovers 
of Israel will respond to this appeal, and that 
ft.T^nnn.1 subscriptions to the amount men* 



The SoatUred KftUoon 
Ju. 1, 1666. J 



VISIT TO A SYJ^AOOGUE, 



19 



tioned will speedily be forthcoming. The 
committee plead in behalf of those ' of whom, 
as concerning the flesh, Christ came/ and 
they feel that pleading in his name, they will 
not plead in vain." 

SubscriptionB will be thankfully received 



by the Editor; by the Eev. A. A. Isaacs, 
Honorary Secretary, 79, Southampton Row, 
BusseU Square ; or at the bank of Messrs. 
Barclay, Sevan, and Co., 54, Lombard 
Street, on account of '* The Palestine Model 
Farm." 



VISIT TO A SYNAGOGUE. 



Passikg the neighbourhood of Cavendish 
Square on Saturday, Nov. 25th, I availed 
myself of the opportunity to be present 
during divine service at the " West London 
(Beform) Synagogue of British Jews," in 
Margaret Street. The building has a very 
unassuming appearance externally, but the 
interior presents a fine specimen of tasteful 
and appropriate decoration. At the eastern 
extremity is the ttntprr fnM, the Ark of the 
Covenant, commonly c^ed the Holy Ark, 
which oontains several parchment scroUs of 
the Pentateuch written in Hebrew: each 
scroll is handsomely covered with either silk 
or velvet, and decked with ornaments of 
gold and silver. Over the ark is a quotation 
from the I6th Psalm, inscribed in Hebrew, 
" I have set the Lord always before me." To 
the north of the ark is the pulpit, and in the 
centre of the nave is the reading-desk. The 
side aisles are appropriated to the accom- 
modation of males, whilst the galleries are 
for the female congregation (as they still 
retain, even in this synagogue, the ancient 
custom of separating the male and female 
worshippers). The organ and choir are at 
the western extremity of the building. 

The Sabbath morning prayers had 
already commenced when I entered the 
sacred edifice. A gentleman kindly offered 
me one of their prayer-books, an English and 
Hebrew version, translated by the minister 
— ^the Hebrew being the language for 
prayer so perseveringly upheld throughout 
aQ Jewish congregations even up to the pre- 
sent day. Many most pathetic prayers were 
read by the minister, and responded to by the 
congregation, for the speedy restoration of 
Jerusalem and for the ingathering of the 
Scattered Nation; and several most beauti- 
ful anthems were chanted, which, by the 
melodious strains of the choir and accom- 



panied by the organ, were rendered deeply 
solemn and impressive. The ark was 
opened, and the minister standing before it 
recited the Decalogue, and one of the scrolls 
of the Law was taken from the ark to the 
reading-desk. The minister, unfolding it 
and holding it up to the view of the con- 
gregation, addressed to them these words 
in Hebrew: — "This is the Law which 
Moses set before the children of Israel : the 
Law which Moses commanded us in the in- 
heritance of the congregation of Jacob. The 
way of GK)d is perfect. The Word of the 
Lord is tried : He is a buckler to all those 
who trust in HKm.*' 

The portion of the day was then read out 
of the scroll, comprising four chapters of the 
book of GTenesis, from the 28th to the 32nd. 
After the reading, various prayers of thanks- 
giving were read, as also a prayer for the 
Queen and the Boyai Family; then was 
chanted the 145th Psalm ; the scroll was then 
again replaced into the ark and the 29th 
Psalm sung, afler which the Bev. Dr. Marks, 
minister of the congregation, mounted the 
pulpit. The Bev. gentleman took his text 
from the portion for the day, Qen. xxviii, 
and selected for the subject of his discourse» 
" Jacob leaving home, and his nocturnal 
vision." 

He briefly reviewed the conduct of Jacob 
in reference to his brother, and concluded 
that his having to quit the happy parental 
roof was the consequent punishment of that 
guilt ; but he upheld Jacob's implicit faith 
in his €rod, demonstrating it by his fearlessly 
taking shelter beneath the canopy of heaven 
regardless of all danger, and confiding in 
Him who is the keeper of Israel, and who 
neither sleeps nor slumbers. 

The Bev. lecturer then expatiated on 
the nocturnal vision as a revelation to 



20 



JEW8' MOME. 



C9%e BtmOMnd KailioBw 



Jaoob of the whole of IsraeVs fiitsre hittojry ; 
the ladder as a ^mbol of the myisihle duum 
that connects God and znao. JelKOv:ah fom 
the top of l^t ladder, and angels asoondisig 
and deBcending, are to signiQ^ the pca^re 
ascending and the blessings desoendisi^ in 
consequence of prayer. 

He then proceeded to the prayer of Jacob, 
from the words of which he endeavoured to 
depict three beautiful phases in the patri- 
arch's character as worthy of our imitation 
— Yiz., perseverance, moderation, and hope. 

He dwelt with particular eloquence on 
the words "pni o'voun "Watch over me in . 
the way," showing the indiiq>«nsable neces- 
sity of that guidance and pm^er to all who 
pass through this life of ten^)tatien on the 
way to their eternal home. Jacob perseveres 
in his journey, having nothing but ioith in 
his God to provide for him; he sets an ^ 
example of moderation hj asking ^ God , 
only the bare neoeasities — ^food and raimtnt; 
and his delightful hope pf returning to his 
lather's house in peace servea as a stimu- 
lant to all his efforts. The preacher went 
on to show that unless these ihree elememts 
do constitute the very manispring <of onr 
life, we cannot hope to setum to the JFather's 
house (heaven) in peace. He quoted Des- 
cartes and Bacon to prove ihaA eteniil^ is 
not a mere chance but a solemn reality, and 
that happiness lieth not ijx the possession of 
wealth, holding forth that morality is the 
standard of perfection by which we can 
reach our heavenly home; and conelnded 
his sermon by this striking sentemee: 
*' After all there is but one thing which can 
enable us to return to our Father's house in 
peace; and that is a conscience void of 
offence." 



A oantida lioUowed, tiie ^shig varaes of 
whicdi are :-^ 

"Thou art onr €od! Thou art our Iiordl 
Thoaortonr Ejngl Xfaaa art onr Savioir I 
Thou wilt save us! Tbmi wilt arise and 
have m&roy on Zkm, whan ijhe ttiiie4K> iivour 
her, yea, the appointed time, hath arrived !" 

And then the undermentioned prayer for 
the speedy appearance of the Messiah con- 
cluded the morning service : — 

" May the name of the Lord be exalted, 
and hallowed, throughout the world He has 
created according to his will; may He esta- 
blish his own kingdom, cause his salvation 
to spring forth» and hasten the advent of his 
Anointed, in your days and in the days of all 
the house of IsEaol ! and say yoj Amen." 

Thus we are permitted to view Judaism 
in a more modified fonn, and obtain a 
glimpse of its teaching as to the waj 
of obtaining eternal peace. Most strik- 
ing were the words the Bev. gentleman 
quoted, wh«i pointing out to his hearers ^e 
only way to obtain eternal felidiy — "a con- 
science void of offienoe." May we jaot jK^)e 
that these words will as toucdiiu^y bring to 
the minds of the Itev. gentleman and his 
hearers, the wat in which Bt. Paul, the 
authin* of them, himsfllf a Hebrew of 
the Hebrews, found •etOEnal joy and 
happiness, oven in Messiah the King of 
Israel P Must not such expressioBS and^s- 
guided cravings after peace awaken the 
sympathy and prayers of <)very one who has 
found the right way of peace and pardon in 
Him who alone can annal the guilt of sin, 
ileal the wounded conscience, and make it 
void of offence, in Him who is the Xfijght 
of the Gentiles and tha^GlQiy of his.peaf>le 
Israel P 3. K. 



<< When mj fkthsx aad mj iDother forsake me, then the Xiord tviU teke me np/'— Psuji xzrii. 10. 

JEWS' HOME. 



Thssb two words tell you much. Many tender 
and touching recollections rush into your me- 
mory, many pains and pangs pierce the heiurt 
of the Jew when the word Home la mentioned. 
All that is precious and sweet, all thatis kind 
and consoling, is coxmected with a father*8 



protection and a mother's care ; for wherever 
you are, the reminiscences of a happy Home 
IbUow you as a Mendly guardian. But ihe 
Jew who professes Christ is east off byrihc 
father who onoe rejoiced Jtt his birth, bf the 
moth w who watched at hia cradle ; and he be- 



Ju. 1, 1866. J 



mTELLlQENGE, 



21 



oomes a stranger to the Howie of Ms child- 
hood, for no place is allowed him any longer 
there. E?en as Abraham, his father after 
the flesh and in the faith, he mast leare his 
home and his kindred for his sake in whom 
all the nations of the earth were to be 
blessed. And when he has forsaken all and 
confessed his Messiah, is he nowhere to find 
a place of refttge^ nowhere to be received, 
nowhere to find a honse of shelter, a 
Home? 

You will not dwiy the believing Jew what 
yom desh^ so mmch for yourselves. And when 
I now tell yon that I have opened a humble 
yet comfortable home for young Isra^tes 
who have parted with everything rather 
than deny Christ, will yon refuse me a help- 
ing band to ofcrry on a wortc Ood hat 



given me to db ? It is at present inhabited 
by two, one of whom has ^eady been 
baptited \ 1iie«ther trill ere long be received 
into the Church of Christ : both of them, I 
may conscientiously say, have been brought 
to a saving knowledge of the Messiah and 
Him crucified. I say no more at present, for 
the Home commends itself I know, to your 
consdenoe, to your sympathy. May the 
God of Israel incline your hearts to assist 
me in this humble but important undertak- 
ing, destined to give the Jew a home, and to 
honour the Bang of Israel by showing mercy 
to them who are not ashamed of the gospel 
of Jesus Christ. Donations and subscrip- 
tions will be thankfhlly received by 

C. SCHWAATZ, I).I). 
4, St. LeonarcFs Qctrdm^ FaddmgUm. 



INTELLIGENOB. 
WHAT IS BBma* DONE FOB THE JEWS P 



TBTWrr cHirEir, jomr sTR«rr, ittrnvrxxE eda0. 

•ftiia cha|)oI was built by the Bov. Ridley 
Herschell, with the earnest desire of benefiting 
hUJewish brethren thereby, more especially those 
who^ live in the west of our large metropolis. 
Having been called to succeed him in the 
ministry, it is my prayerful wish to follow his 
example, and to bring before my Jewish brethren 
the clauiis of the King of Israel, and before my 
Christian hearers the deaUngs and designs of 
God with Israel. 

Onr serviees commence on Sonday mornings 
at eleren, and in the eyenings at sevea o'clock. 

On Tuesday evening, at half.past seven, a 
ledtore is delivered on the Prophecies of Isaiah. 

In an the services the Word of God is 
ezi^ained hj comparing Sariptnre with Scrip- 
tuie, ^d aU lovers of God's Word in its mi^estic 
s iT ttpTic ity and grandenr are kindly invited. 

On Monday (Christmas^day) a young Jew 
was baptized after the morning service, which 
waa attended by a goodly number of Jewish 
Christians. C- Schwabtc, D.D. 

. r Behold, how good and how pleasMt it b for brethrea 
to d#Bn toffether in unity."— Pg. oxzxiti. 1. 



When Jews who reject JeM» bestir theis* 
seWM, and justly so, to the very nttermoBt, to 
111*0 their eflbrts is advaooiiig their material, 
m«aV«adi«iUgiMur4Btei«st«,it caimot bethoi^t 
gfa<tfqge> th a » Um% who a^nowledge Jesus as the 
prtmAMd MiMtah, dM)nld try to realiM their 
miAsai in Christ^ la oomssqnmiee of tUs the above- 
naMSdUsnoirhasbeebestahlJflhed. Itisoni^a 
m wiH tfa o ood y twt in God^ appointed time and 
under hia tts«eiiii|r «»• 1* »i»y, yea, i« wiH, 
gre^ to be a nnghty tree, and spvead its 



branches over aU parts of the earth where 
Hebrew-Christians are to be found. 

Every Hebrew- Christian who is desirous of 
attending those meetings will meet with a 
brotherly welcome. 

Our objeeU are : — 

1. To promote a social and frequent personal 
intercourse among Christian IsraeUtes by meet- 
ing together at stated periods. 

2. To stir up and stimulate one another in the 
endeavour of uniting with, and caring for, our 
brethren. 

3. To search the Scriptures together relating 
to Israel and IsraeKs Eling. 

The meetings wUl be held on eveiy serK>nd 
and fourth Wednesday of eaoh month, at 36, 
Newnham Street, Edgware Boad, W. 

Tea at five o'clock. The meeting to oom* 
mence at half-past sit, and to close at eighk 

BXBLIN SOCrtTY JOE PHOMOTIKG CHRISTTUNlTr 
AMONG THB JEWS. 

We gAtiMT ftom the forty^seeoad i«port the 
foBowil^ detafls t"^ 

\wie Society empicys two ordftmed mission.- 
aries, ssid one layman. The first two are 
stationed at Berttn, the latter at Breslau. They 
m-eaofa regularly evexr Smid^ in one of the 
BesUit (drarohes, and hoid a Bible-class every 
Friday evefdng, attended by a fWw Jews. 

These senrices are very much blessed to the 
Christians, who are liot only firmly built up in" the 
holy faith, btrt areahlo filled with love to Israel, so 
that they feel inclined to speak to every Jew they 
meet with, of Him who came to seek the lost 
sheep of the house of Israel. The services are 
more especially of great benefit to the Jews who 
have already a certain desire to know something 
about Christ and his gtospel, and many timid and 
waverfag Jews and Jewesses have been ioduoed 



22 



INTELLIQENCE. 



rnie Se«ttor«d KaUoo. 
L Ju. 1, 1886. 



thereby to take ft bold step, and to come forward 
and profBBs Christ as the oolj hope of their soxils. 
Many of the two thonsaad (two thousand!), 
proselytes living at Berlin, attend these servioes, 
as the word of prophecy is usually explained and 
Israel's hope set forth. 

Then again, these missionariee travel a great 
deal in order to stir np the Christians to take a 
Scriptoral interest in the conversion of Israel, 
and to lay before the Jews the claims of Jesos 
as the promised Messiah. Besides that, the 
Sooie^r pablishos a monthly, called ** The Mes- 
sage of Peace for Israel," wherein the work of the 
missionaries and much that pertains to the well- 
being of Israel are described. 

^e Society takes special care of the pro9e» 
fytes, and we cannot better describe what is in- 
tended thereby than by quoting a short passage 
from the report of the missionary who is 
entrosted with that work. He says, " We do 
not wish to make proselytes, we do not desire 
to induce Jews to be baptized on account of the 
assistance we offer, but we wish to open the door 
to those who come, and to strengthen those who 
maniftdst any interest. We do not widi to cast 
off the Jew who shows love to Christianity : when 
he still doubts, we desire to lead him ; when he 
finds Christ, we manifest our joy ; and when he 
is in need, we show him Christian love. 

It might, periiaps, not be unprofitable to 
read the followmg six reasons, which were laid 
before a ministerial conference, why we ought to 
continue zealously doing missionary work among 
God's ancient people : 

1. The express command of God's Word to 
preach the gospel to all nations, beginning at 
Jerusalem. All the apostles, and also the apostle 
•f the Gentiles, acted accordingly. 

2. The gra^tude we owe to Israel. "On 
account of that one sacrificed Jew," said Luther, 
" whom no one can take away from me, I would 
like to do the Jews every good thing." 

8. The present painfol state of Israel. Not- 
withstanding external riches, they are inter- 
nally poor, because without real consolation in 
suffering, and Without a hap^ assurance in death. 
Kotwithstanding all the ri^ts they eijqy, and 
their endeavours to amalgamate with the Chris- 
tian, they are not loved, though craving for love. 

4. The distinct promises regarding Israel's 
glorious friture. The word of the prophets is con- 
firmed by the apostle of the Gentiles. 

5. The results already obtained. More than 
twenty thousand Jews have been baptized in this 
century. One minister at Berlin has baptized 
two hundred Jews. People would perceive more 
clearly these results if the Jews did not live in 
Christian countries, for now those who profess 
Christ are lost among the general population. 
Add to this that the work is greatly lundered by 
hatred, and by the great difficulty proselytes, who 
are cast off by the Jews and veir frequently dis- 
trusted by Christians, have to find employment and 
to provide for the necessities of their families. 

6. The intimate connection of the Jewish 
Mission with all missions abroad and at home. 

After these six theses had been ftilly developed 
in the hearing of the Kirchentaq (ccmference of 
ministers and members from ail churches and 
countries), it was resolved to do more for the 
holy work of missions among Israel i and more 



especially that all should take an acUve purt in 
the work by speaking on and praying for it, by 
personal efforts, and training the congregations to 
take an interest in and to do missionairy work 
among Israel. 

On a future occasion we hope to give some 
details of visits paid to rabbis, teachers, syna- 
gogues,aad private individuals — all of whom, with 
very few exceptions, received the m e ssengers of 
the cross wiUi more or less kindness. 

Eight Jews and Jewesses have been baptized 
in the last year, and a great many have received 
instmction for a longer or shorter time. 

There is, in connection with the Mission, a 
Momejbr inquirere and those who have already 
professed Jesus as the Messiah. It is superin- 
tended by a Jewish convert, and the results 
achieved by that Home for the mental, moral, 
and spiritual improvement of the inmates, and 
the attachment they feel to those who show 
them their love by looking after them, praying, 
and reading with Uiem, are vexy encouraging. 

BHSNISH-WE8TPHALIAN MISSIOlfAltT 80CISTT. 

All the different Societies have the same aims 
—to lead Israel to its King, and to encourage the 
Christians to take a hearty interest in the nation 
of that i^orious King. All of them try to 
obtain their olgect by preaching and visiting, by 
spreading the Scriptures and suitable tracts or 
books, and holding stated meetings for prayer. 
But as the organization of the church in the Bhen- 
ish provinces differs very much frt>m that of the 
eastern parts of Prussia, it is but natural that it 
should have a Society of its own. Still, all 
societies go hand in hand, for the cause of Israel 
is, so to roeak, neutral ground^ and the cross and 
CROWN of Christ unite them all in one labour 
of love to Gk)d's ancient people. 

From the missionary monthly of the Society 
we learn that it employs one ordained missionaiy 
and two colporteurs. They spend much, not to 
say most, of their time in visiting the Jews in 
their respective homes ; and it is encouraging to 
see with how much readiness the missionaiT is 
admitted into Jewish schools and allowed to 
speak to the children of God's dealings with Israel 
in past days, and his designs in days to oome. In 
the last year they have visited seven hundred 
Jewish families in one hundred and thirty different 
towns and villages, and two Jewish teachers have 
been baptized. Many of those spoken to might 
be reckoned among the Nicodemuses who are 
convinced of tiie truth as it is in Christ, though 
they still lack the courage to confess ffim pub- 
licly. Let it, however, not be forgotten that 
much faith is required to leave all fbr Christ^s 
sake, and to be rejected by one's own parents, 
who prefer to hear that tl^ sons or daughters 
have been sw^ away by the pestflenoe to their 
having been baptized. 

A remarkable feature in the woric of thii 
Society is, that as many Jews will not accept a 
ChrUHan translation of the Old Testament, it 
spreads a translation of the Old Testament brv a 
Jewish rabbi. Dr. Zunz. The prq^riety of a 
Christian society giving away a Jewish trans- 
lation might be doubted ; but it clearly proves 
that the missionaries are not afraid of die Old 
Testament, as many Jewish writers pretend. 

Tho ordained Missionary, the Rev. Mr. Axon* 



Jan. 1, 1MB. J 



INTBLLIGSNOE, 



23 



feld, has lectured last winter on the weeid j parts 
of the Fontateuch* (The Jews have diviited the 
fire books of Moses into fifty-two parts, and 
evBry week one is read in the synagogue, with a 
ooiresponding chapter from one of ^e prophets.) 
The lectnrea were held in a place of public 
amusement, near which many Jews liye. The 
Jews were invited by advertisements in the daily 
papers, and at times from forty to sixty Jews were 
present. After the second lectnre a yonng 
learned Jew came to Mr. Axenfeld, deeply moved 
by what he had heard, and there can be no donbt 
bat that he is animated with the earnest desire 
of confessing Jesns as his Messiah. 

BALHORK. 

13uft aft a siBaU village in tba-Dnchy of Hesse, 
and. the minister of it i» the Kev. Mr. Saul, a 
JeW| ifho has found in Jesos the hope of Israel, 
the salvalion-of his own sonl. His heart is 
filled with, lore ta Israel* and the whole village 
is changed into a missionary society ; so mnoh 
so, that all the inhabitants take a hearty^ a per- 
sonal, interest in the conversion of God's ancient 
peofiAe. Q%e neighbeoi'ing towns bsbA' vfflages 
have been so deeply afiboted by what is going on 
in that fittle village, that thonsands have tims 
been stirred up to pray and to work fbr Israel. 
WeriiaH gjre fhll detaSs in a flttmre nmnber. 

SWXDJUC 

iKftniftiBtoriid ecnSMMMeheld aitXjUMlthe 
folteving tfae«fr has beea adopted t " XTo Uenng 
(diiireli without mMskma anong heathsa and 
J0%O9J' OtieoftbeBpealDersdeo]ftrad,"ItiBagreait 



want in the misgionaty work of onr ohnrch, that 
it neglects the preaching of the gospel among 
the Jews. That nation has the greatest pvo« 
mises, gieater even than the heathen*" 

MOBWAT. 

In CBMriitisiiiaji ■siirriniiia i y mupmino £or Israel 
is published by Froftesor Caspari (a very.leaned 
and eieeOettt Ghristiatt, a converted Jew and 
feUlawi^tiideoAoftheBditoPof onrpttriodioal, and 
the peine has already, imtfaat siaaU oooatry, 
2000 s eb ts i b ei^ whioh is etrtaiz^ efial to 
aOyOOO-in BHtMen. 

PRATXS TOE THV CAPTIVSS IX ABTSSmU. 

" B has been sng^osted," says the " Becord*" 
"that the elergy who are interested in these 
fln fl twring missionaries, cam render good service in 
sorousing interest and maJnt^MTiiug prayer for 
them, by desiring the prayers of the congrega<i> 
tion in their behalf before the Litany in morning 
service. A paose might then be made, if thought 
desirable, a^er the petition, ' lor all prisoners^id 
captives.' " 

We trust that all the ministers of mil demnni- 
nations will remember these prisoners in their 
public prayers, as many of them have done fbr 
some time past. We hail every effort made on 
their behalf, and take a deep interest in the 
journey of Dr. Beke ; bat we believe at the same 
time that much prayer ought to be offered in 
order that Dr. Biro's mission might prove to be 
snccessfhl, and the prisoners be upheld and 
sb^ngthened by that grace whic^ has so mani« 
festly been bestowed upon them djuing many 
montha of suffering and misery. 



WHAT ARE THB JEWS DOIKa EOS THEMSBLVESP 



We ooutent-oorselfee for tkit time— onr report 
will be more full in the course of the coning 
months, when all our arrangements are oom^ 
pleted — ^with stating a &wlaota from the iSngtish 
orgaiLof the Jewe^^e " Jewish Chnmicle," wfaioh 
takes op a ggood deal of matter to be found in 
the Gtennan and French Jewi^ periodicals. There 
is scasoely one number of that paper wherein 
one dees not find seveval attach on Christianity, 
and mere especiBlly on those whom it tenaa 
<< CgnveraiiOBists/' intending thereby all who make 
efforts to leadlorael tothe Messiah. We shall not 
enter into discussion at present, but only give a 
specimen of the feeling of the Editor regarding 
all Jews who have recognoaed Jesua aa the loo- 
mised Messiah. 

After hatving branded Mr* Stem aa a " Pro* 
testaat DoaatacmkJ* and spoken of his " iniqui- 
tous caieer," and ae being unable to feel any more 
sympatiiy £9r him thaaftir " Haman," the £ditov 
goes on te say 1-* 

" Feeling as we do the reproach — or if it be, 
prefsrced, insult — attaching to the name iqpoe- 
tate» we should no doubt deserve omisare were 
we te«i^^ it indiaariminately to every convert 
from Judaism* We do not dei^ that we h»ve 
gree^ difllmlty in believing in the sineerity of 
conver s ions. Without wishing to institute oom^ 
perisons between Judaism and Christianity, and 
clainia^sapeaavity fertheformer^ wemi^ yet 
assert without fear' of c o t ilwkU ction, that so 



long as conversioi^ designed or unintentional, 
shalt be attended with any advantage, however 
slight, whether of a material form or not, the 
parity of the convictions leading to the act will 
always be open to g^ve doubts, and the 
suspibion that the wish to be convinced was 
flMiher to the conviction, will lie near enough. 
But tiris, after all, however probable, can only 
be a suspicion, azid we do not arrogate to our- 
selves the Divhie privilege of sitting in judgment 
over ntian's secret thoughts. Kever have we 
applied the term 'apostate' to a convert that, 
satisfied with the new advantages — or if it be 
preferred, peace of mind — obtained, ceased to 
intermeddle with the deserted communiiy. It 
is therefore not true, as the Rev. gentleman 
insinuates, that we ever oalled a convert an 
apostate simply because he 'has joined the 
Church of Christ.' ' It was only and exclusively 
such men as missionary Stem who, not satisfied 
with having renounced the religion of their 
fathers, constantly intermeddle with the deserted 
community, endeavouring to infiict upon it as 
much mischief as lies in their power. Men of 
this kind have no chdm whatever on our fbr- 
bAarance. The proverbial fimaticism of converts 
' characterizes them, and we must be allowed to 
designate them by a term espressive of our 
abhorrence of this characteristic. ' 

We make no remarks : such sentiments speak 
for themselves. 



24 



INTELUQENCE. 



fTke Seattored TS%JAm» 



Unitkd States. — ^Thb Bnai Bkrith. 

These two Hebrew worda sigmfy " Sonfl of 
the Covenant/* They are the title of a Jewish 
Order in the United States, established with a 
view to form a tie among the Israelites in America. 
Its position and aims are thus described : — 

" This Order, now nnmbering sixty-seren 
lodges, and over six thousand members, resident 
in all sections of the Union, has received a new 
impetus within the past year or two, and promises 
to realize the most sanguine antidpationa of its 
enthusiastio advocates. 

" The idea that underlies this institution can- 
not but command general approbation : to keep 
alive the spirit of brotherhood among Israelites, 
to disseminate feelings of charity and goodwill 
towards all mankind, to exercise active bene- 
volence, and to contribute to the elevation of 
American Israelites. ' Charity and enlighten- 
ment ' is its motto ; the emancipation ofhumanity 
firomthe slavery of ignorance its self-impoaed 
mission. 

" Established twenty-two years ago by a few 
Hebrews dwelling in New York dty, it has 
steadily advanced in nxmibers and influence, and, 
as we have said, presents the formidable array of 
over six thousand members, which, it is expected, 
will be increased to fifteen thousand within five 
years, the element of American Jewish youth 
having become recently interested in its progress. 

" We find that it has of recent years been 
undergoing a purifying process, so to speak. 
Ol]!Jeotion£3>le features, relics of errors obstinately 
persisted in to the detriment of the Order, have 
now been swept away: much of the air of mys- 
tery that formerly enveloped its proceedings, and 
which, while awe-inspiring and terrible to the 
mind of the ignorant, was excessively absurd in 
the eyes of intelligent men, has been dispelled. 
Wholesome changes in the Constitution and ad- 
ministration of the Order have been introduced, 
and found to work to a charm ; and the ' Bnai 
Berith,* as at present governed and directed, 
appears to eigoy a gracious prospect of ftiture 
prosperity and usefulness. 

" The next ftmction of the Order is compre- 
hended by the idea of ' enlightenment.* It aims 
to disseminate knowledge of Judaism among non- 
Israelites, and proposes to institute seminaries 
for instruction in the Hebrew language and lite- 
rature. It also has in view the defence of the 
race against moral and legal injustice. 

" ^s idea is as yet but imperfectly sustained. 
We are assured that it is the purpose of those 
who govern the Order to give great prominence 
henceforth to this branch of its operations. Funds 
are accrmiulating for the foundation of a college, 
the publication of valuable works in departments 
of Hebrew literature, and the establishment of 
a library." 



ASSOCIATION 70B THX OSNBKAL D(TEUB8T8 Of 
JUDAISM. 

Under the auspices of Dr. Qeiger, the well- 
known Reform-rabbi of Frankfort-on-the-Maine, 
an association under the above title is forming in 
Germany. It is to be a centre for the jvofessors 



of Judaism, " in order to strengthen the senti- 
ments of their religious fellowship, and to fur* 
ther, by energetic efforts in all directions, the 
interests of Judaism." To obtain this object the 
Association will endeavour " to effect the preser- 
vation and difftision of Jewish knowledge, as well 
as the scientific representation of Judaism by 
means of suitable institutions and seminaries. 
It will ftu*ther be solicitous for the dissemina- 
tion of correct views on Judaism, and its defSsnoe 
against attacks that might be directed against 
it.*' Conferences, consisting of theologians and 
laymen, are to be held annually, and at these 
meetings the various Jewish interests, especially 
those connected with synagogue and school, axe 
to be discussed. 

While the Jews in England have a Board of 
Deputies and a Jewish Association fbr Diflbsion 
of Beligious Knowledge, the Germans try to form 
a central body, in order to do collectively what has 
hitherto been done by individuals. In this way 
they try to do what has been done in JFVohm by thie 

UNTVBRSAL ISRAXLITISH ALLIANCE. 

No one can help perceiving tiiat the Jewish 
associations are formed after the model of Chris* 
tian institutions, from which they have even de- 
rived their name $ but it is good,exoellent indeed, 
that the Jews have now Bible, Tract, and Diffiisicai 
of Beligious Knowledge Societies, Sabbath 
schools, and Universal Alliances. We rqjoice in 
these endeavours to promote their national, moral, 
soda], and religious interests, believing as we do 
that it is our duty to take a hear^ interest in €9erv 
endeavour to promote the well-being of Israel. 
In the report published by the French Jewish 
Alliance it is stated that the increase in the num* 
ber of the members has been steady, and that the 
members manifisst, in the most diverse forms, an 
ardent sympathy for the Sociefj. It has received 
since the last general meeting 1150 new members. 
Some of the members quietly make proselytes in 
their circles, and succeed in enlistmg a consi- 
derable number of members ; in other cases the 
committee act, and do not wait till people 
come to them, but seek them out, showing them 
that their wants are the same, and that the un- 
dertaking is useful to the general sacred cause.* 
In sevend countries of Europe where laws 
against the IsraeKtes were oppressive, these ex- 
ceptional lawshavo been abolished, civil and reli- 
gious equality has been proclaimed, and the reign 
of right inaugurated. (That is saying a gr^ 
deal!!) 

Much has also been achieved in certain bar- 
barous countries. The report states that the Jews 
had not, like the Christian population of the East 
governments always ready to protect them, but 
that now the collective protectorate of the g^reat 
powers begins to be exercised for tiie benefit of 
the Jews, so that they, being sheltered on many 
ocsasions from acts of violence and persecution, 
begin to enjoy a security which firees them from 
constant axudety for their existence, and enables 
them to think of their intellectual and moral 
elevation. In Switserland, Ghreeoe, Moldo* 
Wallachia, Servia, and Morocco, important resoltt 
have been obtained. 

* No nlMioiiarj wodLtAf ooaU do mm% of 9ib^ ^m 
MQiidsr or mon ptaniiiBf pti&eipUi* 






APOSTATES. 



2S 



APOSTATES. 



BT THE SDITOB. 



ILh agly word, no doabt! And no wonder, 
for the thing signified thereby is very ngly 
indeed. It is designed to describe those who, 
from external and hence nnworthy motives, 
haye belied the principles they once pro- 
fessed, and is more especially applied to 
those who have forsaken the rehgion of their 
ancestors, and in which they themselyes 
have been educated. One might natoraUy 
expect of them that they would use their 
influence and talents to maintun and to 
propagate their ancestral fiuth everywhere ; 
but they have disappointed these hopes, 
have joined other religious bodies, and those 
whom they have left brand them as apos* 

TAXBS. 

It is not our intention to discuss the 
general question, nor to test the motives of 
the many or the few who have changed 
their religious views ; we wish to limit our- 
selves to one special point, viz., to the charge 
brought by the Jews, who reject the claims 
of Jesus of Nazareth to the Messiahship, 
against the Jewish Christians, as if they 
had apostatized and forsaken the religion of 
their £Evt«hers. It matters nothing to the 
inquiiy we are about to institute, how great 
the number of these Jewish Ohristians is 
at present, nor is it of any importance 
whether they have always been animated 
by right motives, or have behaved as they 
ought to have done towards the Jews who 
do not believe in Jesus. We simply wish 
to submit the following considerations to 
the attention of Jews and Ohristians, leaving 
it with them to judge how &r the term of 
apostates can ever be justly given by Jews 
to Jewish Ohristians. 

We all know that eighteen centuries ago 
a certain man appeared in the midst of the 
Jewish nation, and claimed the title of thb 
Messiah. He did it not in some small 
village, and amongst an ignorant multitude, 
but at Jerusalem, in the presence of all the 
learned and educated, and before the highest 
authorities. He tried to justify this his 
claim, not simply by appealing to the testi- 
mony of nature and conscience, but by 
quoting the commandments and institutes 

YOL. I.— NO. n. 



of the law and the promises of the prophets, 
which the Qod of Israel had given to this 
people. He was Himself a Jew, He came 
to the Jews, He claimed a Jewish title, and 
He defended it by Jewish testimonies. 

He spoke with authority, but this autho- 
rity was rqjected; He performed mirades, 
but they were either denied or attributed to 
the influence of Satan ; He declared Him- 
self to be the Son of God, but his claim was 
disputed ; He was thought to be a blasphe- 
mer, and He was condemned to death by the 
Jewish high council ; and this sentence was 
ratified by the great multitude, who cried 
aloud, " Orucify, crucify !" 

But there were twelve apostles and 
seventy elders, all of them Jews, who ac- 
knowledged this very Jesus to be indeed 
the hope and the salvation of Israel; as 
long before them the priest Zacharias 
and his pious wife Elisabeth, and their 
relation Mary, the humble virgin, had 
done. Yea, old Simeon, who, along with 
Anna the prophetess and many others, 
had waited for the fulfilment of God's 
promises, thanked Qod who had granted 
him the desire of his soul and per- 
mitted him to depart in peace, since his 
eyes had seen Him who is the glory of 
Israel and the light of the nations. Jewish 
shepherds, who' had been feeding their 
flodcs on the fields of Bethlehem, had heard 
the angels' message : ** Unto you is bom this 
day, in the city of David, a Saviour, which is 
the Messiah, the Lord ;" and they went to 
Bethlehem and they saw with their own eyes 
that the things which the Lord had made 
known to them were come to pass, and 
they believed with their whole heart. 

When Jesus had been put to death, one 
of the chiefe of the synagogue, Nicodemus, 
and another man, a cotmseUoVf Joseph of 
Arimathea, who also waited for the king . 
dom of God, felt not ashamed of the Oruci 
fied One, but boldly went unto Pilate and 
begged the body of Jesus. 

All these Jews, and not a few Jewesses, 
acknowledged the daims of Jesus of Naza- 
reth to be the Messiah foreshadowed by the 



26 



AP08TATE8. 



VTU 






law and foretold by the prophets* though 
He had been r^ected by the great and the 
mighty men in Israel. 

One of this little company preached a 
few weeks after in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the temple» in the presence of a 
great gathering of Jews, and he upheld the 
right of Jesus to be called the Messiah, by 
quotations from the law, the psalms, and 
the prophets, in which he had been instructed 
by Jesus before his cruoifixiQai and after his 
resurrection. And three thousand Jews, 
many of whom^ no doubt, had some weeks 
ago oried " Crucify, crucify !*' whilst others 
who had seen Jesus die, had smitten their 
breasts — three tlumacmd Jews, I say, were 
baptized in the name of the rejected Messiah. 
Yes, this very man who in a moment of 
weakness had denied Jesus in the palace of 
the high priest, now comes forward and 
declares in the presence of that yeiy high 
priest, " Be it known unto you all, and to 
all the people of Israel, that by the name of 
Jesus Christ of Nasareth, whom ye crucified, 
whom God raised from the dead, even by 
Him doth this man stand before you whole. 
This is the stone which was set at nought of 
you builders (Psa. czviii. 22 ; Isa. zzviii 16), 
which is become the head of the ccM*ner."* 
Unto the people he says: ''The God of 
Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, tbm 
God of our pathebs, hath glorified his Son 
Jesus ; whom tb delivered up and denied. . • . 
And now, brethren, I wot that through 
ignorance ye did it, as did also your rulers. 
But those things, which Qod before had 
showed by the mouth of all his prophets, that 
Christ should suffer. He hath so fulfilled."t 
The rulers, contrary to the counsel of Ghuna- 
liel, the doctor of the law, beat the apostles, 
and commanded them that they should not 
speak in the name of Jesus ; but the apostles 
rejoiced in their sufferings, and ceased not 
daily to preach in Israel's temple and in 
Jewish houses, that Jesus was ike Messiah. 
Jewish priests and scribes, men and woman, 
shepherds and counsellors, Pharisees and 
pubUcans, poor and rich Jews, admow* 
lodged Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah, as 
the King of Israel. 

Among these Jews who believed in the 
Messiah, there was one who bad been 
accused of having spoken blasphemous 

• AtlMif. 10. t A«U Ui. 1S--18. 



words against the temple and the law. 
He defended himself l^ reminding the 
Jewish rulers and nation of God's dealings 
with the fcUhers, and told them plainly that 
as the faikera had rejected the prophets, so 
their children had rejected Him to whom, 
all the prophets had given testimony. And 
when they, instead of reftiting, stoned him,, 
he said, " Lord Jesus, receive my spirit," 
and kneeling down, he cried with a loud 
voice, ** Lord, lay not this sin to their 
charge." Thus died a Jew who believed in 
Jesus as the Messiah. He was not ashamed 
of his Lord, and prayed for mercy for hia 
brethren who put him to death. 

The witnesses laid down their clothes at 
the feet of a young Jew. He was an edu« 
cated man, a disciple of the renowned 
Gamali^; he was a strict Pharisee, blame- 
less after the law, and he was zealous 
even to bigotry, for he breathed out 
threatenings and slaughter against the 
disciples of Jesus. But the murderer is 
changed into a martyr, the lion into a lamb, 
the persecutor into a professor of this very 
Jesus. He is never ashamed of the gospel 
of Jesus, but at the same time he glories m 
being a Hebrew of the Hebrews ; he never 
abandons the hope of Israel; he delights in 
enumerating the privileges Qod has be- 
stowed on the Jews ; he feels " great heavi* 
ness and continual sorrow," and is willing 
to be accursed from the Messiah for his 
"kinsmen according to the flesh, who are 
Israelites." He rejects with holy energy 
all that is of man's making, but he upholds 
with unflinching boldness all God's gifts 
to Israel, beloved still for the fathers' sakes. 
And when he describes the nature of faith, 
he flrst quotes one of Israel's prophets, and 
then details a wonderful rec(M*d of noblo deeds 
and heroic sufferings — all that the fathers 
had achieved and endured; not doubting 
that the Hebrews whom he addresses, will, 
when persecuted on account of their fiuth 
in the Messiah, be found to be worthy of 
these, their fothers. 

What follows firom this P The Jew, Jesus 
of Nazareth, declared Himself to be the pro- 
mised Messiah, and He laid his claims before 
the Jewish rulers and nation, and built 
these claims on €k)d's dealings with, and 
God's promises to, Israel. The majority oT 
the Jews rejected Him ; a minority aoknow- 



Veb. 1, isaa. J 



AP08TATB8. 



« 



lodged Hiin as tbo Mesnah. Both parties, 
the majority and the minority, were Jews. 
And what happens nowP A great many 
follow the example of the nugority; others 
tread in the footsteps of the minority of the 
Jewish fathers. Who, then, gives you 
Jews, that reject Jesus, the right to say to 
US who believe in Him that we have apos* 
tatized from the religion of our fathers, 
when it is quite clear that from the very he- 
ginning J£ws have acknowledged Jesus as 
the only hope of Israel P 

But then you will s^ that you must be 
right because you follow the rulers and the 
majority of the people. Let me now remind 
you that, during the whole history of our 
nation, it is manifest that the multitude 
generally went astray, rejected Crod, and 
MUed his messengers, and that truth and 
righteousness were with the minority. Not 
with the ten brothers, but with Joseph only; 
not with the whole nation that worshipped 
the golden cal^ but with the tribe of Levi ; 
not with the ten spies, but with Joshua and 
Caleb ; not with the millions that worshipped 
Baal, but with Ehjah and the seven thousand 
hidden, pious souls, was the truth of God. 
The God of Israel chose our nation, though 
the fewest of all people (Deut. vii. 7), and 
He commands the nation, " Thou shalt not 
follow a multitude to do evil*' (Exod. xxiii. 
2). If so it be, and these instances could 
easily be multiplied, does it not prove that 
the majority of Israel rather inclined to resist 
than to obey God P And in accordance with 
the word of Jehovah, Jesus said that the 
way to salvation is narrow and is walked in 
by few, whilst the way to destruction is 
trodden by many; and again, that "^many 
are called, but few chosen." With these 
facts before us, I repeat the question — ^Who 
gives the Jews who rqject Jesus the right to 
say that Jewish Christians are apostates? 

Tho Jews who to this day reject Jesus, 
ratify the judgment of the multitude which 
condenmed the Messiah; and how far the 
multitude can be relied on or trusted is 
manifest from Israel's own history. Every 
Jew that acknowledges the claims of Jesus 
as the Messiah, confirms the faith professed 
by thousands of Jews and Jewesses of all 
ranks of society. 

Hitherto we have snpposed from analogy 
that the majority was wrong. We now add 



TWO 7ACIS which make this certain. Jesns^ 
when He beheld the city of Jerusalem, had . 
declared, weeping bitterly over tiie woe that 
was to befall her, that her enemies should 
lay her even with the ground, and her chil- 
dren with her. And again, "Your house 
is left unto you desolate ; for I say unto you, 
ye shall not see Me henceforth, till ye shall 
say. Blessed is He that cometh in the name 
of the Lord." Can it be denied that Jeru- 
salem has been, and is, trodden down, and 
that Israel has been, and is, scattered since 
that time, even until this day P Do the Jews 
not repeat again and again, ** On account of 
ow sins have we been driven from our land 
and removed from our soil"P All other 
exiles lasted a short time, though the nation 
was guilty of idolatry ; but, since the return 
from Babylon, they have never fallen into 
that grievous sin, and yet their dispersion 
lasts these eighteen centuries, and no signs 
of a return to the troddcn-down land are 
as yet visible. Is not the conclusion then 
forced on us that the land will remain deso- 
late till they say, " Blessed is He that cometh 
in the name of the Lco^" P 

Again, no Jew con deny that Christianity 
is intimately connected with Judaism — pro- 
ceeds from it as its fountain. Thousands and 
tens of thousands of Gentiles have by it been 
led to the God of Israel, uid bowed their 
knees before Jehovah. It is nowhere said that 
some indistinct offshoot from Judaism is to 
bring t^ Gentiles to the worship of the true 
Grod ; but it is everywhere declared that, in 
the days of the Messiah, the nations are to 
be gathered into the fold of the Shepherd 
of Israel. When we now see these two 
facts — Israel scattered because of some 
grievous sin, and the nations brought in by 
the religion which acknowledges Jesus as 
the Messiah — wMst we not conclude from 
this that the rejection of the Messiah is 
Israel's guilt, and the reception of the Mes* . 
siah is the present glory of these nations P 

All depends, then, on the relation in 
which Jews and Gentiles both stand to the 
Messiah. The original Christian church con- 
sisted of Jews, and the (Gentiles were en- 
grafted in that church which had all the |»x>- 
mises. The Jews never went to the G^tiles 
for a blessing, but through Israel the bless- 
ing has come to the nations. A Jew who be- 
lieves in Jesus does not cease to be a Jew«- 



LYBA HXPECTANTIUM. 



rrh* Seattond Katton. 
L Feb. 1, 1866. 



he is not a proKlyte, as if lie were going 
over to the Gentiles; bnt he simplj joins 
his Jewish fathers, and beoomes a member 
of that church which was founded on the 
Jewish apostles, and was built up and greatly 
extended by, and since, the outpouring of the 
Holy Spirit. Why, the very name Chbis- 
TIANITT is nothing but another expression 
for the religion of the Messiah; and the 
Greek name would never have been adopted 
had not the great bulk of the Jewish nation 
rejected Jesus, so that the Greek element 
got the superiority, and gave the name to 
the religion of Israel's Messiah. It is the 
guilt and shame of Israel that the religion 
of Jesus is described by a Greek word; it 
is the guilt and sin of the nations that they 
frequently forget that ''Christ" signifies 
the Messiah. 

Je?nsh Ghristians must remind the Jews 
that Messiah is Christ, and the Christians 
that Christ is the same as the Messii^. 
Bothmust not be misled by theGreek wordas 
though the religion of Jesus was of a (hrUHe 
orig^, yea> as if Jesus Himself could hare 
been bom of and lived in any other than 
the Jewish nation. If Jews and Gentiles 
were fully alive to this plain truth, they 
would not only try to find out wherein they 
difi'er, but also sedc to understand wherein 



they agree; and, with God's blessing, the 
Jew might discover that the Old Testament 
Scriptures are incomplete, and require the 
New to supply the want, whilst the Christian 
would see at once that ^ New Testament 
cannot be understood unless read in the 
light of the Old Testament. Pau is as little 
a Greek as was Isaiah, and Jesus is as much ^ 
a Jew as was Moses. Every attempt to sepa- 
rate, weakens both ; every opposition to one 
makes the position of the other untenable. 

I know quite well that I am stating an 
old, an oft-repeated truth ; but still it must 
be repeated, for, when a bishop assails Moses, 
and a man like Mr. Gladstone idealizes the 
Greeks and detracts from the special task 
Grod has committed to his own people, it 
becomes high time to bring to remembrance 
what Gk>d has done for Israel, and through 
Israel, in the days before and after Jesus. 
And Jews and Gisntiles do well to mind it ; 
for the present time, rightly called the die* 
pensoMon of the Qentiles, is but a great paren^ 
theeU between Christ's first and second 
advents, as the law is between the covenant 
of grace made with Abraham and the com- 
ing of Jesus in the fulness of the times. It 
began with Israel, and will end with Israel ; 
and then all things will be subdued unto 
God, that He may be all in alL 



{To he co7Uiimed») 



LYRA EXPECTANTITTM.-.N0. L 

BY W. STONE, MJL. 
» 'Kid tli« toRow Md ths strifo, 
Tis the mosio of oor Uf« ; 
And the tong htth this refinio, 
Oor BedMOier oomet •gaia." 

Ltb. Fd>., 8. J. 8« 
«* How long, O Lord, bolj and tne P"~Bxt. tI. 10. 



Boll cm, ye ohariot-whe^ls that bear 
My blest Eedeemer fipom thB lofty sides ! 

Haste on, angelio hosts ! to cheer, 
With Christ in midst of you, my weary eyes. 

Long has this earth poured forth her sighs, 
And long the Ohnroh complained, like one 
forlorn,— 
'When cease Creation's groans ond cries, 
AnA when shall dawn ' Adoption's' beaoteons 
mom ?" 

To martjrrs 'noath the altar, swell 

The univeraal cry, " O Lord, how long ?" 

Yonr blood, for Jesus shed, shall tell 

Lond to " the Just " of nnav,eng6d wrong. 



ThovL, Israel, too, with nptnmed flace, [rain t 
Baised from the dnst, seek not the Lord in 

Towards Zion, looking for the grace, [reign." 
Sing thy " Hosannah," and—" The Lord shall 

I hold strict watch, and mark the night, 
With its departing gloom, o'er yonder monnt ; 

The tints of day, with rosy light, [fount.. 

Are shed, with sunbeam-streaks, from Glory's 

Hail to " TH£ Kino" that is to come. 
Each faithful heart and longing soul to bless ! 

Soon may thy "sign" precede Thee home. 
Great Prince of Peace, the Lord our Bight»^ 
cousness ! 



F«b. 1, 1068. J 



ISRAEL'S MISSION, AND MISSIONS TO ISRAEL. 



'29 



ISRAEL'S MISSION, AND MISSIONS TO ISRAEL. 

BT DR. \ni. OBiLHAM, OF BONK. 



n. WHAT ABB THE CLAUB OF I8BABL OH'THB 
GHBISTIAN CHUBCHP 

1. Be it remembered, then, that thb 
Ohubch is a heavenly commnnity fimnded by 
the Lord from heaven, and intended to lead 
men to heaven. We are "risen with 
Christ" (CoL ilL); we are seated with HJTn 
in the heavenly places, and our Gftisenship 
(PhiL iiL 20), onr hopes, and onr many- 
mansioned honse are all heavenly : the 
Ghnrch on earth is called the kingdom of 
Gk>d and the kingdom of heaven. Hence 
the Jews have the soAone claims upon ns as all 
other men have. They are sinners, and we 
inreach salvation; they are fiallen, and in 
Christ there is recovery. If the Gentiles 
iiave claims on the love and compassion of 
ihe Ghnrch, so have the Jews. They are in 
ihe same gnilt and bondage as the rest of 
mankind, and the aspect which the Church 
bears to them and to all is that of brotherly 
kindness and compassion. 

2. But surely the Jews have &r more 
^claims upon our sympathy than most other 
nations. They are a very andmt nation; 
the Ghreeks and Romans are modems com- 
pared widi them. They are a highly-civilized 
people, and have been a great centre of civi- 
Jization to all others. They are apersecuted 
people, and we naturally sympathize with the 
oj^ressed. l^ey are a nation of homeless 
strangers — ^''tribes of the wandering foot 

. and weary breast "—and as such have some 
daim upon our generoaity. In aU these 
xespeots, and in many others» they differ 
materially fiK>m most other nations, and oar 
interest in them is proportionally increased. 
8, You read the Odes of Horace or the 
Songs of Sappho, and yield a willing admi- 
ration to the genius of Greece and Bome. 
All that is natural and proper, but what 
have you to say about the Ptc^ms of David P 
Here you have beauty joined with purity; 
sublimity and tenderness blended sweetly 
together; and ^e melody always breathes 
'4xi heaven. When you sing the Psalms, or 
read the Prophets, or trace the origin of 
xoeation in Moses, or fix the eye of hope on 
-the promises, which like golden threads 
intersect Jewish history, remember tho 



Scattered Nation* and pray for the peace of 
Jerusalem. 

4. Yon are protected by good and right- 
eous laws, and for this you can never be 
sufficientiiy thankfol ; but all the great linea- 
ments of national legislation, so £ar as thc^ 
are good and' beneficent, are essentially 
Jewish. The Ten Commandments are the 
foundation on which both in the East an^ in 
the West the edifice of sociel^ is built. The 
law of the ''ten words" given on Sinai is 
not Jewish only, bnt cosmical; is not re- 
pealed but perpetual, and binding upon all 
nations and individuals for ever. You 
oughts therefore, to love, and respect, and 
seek the welfare of the people which God 
has made the medium of such blessings. 
The laws of Solon and Lycurgus, or the 
statutes of Menu, are not to be compared 
to the Ten Commandments. 

5. All Scripture is given l^ inspiration of 
God, and oM inspiiraHon is given through the 
Jews. This gives them an everlasting and 
universal daim upon the respect and sym- 
pathy of the whole human race, but still 
more especially upon the Christian Church, 
to which the living oracles are committed. 
To those "lively orades" you owe the as- 
surance of your fiul^ The inspired Word of 
God is the rock on which our deepest con- 
victions rest^ and thi^ rock you owe to the 
Jews. From them came the fathers, the 
Divine legislation, and both the covenants 
(Bom. ix. 4). They may be a despised, repro- 
bate, persecuted—and ages of unkindness 
may have contributed to make them an ava- 
ridous — ^race ; but this can never caned the 
debt we owe them. The Saviour Himself de- 
clares that ** salvation is of the Jews "; and 
where do we find the records of that salva- 
tion save in the books of the Old and New 
Testaments, which t^ey have given us P 

The great promise of the Messiah, like 
an ever-brightemng hope for mankind, lay 
embedded in the Jewish nation, tiU in the 
star of Bethlehem it burst forth in bright- 
ness and heuatj to bless and irradiate the 
world. Are you alarmed in your sinful 
course by the threatenings of Sinai P Are 
you dieered in your despondency by tho 



80 



IBEAEI/8 MIB8I0N, AND MISSIONS TO ISRAEL. 



Fi:b.l,18e6. 



Diyine assnranceB of grace and forgiveneBs P 
Are yon enabled, wlien feint and weary in the 
good fight of faith, to look up to tiie pro- 
mises, which are like galaxies of stars, in the 
dark heavens, fbr goidanoe and str^gth? 
Are you strengthened to labour with 
patience, to bear the cross with joyfulness, 
to meet, and through Divine grace to con- 
quer, ihe tempter? to wrestle victoriously 
with principalities and powers, and in the 
very prospect of dissolution to exdaim with 
thei^stle, ''O death, where is thy sting; O 
grave, where is thy victory f* ? Bemember 
then, that all these blessings flow to you 
fh)m the inspired Word of GJod, which you 
have received from the despised and scat- 
tered people. 

6. Then, again, how much are we led 
by example, both in avoiding evil and in 
acquiring excellence ! And God has given 
us in the Jewish nation the noblest and 
holiest examples fbr our imitation. The 
patriarchs, the prophets, and the apostles of 
the Lord, were Jews. Baise your eyes from 
the obliquities of the present generation to 
the blessings of the olden time. Think of 
the burning zeal of Peter; the glowing, 
loving, gentleness of John ; the nobility, de- 
cision, and eloquence of the apostle Paul. 
Mary will teach you where to find wisdom 
(Luke X. 39) ; Paul and Silas, how to praise 
the Lord in a prison (Acts xvi 25) ; Lydia, 
how grace opens the heart (Acts xvi. 14) ; 
and Stephen, how to win tiie martyr^s 
crown (Actsvii. 59). Our Dorcas institu- 
tions, our Bedlams and Magdalen asylums, 
are streams of Christian benevolence which 
flow from a Jewish fountain* Here is another 
reason why you should seek the welfare of 
Israel and pray for the peace of Jerusalem. 

7. But why dwell on the apostles and 
|)lh>phet8, the heroes and martyrs, of the 
Jewish race P Jesus was ▲ Jew. He was 
of the seed of Abraham, of the sceptre- 
bearing tribe Of Judah, of the royal house of 
David, the son of a Jewish virgin. Paul 
mentions this as the crowning glory of the 
nation: " Who are Israelites ; towhomx)er- 
taineth the adoption, and the glory, and the 
covenants, and the giving of the law, and the 
service of Gk>d, and the promises; whose are 



the fathers, and of whom as concerning the 
flesh Christ came, who is over all, (Sod 
blessed . for ever." (Bom. ix. 4, 5.) It was 
human nature in the Jewish form which He 
took, and it was Israelitish humanity which 
expiated sin on the cross, and rose from the 
dead according to the Scriptures, and is now 
seated on the right hand of Grod. 1^ 
bosom that bore Him, the food that sus- 
tained Him, the atmosphere which He 
4>reathed, were all Jewish. Nazareth, BetJi- 
l^em,Cralvary, Jerusalem, and Olivet, names 
so dear to the Christian heart, and so inter- 
woven with our psalmody, are Jewish sym- 
bols of Divine love, which, though springing 
from a Jewish fountain, is intended to fer- 
tilise all the Centile nations also. Jerusalem 
is the centre of the universal mission (Luke 
xxiv. 47). The Magna Charta of humanity 
is written in blood and dated from Calvary ; 
the ensign that attracts the Centiles is 
Jewish (Isa. xL 10) ; the root that bears the 
(Gentile Church is Jewish (Rom, xL 18) ; the 
types that anticipated atonement are Jewish ; 
the glorious army of the martyrs began its 
victorious march from Judsea ; and the cross 
in which we glory, though a Gentile punish- 
ment» is glorified by the Jewish Sufierer— 

** Ibe bMUk that shinet in Zton't hill 
flh»U Hghten •▼erj land ; 
f%9 KiBf that rtifiM in 8aleu*ttow«w 
SluUaUtha world < 



Jesus is the living life-giving centre, from 
which all glories flow; to which all types, and 
shadows, and sacrifices testify; and in which 
all diversities and contradictions are recon- 
ciled. He is the great Head and Unit ap- 
pointed by GkKl to lead up creatitHi, fySkai 
and un&llen, into the strength, and beauty, 
and perfidction of the Divine purpose. 

If you love Him you will love his brethren. 
If pardoning mercy has reached you through 
Him, you will seek to extend that mercy to 
his kinsmen according to the flesh. You 
will not call them names ; you will not load ' 
them with opprobrious epithets; you will 
not, like the wasp, seek poison where it may • 
be possible to find honey, but you will bear 
with them and love them for Jesus' sake, and 
in that way you may show your giutitude for 
the blessings you have received from them* 



Feb. 1, 1866. J 



THE TWELVE TBIBE8. 



31 



THE TWELVE TRIBES. 

BY THB BBV. AKDRSW A« BONAB. 



SIMBON. 

The ear of Grod is at the world's tent-door; 
He hears the cry of its sin. His ear is at 
the tentdoor of every family; He listenB to 
what is said in love or hatred, in prayer or 
praise, by parent or by child. But the 
notice He takes of what He hears is not by 
words only ; more frequently it is by deeds. 
,Leah knew this when she named her second 
son ** Simeon," which means "Hearing,'^ 
significantly intimating that the Lord by 
the providence of this birth had taken notice 
of the unhappy disagreements of Jacob's 
&mily. " Because the Lord hath beard that 
I was hated. He hath therefore given me 
this son also" (G^n. xxix.^33). The Lord 
bad heard the upbraiding, the bitter word, 
the unkind remark, too frequent in Jacob's 
dwelling, from the lips of BAchel; and to 
rebuke her, sent this gift of a son, not to 
her but to her hated sister. 

Earth is the Lord's larger family. ** Be- 
hold, all souls are mine'* (Ezek. xviiL 4). 
His providence is testifying among his own 
people that He hears the report of their 
deeds, as well as their words; and soon they 
who speak " often one to the other" (MaL iii. 
16) shall discover that " the Lord hearkened 
and heard," for his book of remembrance 
and his reward shall testify it to the full. 
Soon, too, all earth shall know it, for the 
duo reward shall overtake each man, and 
compel him to say, "Ah, the Lord heard 
what I said and did ! He has rendered to 
me according to my deeds." 

Because of the import and early associa- 
tions of the name, it became common among 
the &milies of the other tribes, so that we 
have Simon Peter, of the Sea of Galilee ; old 
Simeon, at Jerusalem ; Swion, of Cyrene ; not 
to speak of others historically famous also. 

At Simeon* 8 birth, it was what his parents 
vpcike and did that was specially marked ; 
but in after-years it was Simeon's own evil 
?eport that came up into the ears of (Jod. 
Simeon and Levijoined in unholy brother- 
hood to take vengeance, deceitfhlly, cruelly, 
and sacrilegiously, on the men o£ -Sychem. 
O Simeon, Jehovah is a Ck)d that lieareih ! 
In the days of Sodom, " the cry of it came 
op to Him," and " the cry was very great," 



like the cry of the blood of Abel from the 
ground; but thy very name, Simeon, might 
have warned thee that thy deeds also must 
come to his ear. Accordingly, his own 
father, with breaking heart, mus^ utter 
Jehovah's sentence on him and his seed (Gen. 
xlix. 6-7). 

** Simeon mud LairitM bNthren, 
{Tt$, brtihrt u im gtUU and iiit) : 
Tbeir twords wee WMpons of wiokedneti. 
O my tool, oomo aoi thou into their oooiuel ; 
With thoir wmeaablj, mime hononr, be mot thoa limited. 
For they slew men in thdr Any, 
And hooxhed oxen in their weatonneee; 
(Tkeg tportd neiiker man mer btati), 
Oofeed be their anfer, for It vme fleroe. 
And their twrj, for it vae eraeL" 

This, therefore^ (says dying Jacob) is the 
sentence which X am called upon by the Lord 
to pronounce on them, as a protest against 
all deceit and violence. I utter it with reluc- 
tance, and yet without one misgiving as to 
its justice. 

" I wiU divide them in Jaoob, 
And soatter them in Israel." 

Bom at a time when his father's house 
was in a state of disunion, Simeon, in after- 
days, by his own cruel deeds, dissociated 
himself from the sympathy of his father and 
brethren ; and now he hears that in the days 
to come, the tribe that is to descend from 
him shall ever bear the impress of this un- 
happy beginning. It shall be a scattered 
and dimded tribe. 

Now, was it so P 

We turn to the farewell blessing of Moses 
in Deut. yygi"- to seek for Simeon and any 
word of favour to him there ; but in vain. 
Li their encampments at that period his 
tribe used to pitch side by side with Reuben, 
as we find in Num. ii. 12: "And those 
which pitch by him shall be the tribe of 
Simeon," a host of 59,300 men. And yet 
Moses, whose eye had so often rested t)ii 
these tents, has no blessing for him at the 
last. Did the infamous sin of " Zimri, the son 
of Salu, a prince of a chief house among 
the Simeonites" (Num. xxv. 14), slain in the 
act of his adultery by Phinehas, witness 
against the whole tribe, and bring to remem- 
brance their first father's sin ; as a recent 
wound often revives the smart of scars left 
long agoP At all events, Moses had no 



TEB TWELVE TRIBES. 



piM SetUarad 



Feb. 1, MS.- 



blessing to bestow on tmlu^py Simeon. 
Not that he forgot him, for in the oommenoe- 
ment of Judah's blessing, it seems as if he 
had the name of Simeon in his thonghts 
when ho thns began: **HeaT, Lord, the 
voice" V^p inam. Be to Jndah in the better 
way what Then has from the first been to 
Simeon in the way of rebnke. 

Simeon's tribe was one of the foremost 
iu going to battle against the Canaanites 
after Joshua's death. He nobly went up 
with Judah to war: "Jadah said nntohis 
brother Simeon, Come up with me into my 
lot, and I likewise will go with thee into thy 
lot" (Jndg. i. 3).^ And they went together 
(yer. 17), and at Zephath, or Hormah, won 
oomplete victory. Judah fulfilled his pledge 
of helping his brother, for this Hormah was 
allotted to Simeon by Joshua (Josh. xix. 4). 
But then it turns out that this city and all 
the cities given to SiAieon (such as Beer- 
shebaand Ziklag) were ''out of the inheri- 
tance of the chfldren of Judah;" so that 
Simeon is dispersed among the tribe of 
Judah, and has no separate portion assigned 
him as his own. In this way, Jacob's 
prophetic words begin to be realized; and 
yet at the same time, in this' very way, 
the dew of the blessing pronounced on Judah 
by .'Moses &lls in part upon Simeon also. 
Indeed, at one juncture they seem to have 
outstripped Judah in zeal. For, in the days 
of David's trial, Simeon furnished 7100 
" mighty men of valour'' (1 Chron. xiL 25) to 
the Lord's cause, while Judah sent only 6800. 
But the after-histoiy of the tribe was 
destined to set forth a fl^ fhller illustration 
of Jacob's words regarding their being 
''divided and scattered." Simeon (as we 
have seen) never had any compact territory 
of his own, and probably it was because of 
this that he was ready to go forth beyond 
the borrowed possessions yielded up to him 
by Judah. We find him, at any rate, setting 
I out upon an expedition against Gredor, pos- 
I sessed by the sons of Ham. This was in the 
days of King Hezekiah (1 Chron. iv. 39—41). 
Perhaps the defeat of Sennacherib's mighty 
host may have revived the old faith and 
courage in the men of Israel, who could not 
but see that the Jel^vah who fought for 
Joshua was Jehovah still. "We find thir- 
teen chiefs of Simeon leading a band of 
select warriors to this Gredor, where they 



come upon a people living in idolatry, quiet 
and secure (as quiet and secure as their 
£Eiiher Simeon had found the men of Sydbem^ 
though in ftr other circumstances), npan 
whom they burst like a fiood that sweeps 
all before it. It was an exploit that resem- 
bled the assault of the Danites on Laish, this 
occurring in the &r south of the land, as did 
that other in the for north, but both furnish- 
ing (may we not say P) a sample of the Lord's 
ways toward a thoughtless world. " When, 
they shall say, Peace and safety, then suddea 
destruction shall come upon them, and fhsj 
shall not escape" (1 Thess. v. 8). It has been 
thus; and it shall be thus with all the earth 
when the Lord himself shall come. 

Here Simeon found pasture "fat and 
good," but ftr firom his proper lot, so that 
he is "scattered and divided." And tiien 
yet more ; it is ncorded in 1 Chron. iv. 42, 4St 
that his valiant men turned their anns 
against a remnant of AmalehUee who had 
settled among the hills of Seir. That band 
of 500 warriors was led on by four redoubt- 
able leaders, all sons of one man, Ishi, who 
had named his sons at their birth by names 
that spoke of the true ground of confidence; 
viz., Pelatiah, " Jehovah delivers ;" Neeriah, 
"Jehovah is the light;" Bephaiah, " Jehovah 
is the healer" (or, "Jehovah is the true 
GKant") ; and IJzziel, " Qod is my strength." 
Their expedition was crowned with suooesa^ 
and Mount Seir became another settlement 
for the tribe of Simeon. Simeon is blessed, 
but he is "scattered and divided," found 
in Judah, in GMor, and in the hiUs of Seir* 

People of Israel, why are you " scattered 
and peeled " at this hour P Why are you not 
a compact nation in your own land P Is it 
not because you have had fathers who 
without any provocation (in this far worse 
than Simeon and Levi at Sychem) " elew men 
in ihevr fwnf ? What men P The Man 
Christ Jesus, the Gk>d-man, and his people. 

** Why AM Jacob's toiu afflicted f 
WlkjSt Israditmaila?eP 
Haa it not bean long pradiotod 
That the Lord would Zion aaTe P 

** Why do heatheB, prond oppraaaon^ 

Bole her aona with iron hand? 

Why are Gentnea now poa a eaio ca 

Of her long .aaf^aoUd landf 

*• Go and tiaea tba aMrad atoay. 
There wa read the awAil oaoaa t 
They h«?e ilain the Lord of glory. 
They ha?a trampled on hia lawa." 



Vfh.1, 18681 J 



THE JEWESSES IN JERUSALEM. 



3a 



THE JEWESSES IN JERUSALEM, 

AKD EFFORTS ON THEIK BEHALF BY ENGUSH GHBI8TIAK8, 

BY XB8. nSV, 

Author of *<Home in tlie Holj Land.** 



Until the year 184>8 no special effort had 
been made for the Jewesses of Jerusalem by 
either English people, by other Europeans, 
by Americans, or by the Jews in other 
countries. 

The missionary operations of the London 
Society for Promoting Christianity among 
the Jews had been directed chiefly towards 
the male population of the Jewish quarter. 
The missionaries, being men, could not be 
expected to have many opportunities of 
reaching the Jewesses. 

The first grand opening for doing some 
of them material good, and for showing 
them kindness, was made by the medical 
missionaries, of whom the first was Dr. 
Crerstmann, himself a Christian Jew. 

When the hospital for distressed Jews 
was opened by the London Jews' Society, 
Jewesses resorted to it, cautiously at first, 
but by degrees more and more freely. Me- 
dical relief^ food, and clothing were the 
intelligible arguments used, and used with 
success, to convince the Jewesses that Eng- 
lish Christians have a care for their nation. 

It is scarcely necessary to repeat here what 
must now be pretty generally known, that 
the condition of the great mass of the Jews 
in Jerusalem is one of extreme destitution. 

Numbering eight or ten thousand souls, 
they are closely packed in houses, mostly 
in a state of decay, on the small space 
afforded by the eastern slope of Mount Zion. 
The drainage is bad, and the supply of ¥rater 
lamentably insufficient. There are no springs 
in the city. The inhabitants of Jerusalem 
depend almost entirely upon rain water, 
collected from the terraces of each house 
into a cistern built to receive it. .When the 
cisterns are kept in repair and cleansed 
regularly, this water is extremely pure and 
i^holesome. But the Moslem landlords of 
ihe Jewish quarter neither deanse nor 
repair the cisterns of their wretched tenants 
If ho, of course, cannot do it for themselves. 
Again, when many families are crowded into 
a house suited for only one, the cistern can- 
not hold water enough for so large a num- 
•bor. Even if in good repair, and filled in 



the rainy season* its supply, far from lasting 
tihe whole year, is gone in a few weeks. 
Thus the poor Jews, whose house-rent and 
food cost them more than other inhabitants 
of the city have to pay, are also compelled to 
buy water at a high price from Arabs who 
bring it on donkeys from springs in the 
surrounding district. 

What wonder that disease makes con- 
stant havoc among a population thus suffer- 
ing from want of food, want of water, want 
of cleanliness, and a polluted atmosphere ? 

But this is not all. The mass of the 
Jewish population have no employment, no 
resources, and no means of earning a liveli- 
hood. A very few of the artisans among 
them find work to do, but the great majority 
cannot do so; there is no one to employ 
them. Oriental Christians have an antipathy 
to Jews under any circumstances, and the 
Moslems are more willing to have work done 
for them than to pay for it when it is done. 

Some few Jews of late years have carried 
on business as small shopkeepers. Some re- 
ceive a few pounds annually from relations 
living in Europe, and contrive to live upon 
that. But all this is as nothing compared 
with the helpless poverty of the body of the 
people, who are utterly without resource 
excepting the trifling dole occasionally given 
to them, out of the funds sent to Jerusalem 
by Jews in other countries for tho relief of 
extreme distress. 

These funds are large. The Jews are a 
liberal nation, and not unmindful of their 
brethren in the Holy Land. But what are 
ten thousand pounds among ten thousand 
souls P And what permanent good can result 
from the gift of a pound once a yetur or so to 
a starving man P It is speedily gone, and he 
remains where he was before. And generally 
the charity of European Jews reaches the 
most destitute of their brethren in Jeru- 
salem in fax smaller sums than this. I have 
known many distributions to be made where 
the sums received were less than two shil- 
lings each. 

Account must also be taken of the 
wretched pauper spirit engendered by such 

2* 



M 



THE JEWESSES IN JEBU8ALEU. 






a system of charity. The very means 
adopted for the aUeviation of their distress 
only serve to steep the mifortimate people 
deeper and deeper in all the evils of hopeless 
poverty. 

Independence of feeling is emshed. It 
is for the interest of a certain olass among 
them, those who administer and share the 
Belief Pnnd, to discourage and prevent 
honest industry whereby some might be- 
come self-supporting. If the Jerusalem 
Jews were to become self-supporting, the 
Belief Fund would be unnecessary, and 
would cease. Since the year 1854 some 
of the wealthy European Jews have at- 
tempted to found industrial institutions, 
on a small scale as compared with the mag- 
nitude of the evil to be met. These institu- 
tions have met with much opposition. 
Nevertheless something has been done in 
the right direction. 

But at the period which I at first men- 
tioned, the year 1848, nothing had been 
attempted by any one for the help of the 
starving thousands in the Jewish quarter, 
save the giving of medical relief, and some- 
thing here and there in the shape of food 
or clothing. The Jewesses especially were 
considered almost inaccessible. Utterly 
tiithout education, they were and still are 
superstitious and prejudiced to a degree 
scarcely credible. Living entirely in the 
Jewish quarter they knew nothing, and feared 
to know anything, of those who lived beyond 
its boundaries. Accustomed to cruel perse- 
cution, they dreaded the name of Grentile. 
Ignorant even of their own history and reli- 
gion, they had yet learned to detest the 
name of Christian. To the Jewess in Ori- 
ental countries the word ** Christian" spoke 
only of fearful idolatries, and of torture and 
massacre such as has recently been inflicted 
on the Jews by the Christians of Damascus 
and Ehodes. 

Very few of the Jerusalem Jewesses 
are able to read. They know scarcely 
anything of Old Testament history. The 
religious teaching given them is limited to 
three points — the lighting of the Sabbath 
lamp ; the offering of a portion of dough by 
burning when making bread ; and purifica- 
tion. 

As a natural consequence they are ftdl of 
superstitious ideas and observances which 



they believe to be a part of the Jewish 
religion. 

Here are one or two instances which 
came to my knowledge of the kind of ideas 
among Jerusalem Jewesses. 

One day conversing with a Spanish 
Jewess about Moses, she told me she knew 
the history of his birth at the time when 
Pharaoh, the wicked King of Egypt, had 
sought to destroy all the male children of 
the Hebrews. She continued thus, "But, 
Seuora, Moses was not killed, for his mother 
saved his life ; she put him' into a little box 
(ark) on the river, and the king's daughter 
found him there, and took him up and 
ordered a nurse to be brought for him. And 
the woman ran to bring a nurse, and when 
she came the child ref\ised to suckle because 
she was a Christian ; for you know, Sefiora, 
all the Egyptians were Christians in those 
days. They brought many nurses, but it was 
always the same: the child Moses, being 
a prophet, would go to no Christian. At 
last they brought a Jewess, and then he was 
content, and went to her and she suckled 
him and brought him up." 

The poor thing believed, as all the 
Jewesses do, that idolater and Christian are 
synonymous terms : the ancient Egyptians 
were idolaters — that is, Christians. 

Another, a German Jewess, who could 
read a little, was talking with me about Bible 
history. I found she knew nothing of Adam 
and Eve. ** What ! do yon not know that 
Eve was the mother of aU men P" 

" Oh no I" she rephed, ** Sarah was our 
mother. Eve was only the mother of the 
Goyim (Gentiles)." 

Again, take the following conversation 
with a Spanish Jewess, whom I was advising 
to send her daughter (a widow) to Miss 
Cooper's sewing school. 

" Sefiora, she will come as soon as her 
baby is old enough to be left. But she has 
already found a way of earning a few para^. 
The women leave their babies with her to 
nurse while they go out to wash or to pick 
wheat for the mill (in other Jewish houses). 
They hang them up in her room in their 
hammocks, and she attends to them. They 
each pay her ten paras (one halfpenny) a 
week. She has ten babies now, and so, 
hendieho el Dio, He has sent ns bread. He 
does not punish ns for aU our sins." 



flM Softtiered Nation,! 
I9b. 1. 186tf. J 



THE JEWESSES IN JERUSALEM. 



35' 



** He win take away oar sins also, Esther. 
Jt is for that the Messiah came and died : to 
take away our sins." 

" Ah, Sefiora," replied she, wilfully turn- 
ing away from the olgect of my remark, 
•* repentance will take away a great many 
sins." 

" How so, Esther P We must repent of our 
sins ; but how can that take them away ?" 

" Sefiora, I will tell you. There was once 
a young man who had led a very wild life, 
disobeyed and neglected his parents, stolen 
and blasphemed, and had committed every 
sin and wickedness that can be imagined. 
At last something frightened him, and he 
began to think he must die some day, and 
then what would become of him P He got 
so alarmed that he went to the Chief Babbi 
and cast himself at his feet, and asked him 
what he could do for forgiveness. But the 
Babbi only rebuked him, and said, 'You 
wicked wretch, what do you come here for P* 
* Oh,' said the poor fellow, * I wish to leave my 
wickedness and turn to good works.* ' Gro,' 
said the Rabbi ; * sooner shall yonder filthy 
mop bear leaves and buds and bring forth 
roses, than you do good works.' Now you 
know, Seiiora, that mop was such a one as 
we use to cleanse ovens from ashes before 
putting in the bread to be baked, and it is 
niade of an old dry stick with a few rags at 
lihe end. So the young man thought, * Well, 
if there is no hope I may as well go back 
to my old ways ;* and he turned back to his 
wickedness and became worse than before. 
At last, one day he was wandering about 
•outside the city, and towards evening he got 
upon the Mount of Olives among the 
^Jewish) tombs. While he was there they 
brought a very good, beautiful damsel, only 
•daughter of a very strict pious Jew. She 
had died suddenly, and they came to bury 
her. After all the people were gone away, 
the young man still lingered about, partly 
because he had nothing to do and partly 
to see if any mischief offered ; and it became 
night. Soon a man of the Gentiles, more 
wicked than he was, came prowling about the 
graves, and seeing one freshly made, he 
turned over the tombstone, and began 
opening the grave to see if there was any- 
thing worth stealing. 'What!' said the 
young Jew to himself, ' shall a lovely, inno- 
<jent creature be disturbed in her grave by a 



wicked fellow like that, for gain P' and ho 
tried to prevent him from molesting tho 
body, and when the other resisted, he at last 
killed him to prevent the sacredness of the 
grave from being disturbed. Having buried 
the G^entile he went to sleep, and next day 
returned to his usual wicked ways without 
farther thought. That same morning the 
wife of the Chief Babbi went down early 
to give orders to her maidens, and behold, 
the oven mop in a comer against the wall 
was full of green leaves and lovely roses. She 
ran to her husband who was studying in tho 
holy books, and told him of the great miracle 
which had happened. The Chief Babbi de- 
scended and beheld that it was even so, and 
he trembled with a very great trembling, 
and hastened to send for that young man. 
The young man would not believe that tho 
Chief Babbi had sent for him, answering, 
' I am too wicked for repentance : let me 
alone, he cannot want me.' Then the dea- 
con of the synagogue swore unto him that 
the Chief Babbi had in truth sent for him ; so 
he went. The Chief Babbi said to him, * O 
my son, dost thou still wish to repent, and 
forsake thy wicked ways ?* The young man 
fell at his feet weeping, and said, ' Is there 
indeed pardon for me f Thou saidst I was 
too wicked P' 'Come hither, my son,' re- 
plied the Babbi, ' I said that as well might 
my old mop bring forth leaves and roses as 
thou bring forth good works ; and lo ! God 
hath caused the old mop to bring forth roses 
and leaves this night. Where wast thou 
during the night P' 'As usual,' said tho 
young man, 'at wickedness and folly.' 
' Nay, tell me where P— hide nothing from 
me, O my son.' The young man re- 
lated all his deeds of the day before, and 
when he came to tell him he had avenged 
the wrong done to the grave of tho pious 
man's beautiful daughter. * Stop,' cried tho 
Babbi, * there is hope for thee : this action, 
and thy humility in not praising thyself, 
prove it.' He then directed the young man 
to bathe in pure water and to fast ovc^ 
Monday and Thursday, to give shus, 
to perform vows, and to read many holy 
books; and thus this wioked yoong man be- 
came good, and at last a most holy and 
learned BabbL So, Sei&ora, you see that 
repentance will do away with many sins and 
get much ftaeooih (meril)." 



86 



QUE LOEUa SECOND ADVENT. 



L Feb. 1, 1808. 



** Esther, I am sure that repentance, with 
the help of Qod, will cause men to leave off 
many sins. But was this yonng man, in 
living the holiest life he could for the rest of 
his days, doing his dutjf or more than his 
dutyP" 

" Only his duty, Sefiora." 

" Then how could that atone for all his 
past years of wickedness? where was there 
any merit to spare for his lost years P*' 

Poor Esther admitted, unwillingly 
enough, that there could be no merit; and 
made no reply, when I gravely said, " JVb- 
thinff could atone for these, Esther, but the 
blood which the Messiah has shed for us.*' 

Esther presently, however, began to tell 
how the Lord of the world had made provi- 
sion for those who repent of their sins 
among the Jews, and went on to relate very 
accurately the history of the three angels 
coming to visit "our Lord Abraham,*' and 
how one of them promised a son to Abra- 
ham and Sarah, " even our Lord Isaac. But 
after many years God, the Lord of the 
world, required Abraham to offer up his son 
Isaac in sacrifice Ccorhan*), Abraham 
obeyed, although Qod had promised that his 
children should be in number as the stars : 
this was his only son, and he was old. still 
he obeyed and beHeved. Abraham laid the 
wood on Isaac, who bore it to the place; and 
when they came to the mountain, and 
an was ready, Abraham told Isaac that he 
was to be the sacrifice. Isaac meekly said, 
'Upon my head and feet be it.* (Esther 
here raised her hands to her head in 



Oriental feshion.) • But, O my father, bind 
me firmly.* * Why, my son P* * Because in 
death I might struggle, and my throat might 
cause a notch in the knife, and then the 
sacrifice would not be ccuher' (pure, and ac- 
cording to the Babbinical rules for slaughter* 
ing; by which an animal when killed in 
regarded as unclean if a notch is discovered 
in the knife after the act of killing). So his 
father bound him firmly and put the knife to 
his son's throat, when the Lord called out 
fix)m heaven and showed Abraham a lamb, and 
desired him to take that instead of his son." 

On my observing that this was to teach 
us that God would accept the life and sacri- 
fice of the heavenly Lamb, the Messiah, in- 
stead of our lives, who have all broken his law, 
Esther seemed much struck, and replied, 
"I never heard that before; but let me say 
what I was going to tell you. Then the Lord 
of the world said to Abraham, * For the 
sake of the obedience and merits fzacootJiJ 
of thy son Isaac,! will henceforth pardon 
the sins of eveiy one of thy children, if they 
repent and observe the day of atonement 
with fasting."* 

" Stay, Esther; how was it merit of Isaac? 
Did he do his duty or not P Supposing he 
had rebelled against God and his father 
Abraham, what then ?" 

" Oh, that would have been a great sin.** 

" Well then, in submitting did he do his 
duty, or more than his duty ?" 

"He did his duty.** 

"Then, Esther, where was the merits 

She could not answer. 



(To be continued,) 



THE PRACTICAL CHARACTER OF THE DOCTRINE OP OUR 
LORD'S SECOND ADVENT. 

BY THE BSY. A. A. ISAACS. 



One of the most humiliating considerations 
which forces itself upon the reflective mind, 
is the manner in which " counsel " has been 
ofttimes darkened by " words without know- 
ledge,*' on the part of the supporters and 
advocates of a sound and scriptural doctrine. 
Many combatants have ventured forth in the 
battle of controversy, insuf&dently equipped 
and inefficiently armed. The weakness of 



their arguments, the inadequacy of their 
proofs, and the irrelevancy of their state- 
ments, have been easily exposed; and a 
cause strong in its own strength, and capable 
of the clearest and most conclusive proofs, 
has been held up to reprobation through the 
well-intentioned but perverse inability of 
those who undertook its defence. 

In the brief remarks which I am about 



7bb.l,X880. J 



OUB LORD'S SECOND ADVENT. 



37 



to make on the practical character of the 
doctrine of our Lord's Second Adyent, I 
trost^ by avoiding those points which have 
been the sntgect of fierce controversy, to 
escape the imputation of being chargeable 
irith those fismlts for which I have said that 
flo many writers are responsible. I shall con- 
fine my observations to the influence which 
this great doctrine exercises upon the life, the 
affections, and the hopes of the Christian, 
and endeavour to show how, apart from its 
prophetical importance, it is fitted to 
strengthen the spiritual energies and to 
stimulate spiritual desires. 

It must necessarily be assumed, that the 
Second Advent of our Lord stands upon a 
firm and acknowledged basis. It must be 
taken for granted, that, in whatever way it 
may be accomplished, and with whatever 
circumstances it may be accompanied, every 
Christian has the warranty of God's Holy 
, Word for looking forward to the time when 
"He that shall come will come, and will 
not tarry" (Heb. x. 37). The ** soundness in 
the fiuth " of any one would reasonably be 
questioned, who doubted that in some form, 
and under certain circumstances which may 
in themselves be uncertain to us, our blessed 
Lord " shall so coine m like mcmner,'* as He 
was seen to " go into heaven" (Acts i. 11). 

That this doctrine must be of vast im- 
portance and value may be seen by the 
prominence given to it in the Scriptures of 
truth. It was a theme on which the Bedeemer 
Himself loved to expatiate. At those times 
in particular, when He sat encircled by his 
disciples, and when they listened eagerly to 
the gracious words which fell from his lips, 
He seemed to dwell on the blessedness 
connected with his future return. When re- 
presenting, in prophetic language, the ap- 
proaching " desolation :'* when warning his 
disciples of the evils and sorrows for which 
ihsj must be prepared when, in an igno- 
minious and agonizing death, the place that 
knew Him should know Him no more, those 
strains of sadness were followed by more 
cheering melody as He told of the " coming 
of the Son of Man." Portentous signs and 
wondrous events would precede that coming. 
** Wars and rumours of wars" (Matt xxiv.) ; 
''distress of nation8,with perplexity;" "men's 
hearts failing them for fear, and for looking 
after those things which are coming on the 



earth :" it is in such language that our Lord 
describes the condition of men and events 
immediately preceding his Second Advent; 
and then, in glowing and encouraging lan- 
guage. He adds, " When these things begin 
to come to pass, then look up, and lift up 
your heads, for your redemption draweth 
nigh " (Luke xxL) The mantle of prophetic 
teaching fell upon the apostles and leading 
disciples of the Great Master. They had 
seen Him die. Many of their number had 
sealed their faith in his doctrines, and their 
constancy to the truth, by their sufierings 
and martyrdom. Every generation had con- 
firmed the word that "we must all die." 
But death, in the abstract, seemed hardly to 
have a place in the thoughts and teaching 
of these " holy men of Grod." He who had 
" the power of death " was now under the 
dominion of the " Stronger " One, and hence- 
forth there was deliverance for those " who, 
dirough fear of death, were all their lifetime 
subject to bondage" (Heb. ii. 15). 

In the expectant child of Qod higher and 
holier thoughts had dethroned that ** fear of 
death." The end was bound up with the 
return of his Lord, and the decay of his 
mortal body was of little acooimt to him, 
who could with confidence look forward to 
" the glory which shall be revealed " (Bom. 
viiL 18). Hence the testimony given ever to 
the anxious inquirer was about those "times 
of refireshing," when the Father would " send 
Jesus Christ, which before was preached 
unto you, whom the heavens must receive 
until l^e time of the restitution of all things." 
The most powerful exhortations were 
grounded on " the coming of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and by our gathering together unto 
Him" (2 Thess. ii 1); and "the patient 
waiting for Christ" (iiL 5) was associated 
•mih. the encouraging assurance, that being 
" partakers of Christ's sufferings, when his 
glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad also 
with exceeding joy" (1 Pet. iv. 13). To those 
who had seen their dearest relatives cut off 
by the sword of persecution, or separated 
fix)m them by natural death, the happiness 
was unspeakable of being able to say, " If 
we believe that Jesus died and rose again, 
even so them also which sleep in Jesus will 
Grod bring with Him" (1 Thess. iv. 14). 

Happy would it have been for the Church 
of Christ, hod this flame always burnt with 



OTTB LOBD'S 8EC0NB ADVENT. 



rSesttered Vatioii^ 
r^ " — 



Feb. 1, 1806. 



such nuiiance and pnrity ! Happy would it 
have been had the doctrines connected with 
his promised advent formed an ever-recur- 
ring theme of evangelical teaching, and 
occupied a prominent place in the hearts of 
believers ! How much may we attribute the 
decay of vital religion to the neglect of 
these docti;ines; and, on the other hand, 
how abundant are the evidences that the 
iresh spiritual life, which has been infused 
into the Church, has been one of the products 
of a fuller recognition of the Second Advent 
of the Son of God. This will appear if I 
now refer to the practical eflfects which flow 
£:om its hearty reception, and its indwelling 
power on the heart. It calls forth — 

I. A SFI&IT OV WATCHFULNESS. 

Our Divine Miaster counselled his dis* 
ciples to watch. " Watch therefore, for ye 
know not what hour your Lord doth come" 
(Matt. xxiv. 42). The injunction was re- 
peated again and again. It was intendpd to 
stimulate the drooping hearts of the disci- 
ples. Amidst the gloom and sorrow inspired 
by his removal, there was hope of the 
approaching day. Like watchmen on the 
battlements looking for the indications of 
coming deliverance, or like the bereaved 
wife anxiously awaiting the return of the 
object of her fondest affections, so was tho 
Church of believers to watch for the coming 
of her Lord. Thus it has been, and thus it 
will be, even unto the desired consummation. 
No present duty should be neglected, no 
toil, no effort in building up the temple 
of the Lord. But we remember the promise, 
and we long for the fulfllment. With eager 
glance our eyes gaze from the watch-tower 
of Zion, while in view of the promised glory 
we ask, ''Why is his chariot so long in 
coming P Why tarry the wheels of his 
chariot P** With this is connected — 

n. A SPIRIT OP PRATBE. 

It is not for us "to know the times or 
the seasons, which the Father hath put in 
his own power" (Acts i. 7). But it is our 
privilege to pray for that which we desire. 
If the promise is, " Surely I come quickly," 
we are permitted to appropriate the prayer, 
"Even so come, Lord Jesus" (Rev. xxii. 20). 
And did not the great Teacher Himself in- 
stnict us to pray, " Thy kingdom come" P 
Did He not know that no theme was so 



fitted to draw the thoughts and affections 
from earth to heaven, and from the cares 
and burdens of this life to the glory ''when 
Christ, who is our Life, shall appear" P (CoL 
iiL 4). What a power and realty would be 
given to prayer, if the believer felt that» 
having now only the " earnest " of the ** in- 
heritance," he would enter upon its full 
enjoyment, when "the redemption of the 
purchased possession" (Eph. L 14) would be 
completed by the triumphant appearing of 
the Son of God ! But the further practical 
value of the doctrine would be seen in— 

in. A SPIRIT OP 'PREPARATION. 

In the prospect of death, the message to 
Hezekiah was, " Set thine house in order, 
for thou shalt die, and not live" (Isa. 
xxxviiL 1). But no such warning is pro- 
mised in the event of our Lord's return. 
He will come " as a thief" (Matt. xxiv. 43) ; 
" as the lightning " (Matt. xxiv. 27) ; and with 
the suddenness of the flood (Luke xvii. 26) ; 
and the day of his coming will overtake 
men "as a snare" (Luke xxi. 34). Here 
is the call to prompt and immediate prepa- 
ration. In this rests the force of our absent 
Master's admonition, "Be ye also ready" 
(Matt. xxiv. 44). Let your loins be girded, 
and your lamps be burning. Let the taber- 
nacle of the heart be swept and garnished, 
so as to be a flt dwelling-place for the coming 
Messiah. Let " holiness unto the Lord " be 
inscribed upon every thought, word, and 
deed, and so Hve in habitual preparation for 
the appearing of Him whoso servants ye are. 
This doctrine leads also to** 

IV. A SPIRIT OP BXPBOTATION. 

Many have watched for a desired blessing, 
but have watched in vain. Many have sought 
in prayer for that which was not in harmony 
with the divine will, or have prepared for a 
guest who never came. But the believer's 
hopes rest here upon the unchangeable Word 
of the unchangeable (Jod. It is a " shall 
BE " which kindles the glowing desires in his 
heart, and assures him that his confldenco 
"is not in vain in the Lord." The prophe- 
des are clear, the promises are unmistak- 
able. The language of Scripture is so foil 
and decided, that the believer is not left in 
doubt and uncertainty. He lives in an ex- 
pectant habit of mind. " Glory, and honour, 
and immortality" (Eom. ii 7) aro before 



Tte 8oat«red Nation, 
7«b. 1, 1866. 



J 



'TEE FAST OF THE TENTS MONTH:' 



Ilim ; fbr tliis lie patiently waits, bnt this he 
KX)iifid6ntlj anticipates. " Our conversation 
is in heaven, from whence also we look for 
the Saviour, the Lord Jesns Christ" (PhiL 
in. 20). "Looking for that blessed hope» 
and the glorions appearing of the great God 
and onr Saviour Jesus Christ" (Tit. ii. 13). 
' This is another practical and healthful result 
of a true and lively realization of the doc- 
trine of our Lord's Second Advent. In 
conclusion — 

V, II WBA58 THE AVFECTI0N8 FBOM THB WOBLD 
AlTD THB THINGS OF THE WORLD, AND FIXES 
THEM UPON THINGS i^OVE. 

Herein lies the most practical and bene- 
ficial effect of the heartfelt acceptance of this 
glorious doctrine. Nothing serves so effec- 
tually to remind us that we are pilgrims 
and strangers here ; nothing serves so truly 
to raise our thoughts and desires above the 
transitory things of this world, in the happy 



contemplation of those pleasures and pos- 
sessions which are at Glod*s right hand for 
evermore. Afflictions, however agonizing to 
the natural man, become light i losses and 
failures, however depressing in themselves^ 
leave no vain r^rets in their train; personal 
and relative calamities, of whatever they 
may consist, can never darken the soul, which, 
bursting through the gloom, can lay hold of 
the promised glory, and welcome the ap- 
pearing of Him who will "make all things 
new." We need no broader or more stimu- 
lating incentive to a holy life, a peaceful 
dependence upon our Heavenly Father, a 
persistent diligence in well-^bing, and a 
fireedom from those ties which bind the 
natural man to earth, than the habitual 
remembrance of the Second Advent of the 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

The influence of this doctrine upon the 
hopes and prospects of the people of Israel, 
will form the sul)jeot of another pi^)Qr. 



''THE FAST OF THE TENTH MONTH.'^* 

BY THB REV. DE. MAEGOUOUTH. 



"*' We are at a loss to reconcile the statement 
•of our great apostle, the apostle of the 
ijentiles, respecting the religious character 
of his Jewish brethren, with the apparent 
actual state of religion amongst the Anglo- 
Jews. St. Paul states, in terms full of 
energy and demonstrativeness, when writing 
to the Boman Christians of his day :-— ' Bre- 
thren, my heart's desire and prayer to God 
for Israel is, that they might be saved. For 
I bear them record that they have a zeal of 
Crod, but not according to knowledge. For 
they being ignorant of G^'s righteousness, 
have not submitted themselves unto the 
righteousness of Grod.'t Where is Anglo- 
Israel's peculiar ze^ of GodP Where are 
the outward and visible signs and tokens 
of the English Jews going about to estab- 
lish even their own righteousness P" 

We have often heard the above strictures 
from the lips of Anglo-Christians— from 
men otherwise not ill-informed. We have 



• Zeoh. Tia 19L 



tfiooi«x.l-*«. 



as often replied, '' Were the small remnant 
of the Hebrews now located in this country 
the sole representatives of the ' Scattered 
Nation,' we should still — ^knowing as we 
do thB character and condition of Anglo- 
Israel — ^not only cordially sympathize with 
' our brother Paul ' in his heart's desire and 
prayer to Qod for the salvation of his 
brethren after the flesh, but we should also 
endorse the i^stle's record as to their 
having a seal of God, and their going about 
to establish their own righteousness." Of 
course, we are compelled to admit that their 
zeal is not aocording to knowledge, and that 
our brethren do not submit themselves to the 
righteousness of God. ** For "—we believe 
with unquenchable faith that — "Christ is 
the end of the law fbr righteousness, to 
every one that bdieveth."* There is a zea., 
of Qodf even amongst the members of Angle • 
laraeL We point, in corroboration of our 
statement^ to the many handsome syna* 



40 



*• THE FAST OF THE TENTH MONTH:' 



[The Scattered ITatlaiu 
Feb. 1,1866. 



gogoes in the land, to the many well-con- 
ducted schools, supported by tiiose syna- 
gogues, in which religious instruction is a 
principal dement^ and to the numerous other 
benevolent and charitable institutions— too 
mmiy to be categorically named here — ^libe- 
rally endowed and supported.* All that, we 
sincerely behove, is prompted by a zeal of 
God, though that zeal is displayed, according 
to our conscientious convictions, not accord- 
ing to knowledge. 

To judge properly, however, of Israel's 
zeal of Gk)d, we must take a comprehensive 
view of the ''Scattered Nation," and not 
circumscribe our observations by the narrow 
limits which the circle of British Jews fixes. 
We have not only studied, with the mind of 
an uncompromising historian, the records' 
of the condition of the " Scattered Nation" 
in all lands, in ail their multifimous Hghts 
and shades, but we know the Jews well from 
careful personal observation in Europe, 
Asia, and A&ica, where the "Scattered 
Nation " is to be found in large masses ; and 
we fully adopt our brother Paul's words, 
already quoted. 

Our sketches of the fasts and feasts 
ordained and observed amongst the Jews will 
abundantly prove IsraeFs ever4iving zeal 
of God. We shall this month furnish a 
brief account of "The Fast of the Tenth 
Month," which heads this paper. It was 
observed in all the synagogues on the tenth 
day of the Jewish month, Tebeth. That 
month closed with the 16th of January, and 
the &st is, therefore, an appropriate subject 
for an article in this number. 

As of old, so now, there are many 
amongst the "Scattered Nation" who fast 
much, and make long prayers. For instance, 
there are many who observe as fast days 
«very Monday and Thursday — ^that is, they 
'"fast twice in the week;" there are 
many more who observe the last day of 
every month as a rigid fast day. That 
monthly &st is termed in the Jewish 
liturgy pop T»fi3 Di» the minor day of cUone^ 
ment. That fietst deserves an article for 
itself; it shall have its desert in some future 
number. These fasts, however, are not 
mentioned in the Old Testament Scriptures, 
and are not considered binding upon the 
members of the " Scattered Nation." The 
• 8ee UiewTiter*t - Uktorj of the Jcwi in England.*' 



abstinence, therefore, on the part of the 
fasters is a work of supererogation. There are, 
however, four fosts. of great antiquity, which, 
are pointedly alluded to in Holy Writ, and 
are binding upon eveiy Israelite. We read, 
" Thus saith the Lord of Hosts ; The fast of 
the fourth month, and the fast of the fiflh^ 
and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of 
the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah joy 
and gladness, and cheerful feasts; therefore 
love the truth and peace."* 

It is "the fast of the tenth"— that is, 
the tenth day of the tenth month, the month 
Tebeth, in the Jewish calendar — that we pur- 
pose treating of particularly at present. 
That fast is strictly and rigidly observed by 
the " Scattered Nation " in mournful com- 
memoration of the anniversary of Nebu- 
chadnezzar's siege against Jerusalem. The 
sacred chronicler thus records the disastrous 
event : — " And it came to pass in the ninth 
year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the 
tenth day of the month, that Nebuchad- 
nezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his 
host, against Jerusalem, and pitched against 
it; and they built forts against it round 
about."t That siege lasted for upwards 
of two years, and was not raised till 
the Holy City was razed to the ground, 
and the first great captivity consummated. 
The harrowing details of that siege and that 
captivity will be reviewed when we shall 
bring before our readers the ordinances of 
the fasts of the fourth and fifth months. 

We deal at present with the dark anni- 
versary of the first day of the final Ghaldaoan 
investment of the city. 

We may have some idea of the tremen- 
dous efiect of the event of that day by the 
stem, lacerating, and withering record which 
Ezeldel, already a captive at Babylon, made 
of it. Terrible beyond parallel is the bur- 
den of the twenty-fourth chapter of his pro- 
phetic writings. It begins thus : — " Again iA 
the ninth year, in the tenth month, in the 
tenth day of the month, the word of the 
Lord came unto me, saying, Son of man, 
write thee the name of the day, even of this 
same day : the king of Babylon set himself 
against Jerusalem this same day. And utter 
a parable imto the rebellious house, and say 
unto them. Thus saith the Lord God ; Set 
on a pot, set it on, and also pour water into 
* ^Seck. TiU. 10. 1 2 Kinci xxr, 1. 



Th» Scattered N«tion«l 
Feb. 1, 18M. J 



« THE FAST OF THE TENTH MONTHr 



41 



It." And then in words the most awfhl, and 
in deeds the most significant, he portrays 
the crashing disaster and catastrophe which 
was decreed against his land and his people. 
The mourners of the " Scattered Nation " 
liave carefully collected the burning words 
of the different sacred writers, uttered with 
reference to that day, and woven them into 
their plaintive elegies, which they year by 
year, to this very day, bitterly wail on that 
tmniversary. Our space does not allow us 
to reproduce here all the compositions ex- 
Xyressive of lamentation and sorrow whidi 
the Jewish services for that day oontain. 
We can only give two or three verses firom the 
HebrsBO-German and Hebrsao-Spamsh litur- 
^es as illustrations. The former, amongst 
others equally heart-rending, has an histori- 
<cal elegy wlidch begins with the following 
▼erse: — 

•11V ♦n5»K Dt»a imoi o ♦n'QH 

no itt^ d:ji ,in»WrT» iVo 

np toi^ •D^m ,"jmn rc^ti^ 

s*nn»3^ ttnm nj^ iiom ^pbrr vn 

"** Ai long tt 1117 ftithen tniftedin the nflime of die God my 

Book, 
They were greet, tliey proepered, end alio prodooed 

fruit I 
Bttt tiooe they stamUed, and walked perrenaly with 

Him, 
9key went oa diminieUlog tin tbe tenth montk.*^ 

Hiis is followed by ten verses of heart- 
rending particulars, depicting, in the most 
graphic terms, the tremendous calamities 
which overtook the chosen people. The 
poem closes with three pathetic, supplicatory 
verses, of which the following is a literal 
translation: — 

" Mereiftil One, who art my Ood, leare me not for erer. 
Long hare been the days of my mourning, and still my 

heart is lighing. 
B«tam,06od,tomytabemaeIe; forsake not thy plaee; 
Oonmmmate the days of my mooming, thoogh they be 

my wige8.t As long as my fathers, eto. 

** O Lor^ the portion of my lot, hasten to be a help onto 
me, 
80 that Thoa pnt off my saokdoth; let gladness be to 

me for a girdle. 
And illamine Thoa my gloom, to oanse to shine in thy 

light 
The evening of my longing. For Thou art my light. 
As long as my facers, eto. 

* The flrtt Terse, as is nsosl with Hebrew ballads, 
•CTree as a choms to each sabeeqnent verse. 

t The connection between the last sentenoe and the 
preoeding ones in tids Terse is not palpeble, not indeed is 
iStub meaniog. The words of Jacob (Gen. zzx. S3) 
^*Ott^ ^^ ton O, seem to hare been introdooed here to 
•conciliate rhyme rather than sense. 



^ Frsm eoRow a»d sighing, redeem, O Ood, my sool; 
GiTo thy*people rest, my King, my Holy One ; 
Change to exaberanoe the fast of the lUUi month. 
To j<7 and gladness the Cut of the foorth month, and 
te Ihit of the tenth month. 

As longasmylhtharsyetc.*' 

From the many elegies found in the litur- 
gical service of the Spanish synagogue for 
tiiat sad anniversary, we give the commence- 
ment and conclusion of one which is known 
by the name of p*V3> ro^^ £f&'a^^ JErZi/(m9t. The 
verses are in triplets, the first of which runs 
thus: — 

:finn l»« vumn pan VipV p»Vi> row 

;mrt Dvn cr«3> rw ai«n xs0 r\^^ ivis 

"'Turn, O Host High, to the Toiee of the indigent one, 

and despise nothisory* 
He is in Mitemees of heart, on the day it was said to 

the Son of Bosi, the Seer, 
'Write thee the name of the day, OTon of this same 

day.*"* 

The last line is the refiram of several 
verses in the melancholy composition, the 
burden of which consists in details of the 
ominous siege. The song of lamentation 
closes with a couple of supplicatory verses, 
of which the following is a literal transla- 
tion; — 

** Oh 1 regard their cry, blot oat their transgrsssion, on the 

tenth of the month. 
And the kingdom as of old set op, renew. 
And for a praise, as at first, O Lord, thy name in as 

hallow. 
And every designing foe, in the might of thy snger, 

crash. 
And let them be taken and destroyed as on the day of 

lightning, in the dty of Eaaeeh.t 
And, O Most High, return to the dty of Zion, that eye 

to eye we may see Thee,) 
And then we shaU say, in good foith, •Behold, this is oar 

GodI"'§ 

Surely the very few quotations — for our 
space admits not of many extracts — 
breathe the same record which the great 
apostle bore, that the '* Scattered Nation " 
of Israel now, as in the days of yore, have a 
zeal of GU)d. Would to (xod that it were 
"according to knowledge!" We of the 
** Scattered Nation" who believe that 
** Christ is the end of the law for righteous- 
ness," long to tell our brethren, who are yet 
aliens from the commonwealth of the righ- 
teousness of fSuth, that the very prayers 
they offer up, the very plaintive songs they 
murmur on the fast day under review, verify 



• Bsek. iziT. U 
t Joshoa X. 4 



llsa.lii.8. 
|Isa.xxT.9. 



42 



" TEE FAST OF THE TENTH MONTH:' 



Feb. 1, 1B66. 



the words of the voice whudi spake to the . 
beloved disciple, saying, " The tesCimony of 
Jesus is the spirit of prophecy."* For 
iBstoDce, what an amoimt of saggestive 
thought do not the last two lines of our last 
quotation stir up ! 

" Aod» O Mort Higb, nton totiiaoiljof Zkm, tUfe «fe 
to eye we may see Thee^f 
And th^ we ehall my, in good Auth, < Behold, tUi ia cor 
Godr** 

We are apt to wonder now and then — 
for even we forget now and then our former 
obstinate unbelief— -how our brethren, with 
the oracles of God in their hands, can fiail to 
identify the Divine Being invoked and apos- 
trophized in those two lines with Him who 
" hath borne our griefe» and carried our sor- 
rows t" How can they fail to identify that 
Divine ^eing with Him who ** was wounded 
for our transgressions, bruised for our ini- 
quities "P Does not the great God Himself 
say, ''And it shall come to pass in that day, 
that I will seek to destroy all the nations 
that come against Jerusalem. And I will 
pour upon the house of David, and i^pon the 
inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace 
and of suppHcations : and they shall look 
upon Me whom they have pierced, and they 
shall mourn for Him, as one moumeth for 
his only son, and shall be in bitterness for 
Him, as one that is in bitterness for his 
firstborn P" J We, who have been led by 
grace divine to receive the love of the truth 
to our soul's salvation, cannot possibly evade 
the identity. Every fast and festival of the 
"Scattered Nation," when properly exa- 
mined and analyzed, is trumpet-tongued in 
our ears with the apocalyptic announcement, 
" Behold, He comets with donds ; and every 
eye shall see Him, and they also which 
pierced Him : and all kindreds of the earth 
shall wail because of Him. Evenso, Amen."§ 

• Hot. xlx. 10. 

t Thia ia evidently the right oonatraotion of the latter 
{Hurt of laa. lii. 8, and not, aa oonatnied in the anthorlsed 
Tersion **They ahall see eye to eye, when the Lord ahall 
bring again Zton." Bee alto ** The Spirit of Prophei^ " (by 
the writer), p. 28. 

X Zech. liL 9, 10. i Ber. i.7. 



Before we close this article we deem it 
proper to mention that the ultra-conserva- 
tive Eabbinists of our own day, into whom the 
souls of the Pharisees of yore seem to have 
transmigrated, observe as fast days the 
eighth and the ninth days of the month of 
Tebeth. The former, because on that day 
was completed the translation of the Old 
Testament into Greek, which event, accord- 
ing to Talmmdic legendary, was frowned upon 
from heaven by three days* darkness; the 
latter, by reason of the death of Ezra. 
Both evtots are alluded to in some of the 
elegies in the HebrsBO- German, and Hebrseo* 
Spanish services for the fast under treat- 
ment. We give a couple of quotations from 
an elegy of the former. The sorrowful song 
begins — 

■»33n nr amna rroo jjaiia 

« I will make mention of the oaiamity which belel m»^ 
Four diaatters smote me down thia month." 

The sixth line, which speaks of the occur- 
rence of the eighth day, runs as follows : — 

« And the king of Chrecoe foroed me to write the Uw la 
GfMk." 

The seventh, eighth, and ninth Hnes 
describe the calamities which befel the nation 
on the ninth day. The last line of the three 
named is : — 

:*«iDn MTtti? «vi, *iDt» now jniiPi "D tfwo r)T«D 

''Ob it be waa snatebed awaiy, he the girer of goodly 
worda, evem he, Sara the aoribe.^ 

The same conservative Eabbinists who 
are so rigid with regard to every opportunity 
of fasting, are equally attentive to every 
opp<H*tunity of feasting. Some of them 
consider in the latter light the twenty-eighth 
day of the month under consideration, it 
being the anniversary of the final expulsion 
of the Sadducees from the Council of the 
Jewish Sanhedrim, which the diplomatic 
Babbi, Shimeon Ben-Shatach, brought 

, about. 

I January 1 1866. 



Fib. 1, 18M. J 



THE JEWS OF SPAIN AND POBTUOAL. 



43 



THE JEWS OP SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.— H. 



BT JAKES 
(UtoELBJC. 

CHAPTER m. 

Cheistianitt was early received in Spain, 
prior, as it is believed nniversallj there, to 
St. Panl's visit (see Bom. xv. 24—28) ; and 
the churches had been kept in discipline, 
not only by clerical administration, bnt also 
by provincial Synods, as one at Eliberis 
(Elvira), AJ). 57; another at Toledo, a.d. 230, 
and others. 

Bnt the first National Council was that 
of Elvira, aj). 324, in which were convened 
nineteen bishops and twenty-six (or, as some 
say, thirty-six) presbyters, " with the deacons 
and people around" (A^^uirre). There was 
a peculiarity in this council in that the 
nation was still far from being thoroughly 
Christianized. It was held in the very same 
year as the great Greneral Council of Nice, pre- 
sided over by Constantine, the first Christian 
Boman emperor, after he had, by circular 
letters, invited all his subjects everywhere to 
«mbraoe the gospel It was not till sixty 
years later that idolatry was abolished in 
Bomeby the Senate. Accordingly, we find the 
canons of Elvira forbidding the sacrifices to 
idols, tiie burning of tapers in burial places, 
the placing of pictures in churches, and other 
.9mpenUtMU8 pmcUces. From the sixtieth 
canon we perceive that Christianity was still 
&r firom general in the countiy :•»" If any 
<me shall destroy an idol, and on that account 
•be slain, since this is not commanded in the 
.gospelf nor known to have been ever done 
^ the apostles, he is not to be placed in the 
c^ftalogne of the martyrs." 

Christian canons, enacted under sudi 
peculiar circumstances, cannot but be very 
interesting to a student of antiquity; and 
four of these laws are particularly so to us, 
iBB they expressly bear upon the Jews. They 
•are the following .• — 

" XVL The daughters of Christians shall 
not be given in marriage to heretics, unless 
these shall submit themselves to the Catholic 
*Ohurch : the same is also decreed of Jews 
4yid Schismatics, since there can be no com- 
mnnion of one that believeth with an infidel 
♦(2 Cor. vi) And if parents transgress this 
rule, they shall be excommunicated for five 
jrears.** 



FIVK^ ESQ. 
St JarnMlMi.) 

"XLIX. Landholders are to be admo- 
nished not to suflfer the fruits which they 
receive from God with the giving of thanks 
to be blessed by tJie Jews, lest our bene- 
diction be rendered invalid and unprofitable. 
If any one shall venture to do so after this 
interdiction, let him be altogether ejected 
from the Church." 

** L. If any person, whether derical or 
one of the faithful, shall take food with the 
Jews, he is to abstain from our communion, 
that he may learn to amend.'* 

"LXXVin. If any one of the fwthful, 
having a wife, shall commit adultery with 
a Jewess or a Pagan, he is to be cast out 
frx>m our conmmnion." 

Of these enactments, the XLIXth admits 
us to a glimpse of a remarkable custom. 
It does not appear that farmers solicited 
benedictions from the idolaters, who had 
attractive festivals at the fiowery and fruitful 
seasons, but that they called for rabbis of 
the Jews to bless ** the kindly fruits of the 
earth;'' and that this was sometimes done 
in addition to the prayers and thanksgivings 
of the Church's ministers. This was pro- 
bably a remnant of ancient practices, just as 
we find Popish customs lingering in Pro- 
testant countries, long after the meaning of 
them is given up. If so, we must ascribe to 
the Jews in Spain a standing of long priority 
to A.D. 824, and a position of respect among 
the rural population. 

The Sephardim Synagogue liturgy still 
retains a form of supplication for blessing 
on the increase of the earth, at the feast of 
New Year, which is in autumn. 

The fiftieth canon serves to show that the 
Jews were disposed to be sociable with the 
Christians, and the common people to reci- 
procate their friendliness. The Church, 
however, in opposition to the New Testa- 
ment, set themselves against it. St. Peter, 
in Acts X., had been taught that he might 
associate with persons not Christians, and 
that he was to "call no man common or 
unclean ;" and St. Paul gave directions, " If 
any of them that believe not bid you to a 
feast," etc, and again, " Whether, therefore, 
ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all 



id. 



INTELLIGENCE. 



TThe Seattered K«ikiB» 
L Feb. 1, 1866. 



to the glory of God. Give none offence, 
neither to the Jews, nor to the (Jentiles, nor 
to the Church of God " (1 Cor. x. 27, 81, 82). 
He did, indeed, prescribe a prohibition about 
sharing meals, but it was with "any man 
that is caUed a brother" who may be leading 
im immoral life (1 Cor. v. 11). It seems, 
however, to be inherent in the Spanish 
<)haracter, aud at all periods of time, to be 
pre-eminently intolerant in religious affairs. 
Spain had now commenced her dark and long 
career of persecution in the name of Christ. 
But the Jews were at the same era com- 



pleting their huge monument of religioua 
intolerance in the Talmud, which contains 
injunctions far more merciless than those 
we have been considering, and which onljr 
needs the secular arm to carry them out, in 
order to render modem Judaism entirely 
equal to the Spanish Inquisition; but not 
having this secular arm, the better feelings 
of humanity have always influenced the 
Jewish people, and there are spangles of 
gold to be found even among the wood, hay, 
and stubble of the Mishna and Gremara 
forming the Talmud. 



INTELLIGENCB. 



JEEUSALEM. 



FSOH THE ANNUAL LBITXK OV THV BISHOP OV 
JESU8ALEH. 

" When thy judgments are in the earth, the 
inhabitants of the world will learn righteous- 
ness" (l8a.xzvi.9). It 18 with a heartfelt desire 
that this truth of God's Holy Word may be 
realized in this land that, surronnded by the 
dead and the dying, and the consequent awftil 
miseiy of starving wklows and orphans, I address 
yon with the view of again bringing Jerusalem to 
your sympathizing remembrance, and of moving 
you to pray for her in her present distress. Se- 
veral of the severe judgments of God have fallen 
upon this land during the oourse of this year. 
J^irst, the want of snfficient rain last winter, and 
the oonseqnent scarcity of water in Jerosalem 
for the last three months. Then came the locusts, 
whioh, during the months of Kay, June, and July, 
covered the whole land from Gkiza to the Lebanon 
and Beyrout. They happily found the wheat and 
the barley too far advanced and hard for their 
teeth; but they devoured all the herbs, tiie 
summer fruits and vegetables, together with the 
leaves and the tender twigs of the trees, except 
in a few small districts. Yet in this, his judg- 
ment, God has remembered mercy ; for, although 
the locusts had eaten more than once the first 
leaves of the dhmra (Turkish maize), which 
chiefly constitutes the food of the country-people, 
this cereal grew again after the locusts had sud- 
denly disappeared in July, and has given an 
average harvest. By this, together with the 
vegetables that were reared afterwards, a famine 
has been prevented ; but all articles of food are 
very dear. As no vegetables have been allowed 
to be brought into the city for four months, and 
no business whatever been done, the poor have 
no means of earning anything; so that, if it 
was not for the help whi(^ has kindly beeoi sent 
us from abroad, thousands of poor people would 
have died of hunger and thirst. But, thanks be 
to God, through the kindness of many of you, I 
have been enabled to furnish water and rice to 
about 2000 poor Jews regularly for the last three 
monthfl, besides helping hundreds of others, Jews, 
Christians of many denoaninations, and Moalems. 



But all this is light in comparison with the ch»> 
lera and its dreadftd effects. About the tinte 
when the locusts disappeared in July, the oholeEa 
appeared first at Jaffa, where it has made terrible 
ravages ; as also at Gaza, Kablous, and a great 
numbw of villages, in some of whioh it has 
carried off, so pec^e say, a third of the po^pala^ 
tion. During the two months of August and 
September, we had almost daily from one to four 
cases of death by cholera, but less of other ooaw 
plaints than usual at that season. Towards the 
end of September, which was very, cool, we had 
fewer pases of death, so that we thought Jeru- 
salem would be spared ; but, when the autumnal 
heat set in, at the beginning of October, the 
cholera showed a nM>re virulent character; so 
that, from the 1st to the 2lBt of that month, the 
average number of deaths from diolera was 
about fifteen per day, and several thousands, 
chiefly Jews, emigrated. On the 22nd of October, 
the number of deaths was 42, and on the 
23rd, 109, when the officials were forbiddem 
thenceforth to make known the number of deaths 
to the public ; but, after all possible inquiries, I 
conclude that, since the 24th of October, Ihe 
number of deaths on an average has been ttota 
60 to 60 per day out of a population now about 
14,000, unto this day, the 6th of November. 

I have mentioned the ^eets of the cholera, 
but they cannot be descxibed ; they are heart- 
rending, especially with the Jews, with whom 
every burial costs at least £8, to pay which many 
families are obliged to part with everything they 
possess. When it is the father of a family who 
has died, his widow, who is obliged, according to 
Jewish rites, to throw away all the water w£ieh 
may be in the house, remains paralyzed with 
grief, with sometimes six or eight orphans, so 
that I am convinced that many die of privation 
for want of energy and strength to seek for help. 
Others do seek for help ; but where is sufficient 
help to be found, now that almost all who have 
anvthing have fled P We owe much to the Eng- 
lish, Prussian, Bussian, and French consuls, for 
their efibrts towards relieving the wants of the 
poor. According to tho means they have in hand, 
they have distributed rice and meat to the needy ; 
but to the Jews, who cannot bo bcnciito4 in this 



Feb. 1. 1866. J 



JNTELUQBNOB. 



45. 



way on aoooant of their peculiarities, they have 
giren floor and some money. The Jews reoeive 
considerable snms from abroad, bat, as they 
dhride the money at 00 much per person, and 
each of the nmnerons rabbis comits for forty, fifty, 
sixty, or even some for one hundred persons, the 
portion of the poor is always yery small. I have 
ilp}X>inted sereral trostworthy individnals to in- 
quire into the cases, and to a^ord the necessary 
help in the shape of water, com, rice, tea, coffee, 
etc., with the money which has been kindly sent 
tome. 

# • • • • 

First of all let me invite you to bless the 
Lord with us, and to thank Him for his continual 
goodness towards us, for his patience and long- 
suffering with us, and for all tiie means of grace 
which He allows us quietly to enjoy — i.*., four 
regpnlar services on eveiy Lord's-day in as many 
languages, and during the week two prayer- 
meetings, generally well attended, and one 
Bible-meeting, besides the perhaps still more 
important dafly family and closet devotions; 
and thank Him also for the amount of success 
we have had in bringing again a few lost sheep 
of the house of Israel to the fold of Christ, 
together with some members of the erring and 
dead churdies around us. Eight adult Israelites 
kave been baptized at Christ Church during this 
year, affcer due preparation and examination, 
and, blessed be God ! are all doing and promising 
well. But above all I beseech you to give thanks 
unto the Lord with us for that He has hitherto 
miirvellonsly protected us against the nrarderous 
arrows of the cholera, for although several 
members of our Church have been attacked, 
hitherto only one, a proselyte, has died of it. 

As in my last circular I entered fully into the 
details of the different works of evangelization 
and education carried on by us in this and the 
neighbouring countries, which have not nmte- 
rially changed sinoe^ and to which I would ref^ 
the readers of this, I shall on the present oc- 
casion simply g^e an outline of these works, and 
bring their nature, their localities, and some of 
the labourers, to your prayerfhl remembrance. 

The first of these works in order of time and 
importance is "The Mission of the London 
Society among the Jews," which has showed no 
new characteristics, except that during the last 
fyw months we have been able to assist the Jews 
on a larger scale in their deep distress, when 
tiiey have shown themselves much more thaxikfnl 
tiian usual, and, therefbre, I trust, more accessible 
to the truths of the gospel. But if so, there 
arises another difficulty. As they are now 
destitute of all things, suppose a greater number 
should give heed to the gospel, and be converted, 
how are they to be provided fbr in this land, in 
which, though their own, they are strangers ? I 
put this question to the Lord and to the members 
4>f his Church. This mission has for a greater 
portion of the year been deprived of the valuable 
services of the head of the mission, the Bev. Dr. 
Barclay, and of the head physician of the hospital 
of the society. Dr. Chaplin, both of whom were 
oompelled by failing health to resort to their 
native air; yet the hospital has been efficient 
and useful under the care of Mr. Hiewitz, who 
during the prevalence of cholera was unre- 
mitting in his duties both in the hospital aad 



wherever his aid was sought. The other insti- 
tutions of the aooiety— two schools for the 
children of the proselytes, boys and girls, the 
institutioii to give and teach work to the 
Jewesses, the House of Industry for proselytes, 
and the Inquirers' Home — ^have been going on 
quietly as usual, except that the girls' school 
under Mrs. Bailey has increased fhmi sixteen to 
about forty, and has been carried on with great 
suooess under its present effective staff of 
teachers. The Bev. Mr. Frankel, who arrived in 
January, has been giving instruction to the can- 
didates for baptism, and as occasions were found, 
preaching the gospel to the Jews, together with 
three Sconpture-readers. The Bev. Mr. Bailey 
teaches the bo^ of the proselytes, and preaches 
often in English. Short visits were paid to the 
Jews at Beyrout by Mr. Bailey, and at Tiberias 
and Safet "bj Messrs. Frankel and Hiewitz, where 
the gospel was preached to many Jews, and 
many copies of the Scriptures distributed. 

WATSK SUPPLY. 

We find the following in the " Jewish Chro- 
mole" as copied from the " Israelit :"— 

It is known that pure drinking water is one 
of the principal wants of our city. That de- 
rived in large towns from wells is often impreg- 
nated with ixgurious ingredients from neighbour- 
ing sewers, and therefore a principal cause 
predisposing for cholera, which, unfortunately, 
now rages here. In order to remedy this eVil 
the Paciia in power is seeking for springs of 
water in the vicinity of the city. "Wlien, five 
years ago, the French built a convent near the 
site of the temple, they found a spring, the 
water of which was conducted into a runnel. It 
was probably the spring of GKhon, the water of 
which is said to lose itself. However, the water 
was not made available. The Pasha now ordered 
further excavations to be undertaken near the 
lAxm gate, where likewise traces of a spring 
were found, the origin of which is as yet un- 
known ; this water, however, is not g^ood. The> 
excavations of the English outside the city havot 
as yet, as fiar as drinking water is concerned, 
remained without result. 

The Pasha, therefore, resolved to proceed, 
energetically. Now there lies in a plain on the- 
rocMl to Hebron the village of Berak. Out of the 
rocks in the neighbourhood very good drinking 
wi^ has oopicmsly flowed at all times. The- 
spring is already mentioned by Yosippon, and is 
generally known by the name of the Waters of 
Kephtarch. The Pasha now took active steps in 
order to conduct into the city the water nob 
required there, and he requested the consuls and 
all the inhabitants of the city to contribute their 
share. A grant was also made out of the funds 
of the city. The inhabitants of the villages 
along the conduit were obliged to procure the 
necessary lime and cement. On Ellul 17 (cor-^ 
responding to September), the Pasha, many of 
his officers, and the principal inhabitants of the 
city, repaired to the projected reservoir in order 
to commence this impcnrtant work. The wardens 
of the several Jewish communities were invited 
to attend, but were obliged to decline the in* 
vitation because it was Sabbath. Military guards 
for the protection of the works are placed along 
the whole line. 



46 



mTBLLIQENCB. 



L Feb. 1, 1866. 



The -wvAjer gashing^ finom these rooks is col- 
leoted in cistema in the valley, in order to 
Tondnct it thence in pipes to Jerusalem. There 
is a popular tradition that King Solomon caused 
the resenroirs in the neighbom-hood to be dng ; 
this is, however, improbable. The water was 
then condnoted into the neighbouring meadows 
for the sako of irrigation. In times of remote 
antiquity the water was, by means of a oonduit^ 
brought to Jerusalem along a road of three 
hours' journey. In the neighbonriiood of the 
temple the water was conducted into troughs ; 
there were also several pipes, which amply sup- 
plied this necessary element to the inhabitants 
of the city. The conduit was gradually destroyed 
by the villagers, the runnels broken, and the 
pipes stopped up. The chief offenders in this 
respect were the inhabitants of the village of 
Solwan, who are most experienced robbers. As 
it was principally these people who gained mudi 
money by carrying water into the city and selling 
it at high prices, they had a direct interest in 
impeding the work. The Pasha, therefore, made 
known to the sheikhs of the village along which 
the conduit passes, that whoever damaged the 
work in the least would be sure to be put to 
death. All along the road there are guard- 
houses occupied "bj soldiers, who arrest every 
one approaching the works, and, if needs be, 
even fira at him. When some ezemplaay punish- 
ments shall have been inflicted, as was done for 
the protection of the telegraph, the evil will be 
remedied. Springs of water from other moun- 
tains are likewise carried into this conduit. It 
is conducted into four principal streets of the 
city, so that everj one can now be provided with 
this necessary of life. 

THE EXPLOSATIONS IN FALESTUfE. 

Mr. Grove, Hon. Secretary of the Palestine 
Bzploration Fund, has supplemented the recently 
published statement with further inftnTnation 
cm the route and objects of the first expedition 
under the charge of Captain C. W. Wilson, B.E. 
Its object is in the main tentative, to ascertain 
what special lines of exploration may be followed 
out in a more detailed and leisurely maimer by 
ftitnre parties. At the same time there are 
many things which this party will be able to 
effect with certainty. After examining various 
specified points «fi rowU, the first serious halt of 
the party will be at the upper end of the Lake 
of Galilee, where an endeavour will be made, by 
careM examination of the ruins at Tell Ham, 
and by exploration and excavation at Khan- 
Hinveh and at Ain-el-Mad4wara (the round foun- 
tain) to elucidate the situation of Capernaum, 
Bethsaida, and the other towns of Gcoinesaret. 
Explorations will be made on the eastern side of 
the lake, with the view of reconciling the curious 
discrepancies pointed out by the Dean of West- 
minster (" Sinai and Palestine," chap, x.), and 
thus throwing light on the spot where the 
healing of the demoniacs and the destruction of 
the swine took place. Nabliis (the ancient 
Shechem) will be the second halting place. 
Here the ruins on Mount Gerizim, the reported 
existence of Luz, or Luzah, on the Mount Ebal, 
the Samaritan Pentateuch, etc., will give ample 
opportu^ty for exploration and record. [Here, 
as above, various other details are indicated.] 



Proceeding southward firam Nabliks, several 
places of promise will be explored. At Jeru- 
salem itself what can be done will depend muck 
on circumstances, and must be left mainly to the 
judgment of Captain Wilson, even if it can be 
touched at all on the present occasion. It is 
estimated that tne route, if properly carried out, 
will occupy the party till April, when it will 
become too hot to work with safety, and when it 
is intended that they shall return. Mr. Grove 
concludes his letter by urging the need of in- 
creased fhnds. 

FRAKOE. 

TBS JEWS IN FBANCB. 

{By our JRarw Oorrespondewt,) 

There is scarcely a place in the world where- 
the scattered sons of Abraham have not im-^ 
printed their footsteps; where they have not 
suffered and groaned under dire oppression, and 
where they Imvo not fully drunk the cup of hit-' 
temess. Their sad experience and struggles 
have been the same in eYGry country, and under 
every clime — France not excepted. But, happily, 
these are now mostly things of the past;^ 
and the great revolution of 1769 inaugurated 
for them, as well as for the world at large, a new 
epoch — fertile in vast and manifold improve* 
ments, and in social and intellectual progress. 

Whether that epoch may also, with regard 
to our Jewish brethren in France, be considered 
as the date of a mighty impetus in a religious 
point of view, as the starting point of a salutaiy 
reHgious transformation, is a question we would 
leave to be gradually determined by the facts we 
may have occasion to allude to. 

It would appear from history that there were 
already Jews in this country previous to the 
Christian era. It is supposed that as early as in 
the time of King Solomon, mercantile Jewisk 
ships used to visit Gallic ports in the Mediter* 
ranean. Only a few years ago a tomb was dia* 
covered at Marseilles having a Hebrew inscrm- 
tion, partly eSaced, but of which the words 
miVmi^ a servant of Solomon (is., a sulgeot 
of Solomon) could distinctly be read. 

The supposition, moreover, of a very early^ 
settlement of the Jews in ancient Gaul obtains,, 
we think, some degree of probability, when we 
consider that before as wiil as after the Bal^- 
lonian captivi^, numerous Jewish communities 
existed in various parts of the world. We find 
them in Media, amongst the P&rthians, and in 
other regions of Asia. Many of them existed in 
Nineveh. Alexander the Great established a 
Jewish colony in Alexandria. The Grecian 
Jews multiplied so rapidly that they built a 
temple in Heliopolis after the model c^ the one 
at Jerusalem. 

However, ancient Idstoayis generally silent 
with regard to the Jlrtt HaU of the Jews in 
Gaul, probably because hostile restrictions, the 
offspring of a later age, were not yet in fbroa 
against them. But, at a later period, when 
Christianity, our religion of love and concord^ 
began to spread and to absorb the mass of the 
people, histoiy begins to abound with records 
of cruel and vexatious enactments against the 
Jews, whose sufferings increase in proportion 
with tiie spread of the gospeL 



Teb. 1, 1866. J 



INTELLIGENCE. 



Thej were Beveril times banished and ro- 
. •jaDed— both acts equally prompted by avarice. 
Like the indnstrions bees, they were allowed to 
9cctmmlate treasures, and afterwards violently 
deprived of them. Under the fendal system, 
Uiair persons and their possessions were the pro- 
perty of the lord of the land. They conld not 
change their places of a>v^ie— if they did so, they 
were reclaimed by their respective lords. At a 
later period they became the ezdosive property 
of the kings of France, who took possession of 
them as a means of enriching themselves. The 
legal aathority sometimes a&rded them shelter 
and protection against clerical persecntion. At 
some moments we see them even enjoy royal 
favour, especially under Loids-le-Debonnaire, 
whose physician, S^d^as, was a Jew. But these 
are rare exceptions, whidi form here smd there 
a small oasis in their history. 

We, who live in an age when the benign in- 
fluenco of the gospel — disembarrassed, in certain 
quarters, of the accumulations of ignorance and 
silperstition — ^begins to manifest its vivifying 
power in truth and love, cannot help pausing for 
a moment in pain, whilst we reflect on those 
long ages of bitter persecution which have 
fostered in the Jews a keen antagonism against 
Christianity, necessarily judged by them not in 
the ahstrcui but in the concrete — i.e., as personi- 
fied in its adherents. 

Whether the Christians of our day are re- 
sponsible for the acts of their ancestors is not for 
US to decide ; but at the same time they cannot 
look at the long martyrdom of the Jews, even in 
France only, imd pretend to ignore the cause of, 
or to appear surprised at, their persevering rejec- 
tion of Christian claims. Indeed, both friends 
and enemies concur ia the fact that ^pereeowtUm 
dUmet and not doctrine^ had erected between 
Judaism and Christianity a barrier, against 
which brute force has proved of no avail. Even 
Toltaire, the declared enemy of the Jews, in one 
of his works, called the " Dictionnaire Philoso- 
phique," remarked that " Judaism was, of aU the 
religions of the world, the one exhibiting the 
fewest abjurations, principally because of the 
persecutions it had sustained." 

However, the time of reparation finally began 
to dawn. Their emancipation in 1791 draws a 
Teil over the past, and ushers them into a new 
existence. They b^^ to shake off the dust of 
ages, and enter into life with their innate vigour 
and activity. We see them lay hold tenaciously 
TXfOD. the various branches of industry, engage 
in various intellectual pursuits, and, in a uiort 
time, climb up to the vezy top of the social ladder 
to power and influence. But, unhi^pily, their 
energies were so much thrown into uie secular 
interests of Hfb, that they entirely neglected 
their spiritual and religious interests. Here we 
are touching on that important point which 
concerns ns most, and which we will consider 
by and by. 

Since the emancipation, the Jews have not 
considerably increased in Fx^noe-^their numbers 
not exceeding 100,000 ; of whom about 20,000 
live in Fturis. It has often been remarked that 
in countries where they are stiU persecuted, they 
seem to increase more rapidly, and to exist in 
greater number than in those in which they are 
agoying dyil and religions rights. Yarioos 



reasons are assigned for this; some constitu- 
tional and physical, and others signally pro- 
vidential. The Christian abides by the last, 
and with the Bible in his hand, acknowledges 
the constant mysterious action of the love of 
God even in judgment. 

The religious organization of the French 
Jews is, in general, the same as it was regulated 
under Napoleon L, whom they consider as their 
seocmd Cyrus. As with the rest of the French 
people, tiie Jewish worship and religious ad^ 
ministration fall under the jurisdiction of the 
"Ministre de Cultes;" their rabbis, and other 
religious functionaries being appointed and 
sahuied by the State, which builds, at public 
expense, synagogues as well as churches. When 
the Qovemment subsidies prove insufficient, 
private Jewish liberality abundantly supplies, 
what is lacking. And in this respect, the Jews 
are far better off than their fellow-citiaens, the 
Protestants, because they are exceedingly weidthy 
and generous. As long as questions afibct only 
matters of gold and mlvm', they are speedily 
settled. Their organization in IWis as a com- 
munity is, therefore, compact and complete — 
nothing wanting except religious life. They 
have Uieir own "H6pital," their '*Mais(» de 
Betraite" for old people, and a great number of 
useM and charitable institutions ; for instance, 
there is a society of Jewish ladies for the 
apprenticiiig and dowry of poor Jewish girls, 
and another society for the apprenticing of poor 
Jewish boys. They have " Asiles," " Orphe- 
linats," gratuitous schools and seminaries; a 
" Soci^t^ de Bienfaisance," and more than twenty 
associations called "Soci^t^ de Secours Mutuals.'^ 
Besides the great sums which they annuall 
distribute amongst their poor, they do a gre 
deal in private benevolence. 

KANCT. 

The conviction I have gained during my short 
stay here is, that the religion of the Jews of Nancy 
is a dead formaUsm, kept up chiefly from a spirit 
of rationalism, without regard to those great 
spiritual ends which must be pre-eminently em> 
bodied in the teachings of religion. Progress,, 
philanthropy, and gen^nl enlightenment— these 
are the dogmas of their religious views, and 
these they hold up in their public discourses as 
the standards of human perfection. Amidst all 
this it is remarkable to find that they have not 
given up their belief in revelation, although 
their notion about this subject is very superficial 
and imperfect. So they believe, as all the Jews 
do, that the Lord has chosen their race and im- 
parted to them his Word ; but as to the whole 
design of that election, and the great issue that 
was to result fiom it, they are ignorant. Here 
rationalism steps in, and teaches them what it 
has already taught the Jews in Germany, that 
the consequence of their national election consists 
in the fkct of their having now a mission all 
over the world, to spread the knowledge and 
unity of the Lord among all nations. These are 
the inconsistencies of the modem neologian 
direction. If they were to open their eyes, they 
would see that Jews were indeed the hersJds or 
divine truth in all parts of the world ; but not 
those Jews who are partisans of the synagogue, 
but those who were the immediate followers of 



48 



INTELLIQENCE, 



L Feb. 1, laee. 



Fim who came to be ''a light to lighten the 
(Entiles, and to be the gloiy of his people 
Israel." 



Mr. LoTTTTZ (of the British Society) remarki : 
— ** On looking at my note-book, I find that I 
have distribnted in the oonrse of the year abore 
two thousand tracts, in Hebrew, French, and 
Arabic, sixty New Testaments, chiefly Hebrew, 
and a nnmber of other good books, snch as 
the 'Old Paths,' « Pilgrim's Progress,' which, I 
trust, when attended by Grod's blessing, cannot 
fail to be prodnctiye of nrach good to all those 
who will make good nse of them. It is trae I 
have had sometimes to encounter a deal of error, 
and ignorance, and opposition, from the Jews ; 
but I most say, to their hononr, that they always 
treat me with respect, and are willing to listen 
to me when I speak to them of Jesns, or explain 
to them a prophecy from the Old Testament, 
and refer them to the fhlfilments of the New ; 
and if they have not as yet renounced Judaism 
and embraced Christianity, it is because of their 
timid disposition, for fear of exposing themselves 
to perseoutien and afflictions amongst the Jews, 
as well as to contempt and hatred amongst the 
80-oalled Christians. 



▲ MISSIOITABT's SXPBBTENCB in LDNDOir. 

While it is true that there are thousands of 
Jews who ignorantly and maliciously blaspheme 
Him whose name is Love, it is equally true that 
there are many — and I believe more than we are 
aware of— who secretly read his Word, and 
silently believe in his name. " I believe," said, 
the oUier day, an old man to me, " that, were I 
to die this night, I should go to heaven through 
Jesus Christ, in whom I believe, although I am 
not baptized." I have lateW* conversed with 
several of my brethren, who, I was glad to find, 
had read, and who possessed a good knowledge 
of, the gospel ; and it was indeed a blessing to 
see that the Word of God had not returned void, 
but accomplished that whereunto it was sent. 
About a fortnight ago, a Polish Jew called on 
me, and remained with me for an hour, asking a 
solution of what he deemed knotty points in 3ie 
Christian religion, and at the close he said, " It 
is now more than nine months since I have read 
the New Testament, and I am glad to have heard 
of you." Another most respectable young man 
showed me, the other day, a New Testament with 
many underlined passages, which he said were 
still dark to him, and observed, " I thank Qcodi 
for having met you ; you have explained to me 
what I could not understand." 

About two Saturdays ago, I called on a poor 
Jewish family, where I was received kindly, and 
was permitted to speak freely to them of the 

love of Christ. " Wait a little," said Mr. A , 

** and I will show you something." So saying, 
he went upstairs, and brought down a New Tes- 
tament, observing, " This is the book we read ;" 
and, giving it to his little boy, said, " Bead to 
the gentlemsoi what you read to us last night." 
The child took the Testament, turned to Matthew, 
and was about to commence the fifth chapter, 
when a knock was heard at the door. There 
was no time lost 5 Mrs. A—— snatched the New 



Testament from the child, and ran upstairs with 
it again. I believe there are many families like 
the above. — Jewish Herald, 

JEWS' HOME. 

Several Christian friends have oomplied vn&. 
my request, and lent me a helping hand. Sinoe 
the Lord led me to attempt establishing this Hoxs 
for some young men who have acknowledged 
Jesus as their Messiah, I have been more than 
ever convinced of the importance, yea, of the 
necessity, of such an effort. I do not use the 
grand wOTd " Institution," for I have at present 
but two rooms, and I wish only to enlarge when 
the necessity is laid on me by Him who sends 
the men, and who will give the means for their 
maintenance. 

Both inmates spoken of in the flrri number 
of this periodical are now baptized; and I 
hope in a future number to give some details 
with regard to Qod'a dealings with tiiem, in 
order that the God of Israel may be glorified in ' 
this manifestation of his love. A i&rd young 
man, baptized at Algiers, has providenHaUy been ! 
brought to the Hoxi. I use the word pro* ! 
videniial advisedly. And having been thus 
brought to me, I have not the heart to cast him 
forth— a stranger, and almost ignorant of the 
English language — upon the streets of London. 
I believe him to be a thoroughly honest and 
earnest man; he possesses, in av^r^high degree, 
a knowledge of Hebrew and of Arabic— the latter 
being his native tongue, 

I now appeal to all the readers of our 
periodical, and the friends of the ** Scattered 
Nation," to assist me in this my work for my 
brethren, and I beg to say that I shall feel 
gratef^y obliged for every donation or annual 
subscription. I care more for the former than 
for the latter, because as our day so will our help 
entirely be firom our God. 

We have prepared very neat colleoting-cards, 
and it would give me great pleasure to send 
them wherever friends might feel stirred np to 
seek help for the Hoxx. I am ready to give, pri* 
vately, needfhl information and particulfurs. And ^ 
now may the Lord bless all our friends, and 
make ns a rich blessing to one another. 

C. SCHWABTZ, DJ>. 

4, 8t, LeonartP* Oardens, PaddingUm* 

TBINTTY CHAPEL, JOHN STBEET, 
EDGWABE BOAD. 

This chapel was built by the Bev. Bidlej 
Herschell, with the earnest desire of benefiting; 
his Jewish brethren thereby, more especially those 
who live in the west of our large metropolis. 
Having been called to succeed liim in the 
ministry, it is my prayerfril wish to follow hiii 
example, and to Ining before my Jewish brethren 
the claims of the King of Israel, and before my 
Christian hearers the dealings and designs of 
Qcodi with IsraeL 

Our services commence on Sunday mornings 
at eleven, and in the evenings at seven o'clock. 

On Tuesday evening, at half-post seven, a 
lecture is delivered on the Prophecies of Isaiah. 

In all the services the Word of God is 
explained by comparing Scripture with Scrip, 
ture, and all lovers of God's Word in its msg'estio 
simplicity and grandeur are kindly invited. 



Th« Scattered NaUoo,! 
Mweh 1, 1866. J 



ANGIENT HEBREW ASTRONOMY, 



49 



WHAT DID THE ANCIENT HEBREWS KNOW OF ASTRONOMY? 
(by the bev. db. mabgoliouth.) 



Is a proposition which has been often pro- 
ponnded, but never satisfactorily, nay, not 
even feasibly, demonstrated. The writers 
in Bible dictionaries have never snfl&cieutly 
availed themselves of the only right and 
bright telescope for the purpose of viewing 
the firmament and the orbs therein, in the 
same manner as the ancient Hebrews have 
done ; . and they have, consequently, only 
beclouded themselves, and no doubt many 
of their believers also. That telescope is 
the most ancient Hebrew book extant, by 
whose aid I trust to be able to demonstrate, 
not only feasibly, but satisfactorily, the pro- 
position which heads this paper. 

No author could have penned, and no 
reader could have fully comprehended, the 
Mosaic narrative of the fourth day's creation, 
as given ns in the first chapter of the Bible, 
without a general knowledge of the laws 
which regulate and affect the sidereal sys- 
tem, which we call by the technical term 
AsTHOXOJfY. Pregnant with no ordinary 
import are the words, " Let there be lights 
In the firmament of the heaven, to divide the 
day from the night; and let them be for signs, 
and for seasons, and for days, and years : 
And let them be for lights in the firmament 
of heaven," etc., etc. Had we nothing left 
of the oldest Hebrew book but the first 
chapter of Genesis, it would have been suf- 
ficient for my purpose to prove in the pre- 
sent instance that the antiquity of the science 
of astronomy does not derive its value from 
lieathen writers. Apart from inspired reve- 
lation, this chapter is the most wonderful in 
the annals of the world. Its antiquity makes 
the oldest Pagan chronicle appear but of yes- 
terday. Its wisdom renders the sagacity of 
man's understanding absolutely foolish. Its 
profoundness makes the depth of human 
intellect extremely shallow. Its truth, which 
is day by day more and more elucidated, and 
made better and better understood, makes 
l^e falsehood and doom of the would-be 
philosopher ominously clear. Every fresh 
assault which man's frail wisdom makes upon 
our chapter is overruled to render its ster- 
ling accuracy and pure orthodoxy more pal- 
pable than ever. But there are many rays 

VOL. I.— NO. III. 



irradiating from other portions of that old 
Hebrew book alluded to, which tell pretty 
plainly that the ancient Hebrews knew more 
of the science of astronomy than modem 
ewvans are disposed to credit them with. 

The current behef amongst the Hebrews 
was, from time immemorial, that the 
science of astronomy was a direct emanation 
from " the Father of lights." Josephus, who 
committed to writing a variety of floating 
traditions amongst his people, thus speaks 
of the science (Antiq. i. iii. 9): " Grod afforded 
them [the aboriginal patriarchs] a longer 
time of life on account of their virtue and 
the good use they made of it in astronomi- 
cal and geometrical discoveries, which would 
not have afforded them the time of foretel- 
ling the periods of the stars unless they had 
lived six hundred years ; for the great year 
is completed in that interval." Upon which 
Cassini annotates: " This period, whereof we 
find no intimation in any monument by any 
other nation, is the finest period that ever 
was invented, for it brings out the solar 
year more exactly than those of Hipparchus 
and Ptolemy, and the lunar year within 
about one second of what is determined by 
modem astronomers. K the antediluvians 
had such a period of six hundred years, 
they must have known the motions of the 
sun and moon more exactly than their de- 
scendants knew them some ages after the 
flood." 

It has been the fashion of late years to 
trace every ancient science and art to Eg3rp- 
tian and Chaldean sources; and Hebrew 
astronomy has been treated in like manner. 
There can be no doubt that those ancient 
nations retained much light of the pristine 
illuminations in the knowledge of the celes- 
tial bodies ; but that that light became, in 
process of time, fearfully overlaid with clouds 
of thick darkness is equally certain. The 
modern mania of tracing the science of astro- 
nomy to the Chaldeans is only reviving the 
presumptuous arrogance of the Babylonians 
themselves. I cannot do better than refer 
the readers of " The Scattered Nation" to 
Isaiah's withering satire respecting Chal- 
dea's boast of superlative wisdom, as given 

3 



so 



ANCIENT KBBSBW ASTBONHMY. 



ribe Soattorcd Katiea^ 
L lUrdil,M08. 



in his forty-seventh chapter, the eighth and 
five following verses, the last of which, verse 
thirteenth, mns thus, according to the 
original: " Thon art wearied in themoltitude 
of thy counsels. Let those who search the 
heavens stand up and save thee ; even they 
who are gazing at the stars, giving intelli- 
gence respecting months; [let them save 
thee] from the things that shall come upon 
thee." Who could fail to perceive that the 
Hebrew seer was a far more accurate astro- 
nomer than the wisest of the wise Chaldeans 
wereP 

Again, were the Chaldeans indeed the 
great astronomers which they themselves 
pretended, and which certain modem 
authors make them out to have been, how 
came it to pass that among the captive chil- 
dren of Judah "in all matters of wisdom 
and understanding that the king inquired of 
iihem, he found them ten times better than 
all the magicians and astrologers that were 
in all his reahn" P (Dan. i. 20.) It is note- 
worthy here, tljp,t it was then, when Daniel, 
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were at 
Babylon, that Pythagoras arrived there in 
search of the sciences of the East, whence 
he carried to Europe the doctrines of a helio- 
centric system, and the daily rotation of the 
globe on its axis. It was owing to Daniel's 
calculations and predictions respecting the 
appearance of a certain star, that, at the first 
advent of the Saviom*, ** the wise men from 
the East" were led to Jerusalem, to wor- 
ship the infant Bedeemer of the world. 

These fragmentary considerations alone 
would have been sufficiently circumstantial 
evidence to prove that the original writers 
and primitive readers of the Hebrew Scrip- 
tures possessed a pretty accurate knowledge 
of the asterisms of the celestial sphere, 
which lie in the annual path of the sun — 
termed by Moses ** signs," and which mytho- 
logical writers designated "the zodiac." 
But we have in the oldest Hebrew book, the 
Hebrew Bible, positive traces of the aste- 
risms, or "signs." Joseph's dream (Gen. 
xxxvii. 9) had reference evidently to the side- 
real system. For a long time the signs of 
the zodiac numbered only eleven, according 
to the ken of man.* Balaam's picturesque 

* Amongst some Hebrew baJIads which the Jews 
aro in the habit of singing on the first two nights of 
the Feast of Passover, there is one which con- 



description of Jacob's tents had a palpable 
allusion to the asterism Aquarius (^om. 
xxiv. 7). The Hebrew term for that sign of 
the zodiac is, ^Vr BSlee, "huckei" I shall 
presently point out the aptness of the figure 
of speech which the prophet of Pethor 
employed. So thus Deborah, in her tri- 
umphal ode, makes mention of the same 
"sign." 

" They fought from heaven ; 
Even the stars in their path, 
They fonght against Sisera. 
The river Kishon swept them away, 
That ancient river, the river Kishon." 

(Judges v. 20, 21.) 

The ancients represented the zodiacal sign 
Aquarius by rivers— such as were in their 
immediate neighbourhood — or by a man 
pouring water out of a bucket or buckets. 
The Egyptians utilized the Nile for that pur- 
pose J the Chaldeans, the Tigris and Eu- 
phrates. 

In that ancient book, the Book of Job, 
we have mention made (xxrsriii. 32) of ninto 
" Mazzaroth." I consider Sir William Drum- 
mond's version of that passage the soundest,, 
namely, ** Canst thou bring forth the zodia- 
cal signs, each according to the season in 
which it ought to appear ?" The " Mazza- 
roth" of Job is the same as the ni^ro " Maz- 
zaloth " (the b I and n r are mutable in the 
Hebrew language, as they are in other lan- 
guages) of 2 Kings xxiii. 5, which the margin 
properly renders "twelve signs, or constella- 
tions." The writer of the Book of Job re- 
cords the names of several asterisms, even 
w^Ash, translated, in the authorized version,, 
" Arcturus" ; Vdd K^seel, rendered " Orion,** 
but unquestionably the proper rendering of 
which is "satellite"; !td»3 Kcemah, which 
has been translated "Pleiades" (Job ix. 9; 
xxxviii. 31 — 33). One of the great Hebrew 
luminaries in astronomical science, Eabbi 
Samuel by name, said that that constellation 
was called Keemah, because it produced the 
appearance rr^os K^mm/dh, i. e,, as of a hun- 
dred stars.* The latter names, viz., K^sed 
and Keemah, aro also mentioned by Amos 
(v. 8). The passage referred to in the Book 

tains a vers© with the following heginning : — " Who 
knows anything ohout the numher eleven ? I know 
something abont eleven : eleven are the planets," 
etc., etc. 

* Talmud, treatise Berachoth, foL 58, coL iL 



- M,ia88. J 



ANOJOBNT HEBBEW ASTRONOMY. 



M 



of Job invests Fs. codviL 4>, mih. a literal 
prose meaning : — 

"* He teUeth the BiiBri)6r of the fteni ; 
He deogiuitee them ail bj oortain nameB." 

I contrasted Isaiah's astronomical know- 
edge with that of the Chaldean sages. We 
may have a yet more correct appreciation of 
the inspired Hebrew bard*s celestial philoso- 
phy, by examining a passage in his immor- 
tal visions. In his denunciations against 
Babylon, we have two allusions to the side- 
real system. First (Isa. xiii. 10), 

" For the stars of heaven and their satellites 
Shall not give their light : 
The son has dai^ned in his going forth, 
So that the moon shall not reflect his [the son's] 
light" 

Secondly (xiv. 12, 13), where the prophet 
pats into the month of restored Israel a 
taunting proverb against the King of Baby- 
lon, to which the celestial spheres contribute 
their imagery. 

The grandest allusion in Isaiah to Hebrew 
astronomy is, I conceive, to be found in 
the original of the twelfth and five follow- 
ing verses of the fortieth chapter. The 
passage, by the way, intimates profici- 
ency in geometry. Ere the astronomical 
terms, however, can be perceived by the 
mere English reader, it is necessary that he 
be furnished with a literal translation of the 
fifteenth and two fc^owing verses. The in- 
spired Hebrew philosopher and poet does 
not, as the authorized version leads one to 
suppose, in the first instance, speak of the 
nations as insignificant. On the contrary, 
he endeavours to raise them to the highest 
pinnacle of greatness, and then exposes their 
extreme littleness in comparison with the 
Almighty. A sublime conception, and a 
magnificent contrast ! The amended trans- 
lation which I propose, because I am con- 
vinced that it represents the meaning of the 
original, is the following : — 

*<Be the nations as the ontpooiing from Aqnaiius,* 
Or regarded as the Libra of heaven ;t 



♦ The word 'V2^ is more likely to be an abbrevia- 
tion of 1^3 than to mean " as a drop," as the 
authorized version has it. The root would thnsbe 
iTU^ to poor out *^^ never signifies a drop. 

f o»it»to pTWy\ may very safely be translated 
"as the Scales, or libra, of heaven"; just as if it were 
wntten P^Rl^ *^>HD. gooh forms are not mioommon 



Let the isles be raised np to the sky. 
And Lebanon be insufficient for fuel. 
And its beasts insofficient for a bnmt-offering. 
f Still] all nations are as nothing in Hi# {xreeenoe^ 
Theij are regaided by Him less than nothing -tad 
vanity." 

I have already stated that the Hebrew 
term for the sign Aquarius is BUlee, bucket. 
The Jews, in common with tthar nations of 
antiquity, entertained the idea, probabfy 
firom experience, that when Aquarius ap- 
peared on the horizon, then an abundance of 
rain was poured down upon the eartii. 
Hence Balaam's phrase (Num. xziv. 7), " He 
shall pour water out of his buckets." Henoe 
Deborah's spirited verses :— 
" They f oa^^t from heaven ; 

Even the stars in their path. 

They fonght against Sisen.. 

The river Eishon swept them awi^, 

That ancient river, the river Eishon." 

It may have happened that, just at the time 
of that memorable war, Aquarius i^peared 
on the horizon ; and, moreover, that a heavy 
fall of rain swelled the current of the river 
Ejshon, which represented that sign on the 
zodiac, was the cause of the disastrous 
catastrophe to the Canaanites. Without 
some explanation of the kind, Deborah's 
language in the above verses is very obscure. 
But to return to Isaiah's lofty verse. The 
constellation Libra, or "the Scales," was 
sujiposed to be the largest on the celestial 
ecliptic : hence the astronomical bard chose 
those two asterisms for his magnificent 
illustration. 

One verse more from this chapter, and I 
have done with Isaiah for the present. It 
is the twenty-sixth verse. This intimates 
that, in the great Hebrew bard's time, the 
constellations and asterisms were known by 
certain names, which implies a philosophical 
knowledge of tiie science of astronomy. The 
prophet, in the name of his God, appeids thus 
to his people : — 

" Lift np your eyes heavenward. 
And behold, who hath created these ? 
Even He who marshals their host by ntmiber. 
Who calls them all by name." 

Ignorance of the old Hebrew book, 
which I have so often quoted in the course 

in the writings of inspired poets, as is well known 
to Hebrew philologists. I have entered more minutely 
into the critical examination of this passage in my 
Annotated Hebrew Old Testament. 



52 



ANCIENT HEBREW ASTRONOMY. 



Haroh 1, 1808. 



of this short paper, and bat a saperficial 
aoquf^ntance with the English version of it, 
maj- argae against the mode in which I 
demonstrated the proposition under con- 
sideration, saying, " The Hebrew Bible lacks 
an equivalent term for the word astronomy." 
Suppose the omission to be a &ct, what 
then? Has the logic, which would dictate 
such an argument, considered the antiquity 
of the technical terms, relative to the arts 
and sciences, in secular works ? Would that 
logic reason that the arts and sciences sig- 
nified could not have been known, because 
their artificial technical terms had not yet 
been invented P For instance, the equivalent 
technical terms for geometry, arithmetic, 
marine architecture, are not to be found in 
the authorized version; would that prove 
that the Hebrews were in total darkness 
with regard to those sciences and that art P 
It would be logic run to seed in the brains of 
such reasoners as I have just described. The 
thorough Hebrew scholar, who can read the 
oldest Hebrew Book (which, by the way, is 
a mere fragment of the ancient literature of 
the primitive Hebrews) with a sound under- 
standing, knows that the Hebrews of an- 
tiquity had a technical term for the science 
of astronomy. The verb Tachon, amongst 
its other imports, meant also the mensura- 
tion, calculation, and disposition of the 
celestial spheres. The verb is used in 
Isa. xl. 12, in the line — 

** And meted out heaveus with the span ?" 

T^hoonah became, at a very early period, 
the technical term for the study of God*s 
great and marvellous works, but especially 
for the study of the heavenly bodies; so 
much so, that all post-Biblical Hebrew as- 
tronomers make use of the terms Tochen 
and Tvchoonah for astronomer and astro- 
nomy.* 

Some critics, more remarkable for con- 
fident self-assurance than for proficiency in 
the science of the sacred tongue, have 
concocted a very grotesque system of as- 
tronomy for the ancient Hebrews, from cer- 
tain ill-understood, as far as the critics are 
concerned, poetic expressions in the sacred 
volume. A writer in one of the Bible 
dictionaries, and after him the fifth essayist 

* See Boxtorff's Ghaldee, Talmndiool, and Rab- 
binical Lexicon, in loco. 



in the notorious volume, '' Essays and Be- 
views," affirms that '* the Hebrews understood 
the firmament, or heaven, to be a permanent 
solid vault, as it appears to the ordinary 
observer." Both, Mr. Bevan (in Smith's 
"Dictionary of the Bible") and Mr, Goodwin* 
think that their statement respecting the 
Hebrew notion of the sky " is evident enough 
from various expressions made use of oon- 
ceming it. It is said to have pillars (Job 
xxvi. 11), foundations (2 Sam. xxii. 8), doors 
(Ps. Ixxviii. 23), and windows (G«n. viL 11).'* 
With equal cogency might those critics have 
reasoned that the Hebrews believed that the 
heavens were given to concerts, the earth to 
merriment, and the mountains to spasmodic 
music and dancing, and the trees to clapping 
of hands. Does not Isaiah say as much P 
Hear him, ye of the school of Bevan and 
Goodwin ! — 

" Sing, heavens ; and be joyful, O earth ; 
And break forth into singing, O mountains. 
• ••••• 

The monnlains and the hills shall break forth 

before yon into singing, 
And all the trees of the field shall dap their hands." 
(l8A.xUx.l3;lv. 12.) 

The intelligent and diligent student of the 
Bible learns that the astronomy of the ancient 
Hebrews was based on something more solid 
than mere optical appearances and poetic 
figures of speech. I should very much like 
to know what Messrs. Bevan and Goodwin 
think of Alfred Tennyson's notion of the 
cause of day and night. The Laureate has 
the following line in his "Idylls of the 
Bang," (Elaime), p. 168:— 

" But when the next day broke from underground." 

I close this paper with a few remarks 
touching the great interest which the He- 
brews have always evinced in the cultivation 
of the science of astronomy. When the 
Jewish nation was dismembered, and Jeru- 
salem finally razed to the ground by the 
Eomans, Hebrew colleges were established 
on the banks of the Euphrates. One of 
those seats of learning was called Nahardeah. 
Some of the Eabbins there (Samuel, quoted 
above, was one of them), by way of describ- 
ing their proficiency in astronondcal science, 
used to say that *' the paths of heaven were 
as familiar to them as the lanes of Nahar- 
deah." Some of the children of the dia- 



The B ot ttw d VaMon, 
MMehl, 186ft. 



J 



TEE TWELVE TRIBES. 



ti8 



persion distinguished themselyes as astro- 
nomers in Spain, and acquired great favour, 
in consequence at the court of Alonso X., 
who is principally spoken of as an astrono- 
mer. Jewish astronomers compiled for him 
the " Astronomical Tables," which were long 
held in great esteem. By means of Jews 
exclusively, that sago king published " The 
Book of Circles,** which is still preserved 
with care at Alcala. They also translated, 
by order of Alonso, the astronomical books 
of Ali Ben-Eagel from Arabic into Castilian. 
In the thirteenth oentury, Babbi Abra- 
ham Hanasee, a celebrated Spanish Hebrew, 
published a very extraordinary work on 
astronomy, in which he propounded, after a 
process of most laborious calculation, that a 
conjunction of the planets Jupiter and 
Saturn took place in the year that Moses 
was bom, and that the same coi^j unction 
would occur twice in the fifteenth century. 
Don Isaac Abarbanel, in the earlier part of 
the latter century, studied that work, and 



arrived at the conclusion — ^notwithstanding 
the positive caution against being led astray 
by planetary phenomena— that some great 
deliverance was looming in that century in 
behalf of the oppressed Spanish Israelites. 
The poor Jews proved better astronomers 
than prophets. The conjunction of the 
planets came to pass in 1444 and 146 i ; but 
instead of deliverance to Spanish Israel, the 
dose of that century witnessed the most 
barbarous and inhuman treatment, which 
terminated with the most heartless ex- 
pulsion of them by ungrateful Spain. 

At the present time, Hebrew astronomers 
of a very high order, though to fame unknown, 
are to be met with even among some of the 
poorest Jewish communities. The Gentile 
Christian readers of " The Scattebxd Na- 
tion ** may, judging from Israel's present of 
Israel's past, form a pretty accurate notion, 
with the aid of the materials here submitted 
to them, as to — "What did the Ancient 
Hebeews know op Astkonomt ?'* 



THE TWELVE TRIBES. 



BY THE BEV. ANDREW A. BONAtt. 



LEVI. 



The Lord works for his own glory by rais- 
ing " the poor from the dust and the beggar 
firom the dunghill, to set them among 
princes." Out of strange materials, surely, 
did He rear up the house of Israel ! And 
nothing might excite in us more amazement 
than his dealings with Levi, from whose loins 
He is pleased to cause a most noble line of 
priests and sanctuary-ministers to descend. 
Sovereign grace ! what may not thy love and 
wisdom bring to pass ! 

In the tribe of Levi, as in Beuben and 
Simeon, we trace in all after-ages the taint of 
his first father's sin, and find that sin giving 
a peculiar complexion ^ his lot ; while, at 
the same time, we trace no less distinctly 
throughout ail afler-generations, a reference 
to the origin of his name, which means 
''joined," or in aa abstract form, **jowivfig," 

1. At his birth Leah thought (Qea, xxix. 
34) that Jacob would be completely won over 
by this third son, presented to him as another 
arrow wherewith to fill his quiver. " Now, 



this time shall my hnsband be joined to me, 
because I have bom him three sons." She 
knew the power of benefits, how a gift makes 
room for a man, pacifying anger, and pros- 
pering a man's plans (Prov. xvii. 8 and xviiL 
16). Probably her hope was realized, for 
her next sou gets the thankful name of 
" Praise " ( Judah), as if all were going on to 
her miud. From his birth, then, Levi was 
one whose province and mission seemed to 
be to join together parties that otherwise 
might have stood aloof and alone. 

2. Next follows the history of his youth; 
and there he teaches how sin mcuy join mea 
together. In Jacob's prophetic utterance 
(Gen. xlix. 3) he appears as the close confe- 
derate of Simeon in cruelty and blood — 

" Simeon cmd Levi are brethren.** 

What a union ! 

"0 my soul, come not thou into their secret** 

They combine; hand joins in hand, and 
the enterprise appears successfuL But they 
who sin together must suffer together thej 



54 



TSB TWELVE TBIBE8. 






iniuitl>ey(ywi«(iinpimiBhi9i»nt. And so the 
flvntenoe oomes forth on Leri, as on Simeon : 

*'/tatU divide Mm ii» Jaeob, 
And scatter Mm in Itrad.** 

He dragfi this clanking chain on his foot 
in all succeeding time. He gets no portion 
or lot like his brethren, no compact terri- 
tory; but is divided and scattered over the 
length and breadth of the land, getting forty- 
eight cities for his habitation, famished by 
i^e other eleven tribes. Ho is to be found 
north, south, east, and west ; in Judah, in 
Ephraim, in Asher, in Gad, in Bouben, 
'* scattered and dimded,** because he joined 
Simeon in sin. 

3. But there are other aspects of his his- 
tory. The history of his descendants, who 
were joined to Moses at Sinai, teaches (Jod's 
way of Joining alienated men to Himself. It 
was the day of the golden calf and its terrible 
scenes. The proclamatiou ran through the 
camp, "Who is on the Lord's sidoP let 
him come unto me " (Exod. xxxii. 26). None 
stirred a foot but the men of the tribe of 
Levi ; and they joined Moses in executing the 
Lord's vengeance on the idolaters ; for they 
girded on their swords, passed &om gate to 
gate through the camp, slew all they met, 
even brothers, and companions, and neigh- 
bours — all, in order to win the blessing pro- 
mised. For the clause of the proclamation 
was to this effect, " Consecrate yourselves 
to-day unto the Lord, every man upon his 
son and upon his brother, that He may bestow 
upon you a blessing to-day." In this they 
honoured the holiness and justice of the 
Lord, dreadful as the action might appear ; 
and this homage to Jehovah's justice and 
holiness was accepted at their hand. Is it 
not ever thus? It is when a sinner is 
brought to sympathize with the Lord's 
views of sin, and with the Lord's jus- 
tice in his wrath against it, that the 
Lord is reconciled to him. The sinner's 
acknowledgment of the cross, where the 
sword smote the man who was our Brother 
and the Almighty's Fellow, is equivalent to 
the action of Levi, in drawing the sword 
against the sin around him. 

4. Yet again. The history of Levi's 
descendants, who ministered before God in 
the sanctuary, teaches us yet more fully God's 
way of joining to Himself aUena/ted men ; for 
the Levites stand there, from age to age. 



hairfling the saered veMels, and engagingin- 
the rites that exhibit the Divine phua of 
reooneiHation.' It is they, and only tiiey- 
who, as priests of Aaron's line, present the 
saorifices— the blood, i^ &t, the inoense, ti^ 
drink-ofifearing— all, in short, that tells o^ 
man re^oimd to Ood, Ho is Levi (" Jodh* 
IN6 ") in all his history. Day by day thiui 
he, in ike atoning saciifice, set forth GtxL'ft 
jostiee honoured; God's holy abhorrence of 
sin; God's flandng and consuming wrath 
against the sinner who goes on in his tE«9* 
paes, refusing to bring it to the altar and to 
the blood. Levi at Sinai, and Levi in the 
tabemade and temple, is alike a witness for 
Qod*B unbending holiness and inmiaoolate 
justice, even while He receives the guilty in 
the appointed way. 

It was on Levi as joined to the Lord, sad 
as thereafter to be the tribe which should 
in a manner join others to the Lord, that 
Moses poured out his full and fervent bless- 
ing (Dent. xzjdiL 8 — 11). He begins, in thai 
blessing, with the mention of the "Urim and 
Thummim" (Lights and Perfections; ».e., 
complete light and complete perfection), but 
he nowhere describes what this Urim and 
Thummim meaiL Many are the theories 
on the subject ; but perhaps the simplest of 
all is that which understands it to be the 
Law, which in the ark was written on tables 
of stone, but which within the folds of the 
breastplate was written on some other mate* 
rial, yet set forth the same truth, vis^ that 
He who goes for us into God's presence, as 
priest and mediator, must have the lauf om 
Ills heart, must honour and magnify that 
law, which is perfect, and which is all light 
and no darkness at all. With allusion, thra^ 
to this tjrpical priesty Moses sang — 

"Let thy Urim a/nd thy TKwnwtwm helomgioth^^ 
^nan of thy Holy One ;" 

let it be ever in charge of the appointed priest. 
The priest is called TT»on w*h " the man of thy 
Holy One " (Kke Ps. Ixxx. 17, ^a^omri*); thai 
Holy One whom they tempted at Masaah* 
along with the other tribes of Israel. Their 
share in that provocation is mentioned that 
they might in no wise be elated be- 
cause of this honour. Let the breastplate 
which contains the law be ever in charge of 
the priest who is at the head of thy tribe ; 
and be thou ever zealous fbr that law, even 
as when at Sinai thou showadst thyself on 



Mmcki, ism. J 



TWE TWELVE TEIBE8, 



tbe Lord's side, in spite of fiither, mofch«r» 
brethrezi. This is the tribe mho skall in all 
after-ages hare tlid hi^ himMHr of tnanliiiift 
all Israel — 

**They shall tcadi Jacob thy judgments, and Israel 
thy law; 
They shaJl pot inoense before Thee, and whole 
bQEub-offigriags upon thm» i^tar." 

A blessed work, surely! showing men by 
type and symbol, as well as by clearer word, 
the way of acceptance with Gk)d— the way of 
4u»^table worship — ^the way of daily service. 
And in so doing his " substance " is blessed, 
his "works" are pleasing to God, and his 
^foes" are powerless, smitten by the God 
whom Levi serves. 

Now, this tribe being scattered all over 
the land in their forty-eight cities, with their 
enclosures (not " castles," as translated in 1 
Chron. vi. 64) for cattle and flocks, walked 
everywhere as witnesses for God in the 
happy days of their early service; for 
Halachi (ii. 6) declares about Levi in those 
-days, " The law of truth was in his mouth, 
-and iniquity was not found in his lips : he 
walked with me in peace and equity, and did 
turn many away from iniquity." See those 
men of Levi at Hebron, teaching that lately 
arrived manslayer, who has there found a 
city of refuge ! See that Levite at Sychem, 
near Jacob's Well, gathering round him a 
group of the men of Ephraim, to teach them 
the teachings which daily go on in the temple 
at Jerusalem ! See them opening up the law 
to a company on the fragrant hills of Gilead 
beyond Jordan ; see them at Bamoth Gilead, 
•or at Mahanaim, or by the banks of Amon, 
testifying by their very presence for God's 
justice, holiness, mercy, and loving-kindness. 
Tlhis is a joining tribe all over ! He is Levi 
in his history, as well as in his birth. 

5. But Levi is rich in suggestive lessons, 
in almost every view you can take of him. 
We might teach from his case much about 
sin; c.^., sin separating man and man, as 
seen in Jacob's family at the time of Levi's 
birth ; sin separating man and God, as seen 
in the effects of his foul conspiracy against 
8hechem; man, separated by sin, brought 
back to God through justice honoured. More 
particularly we might weave a whole web of 
spiritual truth hrom the threads of Levi's 
history by using different stages of his ex- 
istence to illustrate different doctrines. It 



stands thus : (o) Lei the turning of his oarse 
into « blessing, or, in other words, by making 
use of his scattered and divided oonditioB 
aa the very means of pervading Israel with 
the knowledge of Jehovah, we have an illus* 
traiion of the Lord's way in redemption. 
While Simeon's curse (divided and scat* 
tw^) is loft unallcrviated, Levi's is used for 
great ends of good. This is altogether like 
the Lord, who in sovereignty passes by 
whom He will, and shows favour where He 
will, but in both cases from reasons of highest 
holiness and wisdom^ though hidden from 
us. (b) In the history of Levi's youthful days 
we see a full-length portrait of the natural 
man. It is forbidding and repulsive, exhi- 
biting all the strength of original corruption. 
He was educated in Jaeob's tents, under a 
godly father's care ; was accustomed to stand 
at Gt)d's altar and see the saorifice ; often 
heard the story of his father's vision at 
Bethel ; was kept as much as Jdseph from 
the Oanaanite idolatries ; and yet, alas ! the 
evil is unsubdued, and godly education is 
thrown away upon the man. Nay, fierce, 
cruel passions appear, and the young man 
rushes forth to gratify them. Under Jacob's 
roof the viper is nourished ; under Jacob's 
shadow grows the all-blasting upas-tree; 
self-will, revenge, murderous hatred, are de- 
^veloped amid holy counsels and holy ex- 
ample. Levi, with his brother Simeon, even 
dares to use the sacrament of circumcision as 
a preparation for assault, urging the men of 
Shechem to use it only in order to unfit them 
for defence. It was a deed as foul as if we had 
persuaded an unarmed company to sit down 
at the Lord's table, and then came upon them 
with weapons of death as they were eating 
the bread and taking the wine. And what 
is all this but the unfolding of the natural 
heart, ** deceitful and desperately wicked" ? 
Over such a one hangs the curse, the indig- 
nation, and wrath of an insulted God. " I 
will divide them, I will scatter them!" 
(c) Yet see how God can change the natural 
man and remove the curse. Go to the foot 
of Horeb on the day of the golden calf (Ex. 
xxxii. 25 — 29), and there you find how the 
Spirit of God had silently been penetrating 
Levi's families. Not only were Amram and 
Jochebed illustrious instances of grace and 
faith, with their three renowned children, 
Miriam, Aaron, and Moses; but now behold. 



56 



THE TWELVE TBIBE8, 



1 



lUroh 1, 1806. 



the tribe, as a whole, rises up on the Lord's 
side! How different from the days of 
Shechem ! It is even as when the jailor 
was awakened by the Spirit, and his whole 
household with him. And thus Levi is con- 
secrated to the Lord for ever, and becomes a 
tribe that does nothing but serve and minis- 
ter for CJod. (d) But again ; in him we see the 
privileges of the new man. The Lawgiver 
himself (so just is it to deal bountifully with 
the forgiven) pronounces the ample blessing 
of Deut. zxxiii. 8 — 11 . He gets guidance and 
guides others : God guides Levi, and Levi 
guides Israel. As it is still in the Church ; 
God teaches sinners by a man taken from 
the same pit and miry clay, from the same 
curse and corruption. He, has fellowship 
with God, approaching Him with the in- 
cense, in prayer, praise, meditation, and mul- 
tiform service. There is blessing on his 
substance, too ; and he is accepted in his 
works (1 Cor. xv. 58) : victory is before him ; 
he is more than conqueror, (e) Once more, 
here are the new man's duties. Chosen, but 
not for any good in him beyond his breth- 
ren, he handles no more "imtrvmients of 
cruelty" (Gen. xlix. 5), but, on the contrary, 
it is his part now to bear the vessels of the 
tabernacle (Numb. iii. 6—8), or, as it is ex- 
pressed, "to keep the instruments of the 
tabernacle of the congregation." They enter 
into Grod's assembly, and each has his own 
department of work : none is idle ; for gra- 
titude constrains them, forgiving love presses 
them onward. But, as in the Church still, 
they do not all serve in the same manner. 
There are three families in Levi, of whom 
one (Gershon) carries the tent, with its co- 
verings and hangings; another (Kohath), 
the table, candlestick, and altar; and the third 
(Merari) the boards, bars, pillars, and 
sockets. So every one serves, none envying 
the other, none complaining, none inter- 
fering; for Grod has appointed each one's 
sphere. They served in the desert, on its 



sands ; they served in Zion, but at last they 
reached the gold-covered floor of Solomon's 
temple. Is not all this the history of the 
saints P 

Besides all these teachings, Levi might 
furnish many other lessons. *' The Lobd was 
his inheritance," is often repeated ; telling 
all men where they wUl find enough. A 
true Levite's song was Psalm ^xvi. 5, 6w 
Again ; this was the tribe that furnished so 
many singers to the Lord's service, the 
Korahites, and other bands, with Heman, 
Ethan, Asaph, and the like. This tribe sent 
its representatives to David's help armed for 
battle (1 Chron. xiL 26—28) with twenty and 
two captains. Of this tribe many were the 
thousands who gave up for, the Lord houses 
and lands, glebes and manses, in the days of 
Jeroboam (2 Chron. xi. 14). And there is 
something in reserve for tbem in the 
latter days, when "the sons of Zadok," 
descendants of Phinehas (whose zeal won 
special promises for his seed), shall minister 
in that mysterious temple spoken of by 
Ezekiel the prophet (Ezek. xliv. 15). 

How strange to find a name Leviatkah 
(" the joined serpent") resembling Levi's* 
But very different is their history and work. 
While Levi, joined to God, and joining 
others, is a blessing in the earth, Leviathaa 
(Isa. xxvii. 1) joined in hie scales, is forming 
confederacy and gathering together earth's 
kings against the Lord and his Anointed. 
This crocodile of Egypt was the emblem of 
Antichrist, that enemy of God, who, with all 
his violence and power as ** king over the 
children of pride" (Job xli.), seeks to disjoin 
men from their only Saviour. But the Lord's 
sword smites him (Isa. xxviL 1) ; while Levi, 
who drew the sword for his Lord (Ex. xxxii.)^ 
receives the blessing, and along with his 
brethren takes root again, and re-appears 
in holy beauties in the glory of the latter 
days (Isa. IxvL 21). 



The 8oatt«red Katfon,! 
H«Tdil»l806. J 



THE OOUNT AND THE RABBI. 



57 



THE COUNT AND THE RABBI. 

BY DR. DEUTZ8CH, 
Professor of Divinity at Erlangen. 



More than a century ago, when religious 
controversy had agitated men's minds 
deeply, and produced the usual effect of 
bringing division into families and nations, 
the Castle of Eonneburg, in the Wetterau, 
became, through the kindness of its owner, 
Count Wachtersbach, an asylum for the 
outcast and homeless ; and a motley group 
was there, for such as desired to study 
human character. Many honest and indus- 
trious people of various classes had been 
driven from their dwelling-places by the 
intolerance of their governments ; many had 
voluntarily left home and friends that they 
might be free to worship Grod according to 
what their conscience dictated: and the 
stately halls and courts of Eonneburg Castle 
were filled with people carrying on their 
various trades, whilst a number of poor Jews, 
hero as elsewhere pushed into the lowest 
place, inhabited the stables and out-build- 
ings, and were glad to occupy what space 
they could get. On the Sabbath evenings, 
and indeed often besides, might be heard 
from some out-house the hum of a Jewish 
school; a neighbouring erection echoed with 
the discordant singing of some of the sepa- 
ratists assembled to carry on their service 
in their own way ; whilst in another room 
were collected a number who waited, in utter 
silence, the descent of the Holy Spirit upon 
some one of them, to enable him to instruct 
the rest. 

The most remarkable person amongst the 
Jews (who chiefly earned their livelihood by 
hawking goods about in the neighbour- 
hood), was Eabbi Abraham, a fine, noble- 
looking old man, with a long, whito beard. 
He was not unknown to the Christians, for 
he had a friend amongst them to whom he 
had been of use. When driven from his 
native town of Salzburgfor his Protestant con- 
victions, this friend had, with great difficulty, 
dragged himself and his poor sick wife to the 
foot of the mountain on which the castle 
stands ; and here Eabbi Abraham came to 
his succour, procured for him the help he 
needed and a home to live in. Thus the two 
men became firmly attached. The Jew lis- 



tened patiently to the pious psalms and 
hymns of the banished Protestant, though 
he could not believe that this new God, so 
much praised by the Salzburgher, could do 
more for him than the ancient God of Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Jacob. And again, ho 
thought he was too old to listen to anything 
new : it was not suitable for him, whatever 
it might be for others ; and he had, besides, 
some experience of what he might expect 
from Christians, for when he met some of 
them on the road, their mode of salutation 
was " Begone, Jew !" 

In the summer of 1736, Count Zinzen- 
dorf being driven not only from Hernhutt, 
but from Saxony, by a royal edict, was 
obliged, as well as many of the brethren, to 
seek some place where he could serve his 
Eedeemer in peace, and carry on his work 
of love. At Eonneburg, it seemed to him, 
he had found exactly what he wanted : hero 
was a large congregation of poor and 
neglected people, and he at once took pos- 
session of some vaults, where he could estab- 
lish and carry out their usual system — ^hours 
of prayer and instruction, visiting the poor 
at their own homes, and personally inquiring 
into the state of their souls ; besides assemb- 
ling all the children regularly, that they 
might learn both the Word of God and 
obtain secular instruction. One of the first 
people he met was Eabbi Abraham, whoso 
countenance singularly attracted him. Ho 
at once offered his hand to the old man, say- 
ing, " Grey hairs are a crown of glory. I 
can see from your head and the expression of 
your eyes that you have had much expe- 
rience both of heart and life. In the name 
of the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, let 
us be friends." Such an unwonted greeting 
literally struck the old man dumb with 
astonishment : his lips moved, but no sound 
was uttered; only some big drops rolled down 
his wrinkled cheeks upon his long beard. 
"Enough, father," said the Count, "wo 
imderstand each other." 

Not long after this the Count visited the 
Jew in his more than simple abode. It was 
mid-day, and he found tho Eabbi and a 

3* 



58 



THE COUNT AND TEE EABBL 



fTfaa Sosttered ITatton, 
L Uaaeh 1, 1866. 



young man seated, conversing in Hebrew, 
at a small table covered with a white cloth, 
on which was spread their plain fare. The 
yonng man, whose name was Gaspar Horst, 
then preparing to be a missionary to the 
Jews, and afterwards known as' Pastor Horst, 
rose modestly at the appearance of the 
Count, but the Rabbi sat quietly, without 
even taking oflf his cap, and said, " You are 
welcome, my lord, but you must forgive my 
adherence to the ways of my fathers in nob 
rising to receive you. whilst I invite you to 
join our simple meal. Do not reject the 
coarse food of a Jew, but sit and eat with us." 
So saying, he offered with one hand a loaf of 
black bread, and with the other a huge salt- 
cellar. The Count accepted the invitation 
as readily as it was given, and, cutting a slice 
from the loaf, said, " Tell me. Rabbi Abra- 
ham, if your hospitality is always so ready, 
has it never been abused?" "Kever, my 
lord," answered the Rabbi. " I shall not be 
tired of giving as long as my hand has some- 
thing to give. It has been my custom from 
my youth up ; and even an apple never tastes 
as good as it does when I have given half to 
one poorer than myself. Besides, the habit 
has been of great service to me." 

He proceeded to narrate, how on one oc- 
casion, when seated at table with his family 
on the Sabbath day, a rough ill-looking man 
came in and asked for alms. Not daring to 
touch money on the Sabbath, he invited the 
stranger to dine with them : he sat down, 
ate voraciously in silence, and, as soon 
as thanks had been given to God for their 
meal, disappeared with a gruff word of 
thanks. Not long afterwards, as he (the 
Rabbi) was passing through a forest, he was 
set upon by robbers, who nearly killed him ; 
but when, on his knees, he was recommend- 
ing his soul to God*8 niercy, another robber 
came up, and called out, " Rabbi Abraham, 
do you not know me ? A man who fed me 
when I was hungry shall not die thus !" 
And thrusting a piece of gold into the old 
man's hand, he drew his companions away 
with him into the forest, leaving the Rabbi 
to pursue his journey. 

The Count listened with pleasure, and 
remained till dinner was over and grace was 
said. From that time the friendship thus 
begun grew stronger between these two 
worthy men, and young Horst on his part 



let slip no opportunity of bearing witness, 
in his Hebrew conversations with the Rabbi, 
to the glory and mercy of the Saviour. 

But a time came when the Count, at- 
tacked on all sides by the bigots of the 
various sects, thought it advisable to with- 
draw to the Eastern provinces, and leave his 
wife and children in safety at Ronneburg. 
Unattended, and with no luggage except a 
bundle under his arm, the Count set off 
before dawn one morning. As he walked 
through the castle gate. Rabbi Abraham 
appeared at the postern, saying, "Permit 
me, my lord, to accompany you as far as 
Gelnhausen. I have been awake watching 
till now, that I might not miss you ; and," 
he added in a whisper, as he stepped out 
into the open space, having left the gateway, 
"the night is warm, and the morning will 
be bright. My old heart is longing for the 
dawn; I cannot rest till I know what my 
soul longs for. I am sick, yet know not 
what is the matter with me ; I am looking 
for something, but I know not what I seek. 
I am like one who is chased, yet I see no 
enemy except the one within me, my old 
evil heart." Then Count Zinzendorf opened 
his mouth, and, like Philip of old to the 
eunuch of Queen Candace, declared unto 
him the gospel of Jesus Christ. He described 
to him Love on the cross ; Love coming down 
from holiness and heaven; emptying itself to 
come to the depth of man's sin and shame ; 
clothing itself in that corruption in which 
man was dead, and carrying it to the cross, 
that man might rise to the glory and holi- 
ness of God Himself. Ho spoke front the 
overflowings of a heart on fire with that 
same love, in burning words, that were at 
first a piercing sword, and then a palm of 
peace; and the Jew wept and wrung his 
hands. Thus they went on talking till they 
reached the top of the hill, where stood a 
soUtary chapel: at that moment the sun 
rose above the horizon, and its first rays fell 
on the golden cross surmounting the spire, 
and were reflected back with dazzling bril- 
liancy. "See there, Abraham," said the 
Count, " a sign from heaven for you. The 
(Jod of your fathers has placed the cross in 
your sight, and now the rising from on high 
illuminates it. Believe on Him whose blood 
was shed by your fathers, in order that 
God's purpose of mercy might be folfiUed, 



Mtteh 1, 1666. J 



THE GENTILE GHUBGH AND ISJ^AEL. 



59 



that you might be freed from all sin, and 
find in Him all your salvation." "So be 
it," said the Jew. "Blessed be the Lord, 
who has had mercy upon me. Now farewell, 
my lord; here our roads separate. You 
are in haste, and I must remain and pray." 
They grasped each other's hands, and 
parted. 

And now let us take one more glance at 
the Eonneburg. Weeks have passed. The 
Count is still absent ; but his work at the 
castle goes on with vigour and zeal under 
the care of Watteville, Leonhard Dober, 
Mid other members of the brotherhood. 
The hours of worship and instruction are 
regularly attended; the schools prosper; 
and souls are watched over and cared for. 
It is autumn ; the evening has set in, and a 
stormy evening it is. In two different 
rooms lie two dying people. In one the 
youngest child of Countess Zinzendorf ; and 
the brethren are singing as she dies. In 
another humbler dwelling lies old Eabbi 
Abraham, paralysed in body but joyful in 
heart. A friend enters, and the dying man 
addresses him. " Welcome, dear brother, at 
my last hour. You sought me for years in 
the Lord's name, with love and kind words ; 



and see, I have been found. My end is near, 
but so is my salvation. Tell me, brother," 
and he turned round to speak to the friend 
now praying by his side, "Will the Lord 
accept one who comes to Him at the last 
hour, even though he approaches his throne 
without the sacrament of baptism?" "Yes," 
said Dober, decidedly; "as surely as it is 
written, * Him that cometh unto me, I will 
in no wise cast out.' The sweat and blood 
of the Saviour were shed alsd for you, if 
you with a thirsting heart desire that re- 
freshing stream." "Blessed be the Holy 
One of Israel for that word ! Now let me 
depart in peace, but let my eyes behold my 
Saviour's cross in my last moments. Open 
that cupboard in the wall ; here is the key." 
It was opened ; and, to his friend's surprise, 
a wooden crucifix was seen. " That," said 
the dying man, "is the workmanship and 
gift of my friend from Salzburg ; he knew 
it was the Lord I needed, and he helped me 
to find Him. And now let me die. Come 
here, Zadok, my son, that I may bless you!" 
In the language of his fathers the blessing 
flowed from the lips of the dying man : his 
voice grew fainter and fainter, and the last 
word they heard was " Hallelujah !" 



THE GENTILE CHUECH AND ISRAEL. 

6T THE EDITOR. 



We firmly believe that the Jews who reject 
the claims of Jesus as the Messiah have no 
right whatever to charge Jewish Christians 
with apostasy from the religion of their 
fathers. We have stated our reasons in the 
last number, and we are fully prepared to 
defend them, if disputed either by Jews or 
Gentile Christians. For, let it be under- 
stood that many of the latter go hand in 
hand with the unbelieving Jews in detaching 
Christianity from its Jewish foundations. 
The Jews, because they deny that Christi- 
anity is the noble tree, which grew from 
a Jewish root; and Gentile Christians, 
because they feel ashamed of their Jewish 
origin. Some years ago, a Dutch minister 
gave painters the advice not to represent 
Jesus any longer with Jeivish features, lest 
Christians should be offended at his Hebrew 



traits. Many do the same with the word and 
work of Jesus, which they so thoroughly 
gentilize that it becomes impossible to dis- 
cover the intimate and minute connection 
which exists between the law and prophets 
and Him to whom they rendered their testi- 
mony, or the relationship between the people 
and the King of the Jews. 

When the majority of the nation rejected 
Jesus, it became necessary to defend the 
claims of the gospel against the attacks of 
the Pharisees and the Scribes; and the 
apostles found themselves necessitated to 
put before the disciples of Jesus, not the 
points of agreement, but of difference, be- 
tween the law and the gospel. Then again, 
many behoving Jews tried to lay on the 
Gentile converts a burden, which neither they 
nor their fathers were able to bear; hence 



60 



TEE GENTILE CHUBCH AlH) ISRAEL, [ 



Tbe SeaiteredN* 
M«rofal»1966. 



Paul, the great apostle of tbe Gentiles, was, 
so to speak, compelled to proclaim distinctly, 
and to maintain unequitocally, the rights of 
the Gentiles and the privileges of Christian 
liberty, in opposition to any attempt to con- 
found law and gospel. He could not but 
give to each of the two its full due, and 
he describes the law as the letter which 
killeth, and the gospel as the spirit 
which giveth life, distinguishing them 
very accurately, without however sepai^ating 
what God had so closely united together. 
Paul never relinquished the right of the 
Grentile Christians, and ho never forsook the 
hope of Israel: he as httle forgot that he 
was a Hebrew of the Hebrews, as he de- 
tracted from the sufficiency of the blood of 
Christ to justify the uncircumcised. 

Paul teaches that the Gentile Church was 
engrafted in Israel: the Church very soon 
taught that it was engrafted in the ^lace of 
Israel. Paul acknowledged Israel as the 
root bearing the branches of the Gentile 
Church: the Church very soon boasted 
against Israel, and appropriated to herself 
the name, and along with the name all the 
promises God had given to Israel, leaving 
to that nation nothing but the curses which 
lay on it as a heavy burden. Paul resisted 
and rejected all the traditions of the ciders, 
and protested against the law as a cause of 
salvation : the Church very soon neglected 
the word of the prophets as much as the 
sayings of the rabbis, and scarcely allowed 
the law a place as a schoolmaster to Christ. 
When the resistance of Israel to Christ 
continued, and the holy city was destroyed, 
and the temple was biu*ned, and the whole 
Jewish theocracy collapsed, and the nations 
were gathered into the Church, the Gentile 
element became so strong that Joshua i?unn» 
became Jesus^ and the Messiah nni?o was 
changed into the Christ, A very successful 
attempt was made to increase the differences 
between Judaism and Christianity to the 
uttermost, and to make the gap whicji sepa- 
rates them BO broad that it seemed impos- 
sible to cross it. 

The Church forgot that Jesus was bom 
a Jew, and only remembered that the Jews 
had cinicified Him. Instead of reminding the 
Jews that Jesas had declared that Ho was 
** not sent but to the lost sheep of Israel,'* 
the Church continually repeated the cry of 



the people, "His blood be on us and our 
children !" yea, instead of listening to the 
prayer from the cross, "Father, forgive 
them, for they know not what they do,** 
they thought to honour Christ by persecut- 
ing a people whose king Jesus of Nazareth 
was, and is to be as long as nations shaU 
exist. The Church overlooked the words, 
*^ Beginning at Jerusalem,^* and had but an 
open ear for the words, " Your house shall 
be left desolate ;" and really thought to do 
Grod service by putting to death the Jews in 
the very name of the crucified Messiah. 

For centuries this perversion of Grod'» 
mind and purpose has lasted, and the 
results have been very painful and disas- 
trous to the Gentile Christian Church ne 
less than to the Jews. Bomanism and 
Eationalism, persecution of the bodies and 
poisoning of the minds, have successively 
and alternately estranged the Jew from the 
gospel, and have weakened the Church so 
much, that the small results achieved during^ 
eighteen hundred years, when compared 
with the conquering march of the gospel in 
the times of the apostles, make men doubt 
whether the gospel now preached is really 
the same with that of Paul. One need noi 
undervalue the blessings Christianity has 
imparted to the world at large : it would 
be positive unbelief to deny that the gospel 
is as much now as it was in the days of Paul 
the power of Grod unto salvation : yea, it is 
quite manifest that but for the preserving 
and ennobling influences of the gospel, many 
nations would altogether be lost in tlie dark- 
ness of idolatry, and ruined by the degrading 
influences of immorality ; still it holds true, 
that the results obtained arc not propor- 
tionate to the efforts made, and that all we 
witness among the dark masses in nominally 
Christian lands, and what we hear of the 
comparatively small success in heathen coun- 
tries, forces on us the conclusion that there 
is something rndicaWy vjrong which weakens 
all the efforts now put forward. 

You must allow that some other instru- 
mentality is required if the desired consum- 
mation of the kingdom of Christ is ever to 
take place ; for it is impossible that the pre- 
sent means, even if they were increased an 
hundredfold, could ever overtake the masses, 
or convert the millions who are still under 
the sway of the prince of darkness, be they 



The Scttttercd Katbn,! 
Miiroh 1, 1866. J 



THE GENTILE CHURCH AND ISRAEL. 



61 



distinguished by the narao of heathen, Mo- 
hammedans, Papists, nominal Protestants, 
Pagans, or Jews. I dare not enter into this 
subject more fully at present; I simply wish 
to point out that the Gentile Christian 
Church is in a very unsatisfactory state, and 
to suggest that the gi eat source of evil is 
that she has separated herself from the 
foundation on which God has built her, has 
robbed th^ Jew of the promises God had 
given him, and has appropriated them to 
herself without having God's authority for 
it. A promise is a bill drawn on the bank 
in heaven, and, hke every bill, is of as much 
value as it is ratified for by Him on whom 
it is drawn. A promise, therefore, becomes 
powerless if Gk)d refuses to honour it ; and 
surely the just Judge of the earth never 
accepts forged bills. If honesty be the best 
policy even in daily life, it is surely true in 
things pertaining to the kingdom of God. 
Give to the Jew what is due to him, and 
God will give you what He has vouchsafed 
to you. The Church of Eomo has set itself 
up against Israel ; and the Pope, in defiance 
of God, calls himself the Holy Father, and 
Borne is styled the Holy City, in opposition 
to Jerusalem, the holy place chosen by God 
Himself. Komc has paganized the religion 
of the Messiah, and has polluted herself by 
bathing her hands in the blood of the children 
of Israel. Her idolatrous practices and her 
cruel enactments have disgusted, embittered, 
and filled with unspeakable contempt and 
hatred, the heart of the Jew against the 
teachings of the gospel, and the claims of 
Jesus of Nazareth ; and depend upon it, the 
souls and bodies of thousands of murdered 
sons and daughters of Abraham will be re- 
quired of her who is drunken with the blood 
of Israel and of the children of Qod, 

How could the Jew recognize in the 
Church of Eome and her teachings the re- 
ligion of Moses and the prophets? How 
could he, in the murderers of Israel, see the 
disciples of the Messiah promised to the 
fathers? How natural was it for him to 
stigmatize every Jew that became a Christian 
as an apostate ! Church of Rome, thou hast 
sent into exile, thou hast deprived of earthly 
possession, thou hast thrown into prison, 
thou hast inflicted the most excruciating 
tortures, thou hast taken away in public and 
in private the lives of thousands, yea^ of tens 



of thousands, of Israel's sons and daughters; 
but all this cruelty is as nothing when com- 
pared with the bitterness thou hast excited 
in the breast of the Jew against the gospel, 
the awfiil gap thou hast made between the 
law of Moses and the gospel of the Messiah. 
Against theo will testify the burned bodies 
and the ruined souls at the great day of 
God's reckoning. 

Eome shall fall when Jerusalem is raised 
from her ruins; and the Pope shall be 
crushed for ever when the King of Israel 
shall be exalted. Spread the gospel every- 
where ; bring the message of peace to every 
deluded Eomanist! but Home, the harlot 
on the seven hills, shall not be destroyed tiU 
Jerusalem be rebuilt, and Israel bo gathered 
to its eternal King. 

Bloody persecutions have ceased in most 
countries, and are altogether unknown in 
Protestant lands. The Jew enjoys every 
privilege, and is not seldom advanced to 
ofiices of great honour because of his being 
a Jew. As far as full liberty is secured to 
him, we rejoice heartily in this state of 
things ; but we should regret it deeply if its 
effect should bo to make the Jew alike unto 
the other nations, and to deprive him of the 
special position God has entrusted to him 
among the nations of the earth. Rationalism 
is spreading rapidly, so that, whilst many 
professing Christians believe as little in John 
as in Isaiah, many Jews believe as little in 
Isaiah as they do in John. Natural religion 
takes the place of the revealed, and a cold 
deism comes instead of the true living 
theism of God's Word. We get abstract 
ideas instead of concrete realities ; theories in 
the place of facts ; man's imagination in the 
place of God's revelation. Romanizing ten- 
dencies deprive the gospel of its simplicity; 
rationalistic negations destroy its very hfe. 
Many, I allow, are not yet fully alive to the 
danger threatening from that quarter, as it 
has scarcely had time to develope itself fully^ 
and hitheHo has lacked the courage — in 
England, at least — to say its last word ; but 
the danger is great and real, and gradually 
men's minds become prepared and are made 
ready to listen to, if not to approve of, state- 
ments which but a few years ago would have 
filled them with abhorrence. 

You get, then, Greek idealism instead of 
Hebrew realities, Greek philosophy instead of 



62 



THE QEinHLE CHUBCR AND ISRAEL. 



fThe Beatter«a Nation, 
L Hareh 1, ISaS. 



Hebrewrevelation,Greek abstractions instead 
of Hebrew facts. The Greek tendency ever 
was, and still is, "Man becoming like unto 
CJod" : the Hebrew teaching is, " GrOD be- 
COBONG MAN." Try to overcome the errors of 
reason by true reasoning, attempt to oppose 
a sound system of philosophy to a false one, 
we wish you God-speed in your endea- 
vours ; but Greek errors can only be fully 
fuid finally conquered by Hebrew truths: 
and unlosB the Gentile Christian Church 
build altogether her defence on a true foun- 
dation, unless she exchange rationalizing 
and so-called spiritualizing for a simple 
mthrndsaion of reason to the teaching of the 
letter of God's Word, she can never over- 
come the enemy, who, along with the super- 
stitions of Rome, threatens her very exist- 
ence. 

Of the so-called frpiriiv^Uzing, which is 
nothing but another, though more refined, 
and hence more dangerous, form of rational' 
izmg, we shall speak another time, as it re- 
quires a fuller notice than wo give it to-day. 
The practical conclusions wo for the present 
arrive to are these : — 

1. Paul took from the Jew what was of marCs 

making, and left him what God gave 
him. The Gentile Church despised 
Israel for the first, and robbed him of 
the latter. 

2. Paul distinguished between Jew and 

Grentile, but never separated them. 
The Gentile Church extended the gap, 
and made it almost impassable. 

\^, Paul declared that the Gentile Church 
was to be engrafted on Israel as the 
root. The Gentile Church protended 
to have outrooted Isi^ael, and to have 
come in its place. 

4. Scripture looks on Home as the Babylon 
to be destroyed, and on Jerusalem as 
the place God has chosen. The Church 
of Rome has set itself up very 
high, and shall only be cast down by 
giving l)ack to Jerusalem its due pre- 
eminence. 



5. Scripture teaches us God's revelation, 

and tells us God's facts: RationaUam 
gives us man's imaginations, and 
glories in man's ideas. It can only be 
overcome by an entire and simple sub- 
mission to the lettler of God's Word as 
given to Israel, and imparted to the 
Church by men from Israel. 

6. To the Jew we say. The law is a school- 

master to the Messiah. To the Gentile 
Christian Church : The risen Saviour 
led his disciples into Moses, the pro- 
phets, and the psalms. 

7. Because we, Jewish Christians, acknow- 

ledge the righteousness of the law, we 
go to Him who made it honourable by 
obeying it and submitting to its 
penalty. Because He was the fulfilment 
of all the shadows and types, and the 
promises which were the hope of our 
Others, we acknowledge Him as the 
Lord our righteousness, as the Branch 
of the Lord, and the Kling of our 
nation. That nation we do not aban- 
don, though it may call us apostates, 
as it called Him a " blasphemer." With 
Paul we pray for the salvation of our 
brethren — with Paul we look for the 
gathering of Israel to its priestly 
King ; with Paul wo expect that Israel's 
reception will be as life from the dead. 
The Jew Caiaphas pompelled the Gen- 
tile Pilate to crucify Jesus ; the Chris- 
tian Jew Paul, constrained by the love 
of Christ, led many Grentiles to the 
knowledge of the Messiah. When the 
nation of Israel shall have looked at 
Him whom they have pierced, then 
sliall that same people which once 
cried : " Crucify ! crucify !" entreat the 
nation: "Crown Him, cjx>wn Him!" 
and the Grentiles who could not resist 
the cry of hatred, shall yield to the 
entreaty of love ; and Jew and Gentile 
shall adoringly bow before Him who is 
the light of the nation, the glory of his 
people, and God's salvation cYen unto 
the ends of the earth. 



The Beattored ir«tk>o,1 
Mmxeh 1, 1866. J 



ojm LOEirs aECOND advent. 



es 



THE SECOND ADVENT OF OUR LORD IN ITS RELATION 

TO ISRAEL. 

BY KEY. A. A. ISAACS, M.A. 



Theke are few passages more familiar in the 
exquisite writings of England's Christian 
poet (Cowper), than those in which he 
describes the touching interview of the risen 
Saviour with the two disciples who were jour- 
neying to Emmaus. Their minds were 
sadly solemnized. They, who had oft-times 
listened to his wondrous teaching, and felt 
their hearts bum within them by the hopes 
which He inspired, had now witnessed the 
apparent destruction of all those hopes by 
his cruel and ignominious crucifixion. Pa- 
triotic feelings, as well as holy love, had 
filled their souls. Their land was now the 
possession <5f aliens; their rulers were 
strangers and enemies. With national tena- 
city they had fondly clung to the hope that the 
time of national deliverance had come. And 
although the lowly birth of the great Teacher 
and his humble station might have suggested 
doubts as to whether any temporal blessing 
would result to his followers, yet in the 
assurance that such was unalterably blended 
wiih the purposes and promises of their 
God, they, with anguish of heart and dismay, 
saw such expectations wither and pass away. 

In reply to the tender inquiry of their 
unrecognized Lord, they spoke of his cruci- 
fixion; but the point upon which their 
thoughts invpluntarily turned was the death- 
blow that terrible event had inflicted upon 
their expectations. " We trusted that it had 
been He which should have redeemed Israel" 
(Luke xxiv. 21). " His teaching had thrown 
some light upon our national prospects. We 
trusted that the time had come when all 
Israel should be saved, and when, as a 
nation, we should rejoice in our promised 
Messiah, and in his glorious reign over us. 
But now the cloud of desolation has hidden 
that bright vision firom our eyes, and our 
hearts are overcharged with sorrow." 

How striking and pregnant was the 
reply! " fools, and slow of heart, to be- 
lievo ALL that the prophets have spoken: 
onght not Christ to have suffered these 
things, and to enter into his glory P" They 
beHeved some things, but they did not be- 



lieve oZZ. Their thoughts were fixed upon 
the glory, and they forgot the humiliation 
which was to precede it. They saw with 
unhesitating distinctness those promises 
which declared that He should " reign over 
the house of Jacob for ever" (Luke i. 33); 
but they had altogether excluded from their 
view the prophecies which told them that 
He was to be " a man of sorrows, and ac- 
quainted with grief" (Isa. liii. 3). Distant 
events awaiting a future fulfilment were 
brought nigh to their minds and excited 
their desires, while those at hand were 
ignored and put aside. In short, the circum- 
stances which were connected with our 
Lord's second advent absorbed their atten- 
tion, to the exclusion of those associated 
with his Jvrsi advent; as, to our shame 
may it be said, the Church of the present 
day proclaims the doctrines involved in the 
first coming, while it throws into the shade, 
or altogether discountenances, those which 
belong to the second and moee olobious 

ACFEABING. 

But even when this doctrine occupies a 
place in evangelical teaching, how oflen does it 
happen that it is stript of all those charao* 
teristics which connect it with the future of 
the Jews ! However inexplicable it may be, 
is it not a matter of experience that even 
among good men few points of discussion 
more irritate than those which uphold the 
future glory and blessedness of the people 
of Israel? However palpable the absurdities, 
however great the inconsistencies it involves, 
however unintelligible it makes a great part 
of the Holy Scriptures, yet the fi^raiwe has 
been made to overlay the^ literal. The cry 
has been raised, "We believe that these 
expressions are to be taken in a spvriiual 
sense," as if the literal fulfilment does not 
intensify and give greater power to the 
Spiritual application. "We believe that 
these are figures of speech by which the 
ChnsUoM Church is to be understood," as if 
it were not clear that the interests of the 
Christian Church and the general diffusion 
' of Christian troth are boond op vith Jhe 



64 



OUB LOBUS SECOND ADVENT. 



fTbe ScOt^red Vaikm, 
L March 1, ISatf. 



fulfilment of God's purposes towards his 
aucient people. Any mention, therefore, of 
the coming of our Lord, in relation to Israel, 
trenches upon debateable ground. However 
unreasonable and uhscriptunU may be the 
attitude of objectors, we are, nevertheless, 
throwing down the gauntlet of controversy 
when we give the Jews any specific place in 
connection with the second advent of our 
adorable Lord. 

The theme is one which would occupy 
volumes. How fragmentary, and conse- 
quently unsatisfactory, must bo the brief allu- 
sions to it in the pages of " The Scattered 
Nation !" I would, therefore, merely adduce 
the following points, as epeciaHy worthy of 
the Christian student, and recommend their 
investigation, not by what divines and con- 
troversialists have written on the subject, 
but by comparing Scripture with Scripture, 
and thereby obtaining a clearer view of the 
mind and purposes of God. 

I. That a sufficient basis is afforded for 
our investigations in the pages of the New 
Testament. 

I hero employ the expression, " a «//- 
ficient basis." I do so because it has been 
urged that if God intended to give the Jews 
any marked position in the development of 
his purposes, it would have been particularly 
referred to in the teaching of our Lord and 
of his apostles. There would be some show 
of reason in this objection, if a plan had 
been laid down of all that concerned the 
prospects, the government, and the social, 
moral, and political future of the Christian 
Church ; but so few and so indistinct are the 
statements on these points contained in the 
New Testament, that views the most diver- 
gent have been maintained >vith an equal 
show of authority, and conclusions of a 
most opposing character have been drawn 
from the same source. The truth is, that 
this is not the ground taken by the New 
Testament ; and, bearing this in mind, it is 
remarkable how much we gather from its 
contents in reference to the position and 
prospects of the Jewish nation. 

II. That, on a New Testament basis, we 
are taught that there is still, in the purposes 
of God, a distinct recognition of the Jews. 

It is this that is clearly acknowledged by 
the great apostle of the Grentiles. " Who 
are IsraeUtes ; to whom pcrtaineth the adop- 



tion, and the glory, and the covenants, and 
the giving of the law, and the service of Grod, 
and the promises; whose are the fathers, 
and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ 
came '* (Bom. ix. 4, 5). It is this that leads 
St. Paul to say, " God hath not cast away his 
people which He foreknew " (xi. 2), and that 
" Jesus Christ was a minister of the circuvt' 
clsion for the truth of God, to confirm the 
promises made unto the fathers" (xv. 8). 
And when the inquiry was made, "What 
advantage then hath the JewP or what 
profit is there of circumcision P" the imme- 
diate reply was, " Much every way ; chiefly, 
Tsocausc that unto them were committed the 
oracles of God " (iii. 1, 2). Nor must we forget 
that Peter, writing, as it is generally acknow- 
ledged he did, to the Jews, says to them, 
" Ye are a chosen generation, a royal priest- 
hood, an holy nation, a peculiar people ; that 
ye should show forth the praises of Him who 
hath called you out of darkness into his 
marvellous light " (1 Pet. ii 9). 

III. The New Testament gives us somo 
hints as to what will bo the condition of the 
Jews at the time of our Lord's second advent. 

When the Lord Jesus was upbraiding 
the Jewish multitude on account of their 
unbelief, He said, " I am come in my Father's 
name, and ye receive mo not : if another 
shall come in his own name, him ye will re- 
ceive** (John V. 43). It seems very reason- 
able to connect that one whom the people of 
Israel "will receive" with the Antichrist 
spoken of *in 2 Thcss. ii. 3, 4. The coming of 
our Lord, says the apostle, shall not take 
place " except there come a falling away first, 
and that man of sin be revealed, the son of 
perdition, who opposeth and exaltcth him- 
self above all that is called God, or that is 
worshipped ; so that he as God sitfceth in the 
temple of God, showing himself that he is 
God." The barren fig-tree was a type of 
Israel. The Lord Himself put forth a para- 
ble of the fig-tree. " When her branch is 
yet tender, and puttcth forth leaves, ye know 
that summer is near: so ye in like man- 
ner, when ye shall see these things corae to 
pass, know that it [the coming of the Son 
of Man] is nigh, even at the doors. Yerily 
I say unto you, that this generation shall 
not pass, till all these things be done " (Mark 
xiii. 28—30). 

lY. The New Testament leads us to bo- 



Tbd Sotttered Natum,! 
lUrchl.lSae. J 



OUB LOEB'8 aECONB ADVENT. 



65 



lieve, that the conyersion of thoJewish nation 
is directly associated with our Lord's return. 

When, in the prospect of her approaching 
destruction, our Lord wept over Jerusalem — 
when He told the Jews that their house [the 
temple] was about to be made desolate — He 
added, " Ye shall not see me, until the time 
come when ye shall say. Blessed is He that 
oometh in the name of the Lord" (Luke xiii. 
35). It would be almost childish to aflSrm 
that this solemn prophecy had only reference 
to the acclamations with which our Lord was 
greeted a few days after, on his entry into 
the cifcy of Jerusalem. It cannot be dis- 
sociated from his second advent, when He 
will come with great power and glory. And 
here, in confirmation of the prophecies of 
the Old Testament, He declares that Israel, 
quickened and converted, shall welcome Him 
with the cry, " Blessed is He that cometh in 
the name of the Lord." It is worthy of 
remark that this is the habitual form of 
welcome which a visitor receives in a Jewish 
dwelling. [" Baruch haba," " Blessed is he 
that cometh."] An admonition, as well as an 
important truth, was conveyed in the apos- 
tolic teaching when St, Paul said, " I would 
not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of 
this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your 
own conceits; that blindness in part is 
happened to Israel, until the fulness of the 
Gentiles be come in. And so all Israel shall 
be saved : as it is written, There shall come 
out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn 
away ungodliness from Jacob " (Bom. xi. 25 
— ^27). And, without entering into the ob- 
scure representations of the book of Eeve- 
lation, we read in the plainest language, 
concerning our Lord's advent, that " every 
eye shall see Him, and they also tuhich pierced 
Him: and all kindreds of the earth shall 
wail because of Him " (Rev. i. 7). 

Y. The New Testament supports the 
expectation that the restoration of Israel to 
the favour and love of Grod, and their repos- 
session of their own land, is connected with 
our Lord's second advent. 

When the Redeemer was about to ascend 
into heaven, and his sorrowing disciples 
were anxiously anticipating this event, con- 
vinced that their material deliverance was a 
{nndamental feature of the Messiah's work^ 
they inquired, " Lord, wilt Thou at this time 
restore again the kingdom to Israel?" There 



was manifestly not a doubt in their minds, 
as Christian men, that the kingdom would 
be restored to their nation. The only ques- 
tion was, will it take place at this or at some 
friture time P Nor did our Lord reprove this 
expectation, and call them *' fools, and slow 
of heart," as He had done the two disciples 
when going to Emmaus. His reply was, 
" It is not for you to know the times or the 
seasons, which the Father hath put in his 
own power " (Acts i. 6, 7). Thus He left the 
full impression that such times and seasons 
would be fulfilled, but that they were hidden 
in the counsels of God. It was a part of 
the promise, " unto which," said Paul, " our 
twelve tribes, instantly si3rving Grod day and 
night, hope to come" (xxvi. 7). It was 
this which gave j)oint to the address of 
Stephei}, when, speaking of Abraham and 
the possession of the land, he observed, that 
God " gave him none inheritance in it, no, 
not so much as to set his foot on : yet He 
promised that Ho would give it to him for 
a possession, and to his seed after him" 
(vii. 5). And when the angel communi- 
cated to the Virgin Mary that she was to 
be honoured as the mother of the promised 
Messiah, he only confirmed the national ex- 
pectations when he declared, " the Lord God 
shall give unto Him the throne of his father 
David : and He shall reign over the house of 
Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there 
shall be no end" (Luke i. 32, 33). With 
this, moreover, they felt would be connected 
the blessings promised to the Gtentile world. 
The apostle James, quoting the prophet 
Amos, told the Church at Jerusalem that 
the firstfruits of Gentile conversion were the 
pledge of a future and complete fulfilment. 
"After this I will return, and will build again 
the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; 
and I will build again the ruins thereof, and 
I will set it up: that the residue of men might 
seek after the Lord, and all the Grentiles, upon 
whom my name is called" (Acts xv. 16, 17). 

This is but an incomplete outline of some of 
the leading points enunciated in the New Tes- 
tament, in relation to the prospects and posi- 
tion of Israel at the second coming of our 
Lord. They form a sufficient platform on 
which to build that marvellous superstruc- 
ture, which is aflbrded by the overflowing and 
diffuse promises and prophecies with which 
every part of the Old Testament abounds. 



e& 



THE JEWEB8B8 m JWBtUSALEM. 



L MaMh 1, 1868. 



THE JEWESSES IN JERUSALEM, 
AND EFFORTS ON THEIR BEHALF BY ENGLISH OHRISTIABTS. 

BY MBS. FINK, 

Antiior of " Home in tho Holy Lamd." 

(Contirmed from page 36.) 



In course of time the fears which had 
prevented Jewesses from coming to Eng- 
lish houses, wore off. BCaving first made 
some acquaintanco with English people 
at the hospital, the boldest by degrees ven- 
tured to some English houses for further 
relief. It was not long before one of them* 
grateftd for medical assistance received, con- 
sented to become wet-nurse to an English 
infant in its own home, where the kindness 
she experienced produced a still further 
effect in breaking down the barriers of fear 
and distrust. 

Jewesses gradually came in greater 
numbers to seek relief, actual food and 
clothing, for they discovered that the Eng- 
lish were careful to give them only such 
food and clothing as their religious scruples 
allowed them to receive. 

In those days nothing would have per- 
suaded a Jewess to enter a native Christian 
house. How, then, was it that they ventured 
into ours P The real secret of this was not 
understood till long afterwards, and my con- 
versation with that Spanish Jewess, Yida, 
who told me that all the Egyptians in Moses* 
time were Christians, was one of many 
incidents that enlightened us on the subject. 

On my saying to her that it was impos- 
sible tho Egyptians could have been 
Christians, for that Christos, the Messiah, 
had not then been bom into the world, she 
replied, " Christos— tho Messiah ? Grod 
forbid, Scfiora. Christos is not the Messiah, 
and could not have been bom. Christos is 
that thing which the Christians worship— 
that which the Latins carry before funerals 
— the forbidden thing — the Christians 
wear it." 

** You mean the cross ?" 

" Yes, that is Christos, and that is their 
god." 

She would not believe me when I tried 
to explain that Oriental and Latin Christians 
mean by the Messiah, a living person; by 
Christos, one who has been anointed. She 
persisted that they mean by this word only 



the visible material cross, and that they 
worship that, which it is forbidden to a Jew 
even to look upon. 

** But, Vida, we also behove in Christos, 
the Messiah— that is his name. We English 
are Christians, and yet we don't worship the 
cross." 

** God forbid that you should be Chris- 
tians, Senora. Yours is the EngUsh religion 
— that is quite different— it is good. I have 
been to look into your church, and that for- 
bidden thing is not in it at aJL" 

This, then, was the reason why, as I 
had often observed, the Oriental Jews had 
pertinaciously corrected me whenever I had 
spoken of any Jewish convert of our con* 
gregation as having become a Christian. 
They would always put in English — "He 
has become English^' i,e., of the English 
religion, a thing far more tolerable to their 
mind. 

This dread of the cross as the idol wor- 
shipped by Christians is just as universal 
among the German (Ashkenaz) Jews. They 
speak of it as " der Goyische Gott" — the 
Gentile God — and teach that cross-worship 
was the form of idolatry practised by the 
ancient Canaanites, and for which they were 
cast out by God's command. The cross is to 
them an object of actual fear. They believe 
that if only looked upon, it will cause them 
to die ; and that Christianity is that idolatry 
concerning which Moses forbad Israel even 
to inquire after the manner in which the 
Gentiles worshipped their gods. This will 
partly explain why Jews mourn for a rela- 
tion who becomes a Christian, precisely as 
they mourn during seven days for a dead 
person. He is cut off from Israel, according 
to their idea. 

Jews who became intimate with us would* 
confidently inquire whether we, as claiming 
to ho called Christians, did not, after all, 
mean an " image" — {tzslem, as they call 
the cross)— a Uttle one, somewhere hidden 
under our garments, or keep one concealed 
in our houses P And the frightened, peeping 



Mmdk h IMO* J 



TSS JEWJB88E8 IN JSBU8ALEM. 



67 



look, wben any diiihrer or oupbourd hi^ppeiied 
to be opened imejq)ectedly in thMr preeenee^ 
WM very strikiBg. 

Yida» the Spanish Jewess referred to 
above, lived for a long time in my house as 
nurse; and one day, when we had become 
thoroughly well acquainted, she told me how 
it was that she had been induced to come to 
the house. 

She was lying one day in her room in 
the Jewish quarter, suffering from an ague 
fit, when her friend, Bachora, came in and 
took up her infant from beside her. 

**What are you going to do with my 
boy P" said the mother. 

"To carry it for you. Rise and come 
quickly! The English Consul's son is 
dying for wane of a nurse. They have been 
kind to me. I must save their child; so 
come and be its nurse." 

" I cannot. You know I have never been 
inside a Christian house ; and I have lost 
<^uldren, and now this is my only son, and 
if I look upon the cursed thing, he will die, 
or I shall die." 

" Nonsense ; they are English, they are 
not Christians ; they don't have such things 
in their houses. Am not I a Jewess, and 
have not I seen every room in the Consul's 
house P Come directly ! " 

And so saying she carried off Yida's 
(diild. The mother rose and followed her 
infant, and presently observed Bochora turn 
down the street to the hospital. 

" Where are you going ?" 

"To the doctor's, to have you exa- 
mined, and see if you will do." 

ThenVida was comforted, for she still 
had the remains of ague upon her, and 
thought surely the doctor will see this, and 
will send me home again. But to her dismay 
the doctor said she would do very well — 
" and," continued she, " my friend, Bachora, 
never gave up my child, but walked on fast 
with him into the English Consul's house, and 
straight into your presence, Sefiora. Oh, 
how frightened I was. I did not dare to lift 
up my eyes, for fear I should see thai thing, 
and my little Jacob should die; but at last 
I looked round, and there was none in that 
room ; and I saw you wore none, and your 
child wore none, and then your maid, when 
dreasing, I saw she wore none. Then I 
thought the lady keeps it in her own 



chamber. I mmrt n<»t enter that room ; but 
at last you were ill one day, and I had to go 
to you with fear and tramUing, and there 
was none in your room or about yourself 
anywhere, and then I was at peace, for I 
found that Bachora had told me the truth, 
and that thing is not kept in English houses 
— and I feared no more eithqr for my life or 
for my child's life." 

Vida not long after this, at my desire, 
got another Jewess to go to a friend's house 
as nurse for their baby, who was ill. But 
after a few hours the poor Jewess rushed out 
of the house, declaring that she had seen 
" that thing— such a large one !" 

" Where ?" asked Yida. 

" Oh, in the inner room, when the door 
was opened." 

"You foolish thing— that was only the 
post of an iron bedstead, to hang curtains 
on. Did I not tell you that the English 
don't have such things P" 

Nothing, however, would induce the 
Jewess to go back to that house. 

It is worthy of remark, in connection 
with the Jewish idea that the English are 
not Christians, that the Latins residing in 
Palestine had originally set this afloat. There 
being no English church or public worship 
in Jerusalem until established by the London 
Society for Promoting Christianity among 
the Jews, the English were said to have no 
religion. The current name applied to them 
was Farmason (Freemasons), that is infidels. 

It is not many yeai» since I saw in the 
hands of an English traveller a certificate of 
pilgrimage given to him, as to others, on his 
visiting the various holy plitcos. The lines 
in which " name," " date," " country," etc., 
ought to be, were all correctly filled up ; but 
opposite to the word " religion," the pious 
monk had written nought (0), no religion, 
because he was an English Protestant. 

The Oriental Christian population were 
at first convinced that the English could 
not bo Christians. The travellers they saw 
neither wore crosses, nor made the sign of 
the cross, nor fasted, nor adored the saints, 
nor reverenced the holy fire. How then 
could they be Christians P But all this was 
changed when regular Church services were 
established, when we were understood to 
know and reverence the Bible, and when our 
Liturgy was circulated in the languages 



NAFOLEON AND TEE JEWS. 



fTha Scattered l^Atioii, 
L Maroh 1. 1866. 



which the people of the country, Jews and 
GbntUes, could understand. 

The idea that the English are not Chris- 
tians has been disposed of for ever by the 
existence of Christchurch on Mount Zion ; 



excepting, perhaps, in the minds of such as 
the Jewesses aJ^ove-mentioned, who are 
ignorant that there can be real Christianity 
without cross*worship, and need special in- 
struction to enlighten them. 



{To he continued.) 



NAPOLEON AND THE JEWS. 

BY THE EDITOR. 



One can enumerate many reasons which 
might induce the present Emperor of France 
to hold a meeting with the leading Jews in 
Paris, and to discuss with them the return 
of their nation to the Holy Land. 

Napoleon III. has adopted all the ideas 
of Napoleon I., and tries to imitate him as 
much as their different gifts and the altered 
times permit. What the one obtained by 
the sword, the other gets by diplomacy, and 
in many instances he succeeds much better 
in attaining his object. But we are not 
going to characterize the uncle or the 
nephew, or to compare them with one an- 
other : we simply remind our readers that 
Napoleon L called together something like 
a Sanhedrim, which was to have its centre at 
Paris, and to be governed by Napoleon.* Mr. 
Mole, the imperial counsellor, who, on the 
18th September, 1806, addressed the Jewish 
counsellors, told them : " The senate, once 
destroyed with the temple, would arise 
again to enlighten tlie people which was 
once ruled by it, and it shall now lead the 
Jews back to the real understanding of the 
law, though they be scattered in all lands." 

It cannot, therefore, be thought strange 
if Napoleon HI. follows the footsteps of 
Napoleon I., and now actually offers to the 
French Jews his help in restoring them to 
their native land. 

Then again, the Emperor likes very much 
to have his hand in everything, or, to 
express it more politely, he desires very 
much to make all nations happy. For it is 
not enough for him to promote the well- 
being of thirty- eight millions of Frenchmen : 
his care is extended also over the Italians, 

* Should oar readers desire it, we are willing 
to give soma more details regarding these meetings 
in the days of Napcleon I. 



and he expels the Austrians from Italy. And 
surely it is not his fault if the Italians think 
it right to remunerate his good services by 
giving him a portion of their land, which 
they would have reftised to the Austrians ! 

Then again, Mexico was very unhappy, 
and Napoleon tried to restore peace and 
comfort in that land, and sent them an 
emperor, even an Austrian prince. He 
cannot help it that Maximilian is his vassal, 
and can only do what Ni^leon allows him 
to do and to say. 

If he now finds that the Jews cannot be 
happy till they return to Palestine, and that 
it would redound much to his glory, and 
give him a very firm footing in Syria, if 
through his instrumentality the Jews were 
settled there, who can find fault with him if 
he gathers round him the Jews, and dis- 
cusses with them a question on which they, 
and perhaps even he, feel interested P 

When, therefore, the following letter 
reached us, we thought it our duty imme- 
diately to write to friends in Paris, who we 
knew took a lively interest in all that 
concerns Israel, and had ample means of 
ascertaining the truth of the statement : — 

" We are assured on good authority that the 
Emperor Napoleon recently invited the principal 
Jowa of France to a conferenoe on the subject 
of the retnm of the .Tews to the Holy Land, in 
the coarse of which he entered thoroughly into 
the whole subject."— J//t«^a/arf Christian Tirne^, 

To the Editor of " The Scattered Nation." 

Sib, — My attention has been directed to the 

above paragraph. Can you favour me, and other 

readers of your periodical, with further infarma- 

tion on the subject ? — Yours very faithfully, 

F^>ruary 9, 1866. W. D. 

In the one answer it was positively stated 
that it was nothing but a fiction, and sensa- 
tional news. The other letter wo print 
entirely :— 



The Sesttered NatioB,*! 
lUreh 1, 1866. J 



NAPOLEON AND THE JEWS. 



69 



Paeis, JV5. 14dh, 1866. 

Dear Sir, — We know nothing in Paris about 
the asserted interview of the Emperor with cer- 
tain leading Jews to question them on their state 
of feeling in reference to a return to Palestine. 
If it did take place, it must have been unofficial 
and priyate ; but the general opinion is that no 
such interview has occurred. On all sides, Jew 
and (Jentile, it is regarded as a pure invention. 

The "Israelite Universal Alliance" know 
nothing about it. 

On the other hand, it is a fact that Napoleon 
m. is thJTilring of the formation of a company 
for the colonization of the East, which would 
necessarily call for such politicMEd changes as 
would secure life and property to the colonists ; 
and this would remove the present formid- 
able obstacles to the often-proposed emigration, 
mt masse, to Syria of the Roman and Servian 
Jews. The Servian commission for the coloniza- 
tion of Syria has lately written to the Alliance 
to solicit its aid in a plan of emigration, and 
offered 12,000 francs towards it ; but the present 
insecurity of Palestine will most likely induce 
the Alliance to decline furthering this object, as 
inopportune. 

I also know that the Emperor's attention has 
been called to the subject of Israel's return by 
private Christians. 

The Israelite Universal Alliance, to which I 
have presented the first two copies of "The 
Scattered Nation," is now increased to 4400 
members, and has its committees in every part of 
the world. The first members amounted to about 
twenty in 1860, the year of its formation. At 
the first annual assembly in 1861 about 120 were 
present ; last year there were 1000 ; and the 
striking scene in the splendidly-lighted SsJlo 
Hers will not be easily e£&U!ed from the memory 
of spectators. 

Its aim, as you will see in the later reports 
which I send, is — 

1st. To promote everywhere the emancipation 
and moral progress of Israelites : 

2nd. To help effectually all who suffer on 
account of being Israelites : 

3rd. To encourage every publication likely 
to bring about these results. 

The Society is governed by a central com- 
mittee, sitting in Paris, which corresponds with 
the district and local committees. These latter 
oommittoes can be formed in any place where 
there are ten members. The Society publishes 
an annual report, and periodical bulletins. 

Tour readers may render signal service to the 
Alliance and its members, by sending to its 
library books or engravings referring in any 
way, or from any point of view, to Israel, Juda- 
ism, or Palestine. The book-post renders this 
easy, and the boon to the members would be g^reat. 
The address of the office is, Alliaj;ce Israelite 
TJniyerselle, 23, Rue d'Enghien, Paris. 

One word more. Is not the formation of such 
an alliance one of the most striking signs of the 
present day ? At no former period of Israel's 



dispersion could it have been instituted, and now, 
just at the time to which so many past pro- 
phetic students have pointed, and around which 
almost all modern ones call the church to gaze, 
we find the first f4>parent vibration among the 
dry and silent occupants of EzekieVs valley of 
vision. Every day one and another, from Pekin 
in the East, to San Francisco in the West, are 
rising into national life by the touch of the 
Alliance. In time the whole army of the slain 
will be known and counted up. Then, how sim- 
ply and naturally a political motive might, at 
any day, by a single word from the Government 
to the Alliance, people Palestine with the no 
longer slain but living, the no longer scattered 
but recalled ! And then the grand, the glorious 
future would be at hand ; " Come from the four 
winds, O Spirit, and breathe upon these slain 
that they may live !" 

At present all we can do is to stand and point 
to the results of the Alliance and say, " Behold 
a shaking !" 

May the Lord hasten it in his good time. 

S. P. B. 

It is possible that these letters will not 
satisfy some, and will disappoint others, who 
have made up their minds to believe all that 
is said about Napoleon, or that can in any 
way strengthen their view that ho is the 
Antichrist. It will not avail much, but 
still I repeat here the following authenticated 
anecdote. When Napoleon III. lately gave a 
site to French Protestants whereon to build 
a church, he said : " It gives me pleasure to 
comply with your request. Will you kindly 
tell your English and American brethren 
that I am not the Ajitichrist P" 

All we can say now is that no Jewish nor 
Christian French paper, as far as we have 
seen them, have mentioned the meeting of 
the Emperor with the leading Jews, so that 
unless more satisfactory proofs be given, one 
must believe the positive denial given by 
our French friends ; to say nothing of this — 
that Napoleon is by far too clever a diplo- 
matist to commit himself so publicly and 
decidedly. Everything concerning Israel is 
now much taken notice of: and that even a 
periodical like the "Comhill Magazine'* 
devotes an article to the ceremonies of the 
Jewish religion. This is a fact which ought 
not to be overlooked by all who wish to read 
the signs of the times in the light of Qt)d'8 
Word and present events. 



70 



MTELLIGENOE. 



L Maxtk 1, US8. 



INTELLIGENCK 



IirrLUENCX OF THE Jkw8< — ^The Jewish mer- 
chants of Ban Francisco, Galifomia, have lately 
resolved to refrain on the Jewish Sabbath from 
all business transaoticRis. The resnlt of it -was 
that the following " Notice" was given in the local 
papers : — " In oonseqnence of steamer da.f falling 
upon the Jewish Sabbath (Satordaj), the steamer 
* Colorado' will be detained nntil one o'clock pjn. 
Monday." 

A BoTAL Visit.— THie King and Queen of 
Frassia paid a visit to the new sjnagogae, said 
to be the finest eodenastioal bnilddng in the 
capital of Prussia. 

A JvBiLBB. — In a small town in ^e Grand 
Ihiohy of Baden, a Jew lately celebrated his 
jubilee. He reoeiTed a telegram from the Grand 
Dnke, in which that prince congratulated the 
old man. In that very place, this same person, 
when a yonth, had to pay a special ignominions 
impost called " JndenzoU" (Jews' tax), as if he 
had been an ox or a horse. 

The Austbian Empbbob at Pbsth has in- 
vited to his table the two Babbis of Pesth and 
Bnda, who, however, did not tonch anything 
which is prohibited by the Babbinioal law. To 
an address fr^m an Israelitish deputation, the 
Smperor replied : " I am well satisfied with yonr 
oondact and loyalty, and I believe that the time 
is not fiar off when yonr legitimate wi^es will 
be realized, yoor position in this country im- 
proved, and the range of yonr rights enlaiged." 

Jewish Movement. — The "National Gazette" 
of Russia states that there are movements among 
the Jews both at Mittau and at Biga, who ask 
to be incorporated in the general commimity. 
At Mittau they form the fifth part of the popu- 
lation, and the Government is disposed to accede 
to their wishes. There are also reform move- 
ments in these cities, a portion of the Jews 
openly manifesting rationalistic tendencies, while 
the majority are strictly orthodox. 

SirMosbsMontifiobe is preparing for another 
journey to the Holy Land, taking charge of the 
balanoe of the Jewish Palestine Belief Fund. 
Sir Moses is eighty years old, but cheerfully 
submits to deprivation and hardship, because he 
believes that at this juncture his presence might 
be particularly useful among the deeply afflicted 
Palestinian community. The Jews in Jerusalem 
are altogether dependent on the charity of their 
foreign co-religionists. It is very desirable to 
open up to them some permanent sources for 
obtaining a livelihood. Tlie only two they can 
betake tibemseWes to are industnal pursuits and 
agriculture. The editor of the " Jewish Chro- 
nicle" sees so many objections to the first that, 
in his judgment, there remains nothing but 
agriculture. " And why should the later de- 
soendants," he exclaims, "not return to the 
occupation of their ancestors ?" 

Jerusalem. — According to a statement made 
by the Bev. E. B. Frankel, one of the missionaries 
of the London Society for Promoting Christianity 
among the Jews, about 600 Jews died from the 
cholera. For weeks the shops were closed, and ' 
yoxmg and old spent days and nights in fasting 
and repeating the Psahns of David. The Christian 



Jews manifested a prayeribl spirit during thiiB 
distressing visitation. When death was strikiBg 
down its victims on every side, their souls were 
kept in perfect peace, trusting in ih.e Lord. 

A CoKTBAST. — In ihe imperial palace «t 
Vienna, Mr. Goldschmidt has taken a Jewish 
oath (more judaico) as a goldsmith and taxer <)f 
jewellery lor the imperial family. It is for ihe 
first time that this has happened in Austria, (ki 
the other hand, it has become necessary for the 
tribunals at Berlin to have, in a very important 
lawsuit, the testimony of a Jew residing at 
Madrid. The Spanish court has refused the re- 
quest of the Berlin Mbunal, because ^^nmiker 
Jews nor Mabbig emtt in Spfdn, and Judmam u 
tMogether wnknoum in ihe Sptmiek oonatUuHon,** 

Pbbjvdicbs bbbakino down. — The Bev. Mr. 
Meyer, missionary of the Free Church of Soot- 
land at Ancona, where the cholera has made 
•such great ravages, writes : " On Friday nights I 
have a course of lectures on Old Testament his- 
tory. A good many Jews have come out to these 
Friday evening meetings; and although I am fiur 
from saying that any of them have experienoed 
saving influence, still it is undeniable that their 
prejudices are breaking down. Thej see that 
we are not idolaters like the Bomanists, and 
that our faith rests upon the Old Testament as 
its basis." This is no doubt a great gain in a 
place like Anoona, and one may really feel en- 
couraged when one is told that the Jews return 
to the Scriptures, and try to ascertain how ixt 
their own Babbinical system is in aecordanoe 
with the Word of God. A general spirit of in- 
qiury is excited among them. 

TuBiAk — M. Lauria, the missionary of the 
London Jews' Society, reports that he has given 
away five, and sold twenty-nine copies, in 
whole or in part, of the Hebrew Scriptures. He 
has also sold one hundred copies of the Hebrew 
and Italian Pentateuch. Jews are constantly 
asking for the entire Bible in Hebrew and 
Italian. 

Lbghorit. — The Bev. Dr. Philip has been 
lately stationed in this place, having come here 
from Jaffa, where he was permitted to do great 
service to the whole community. When during 
a fearful outbreak of cholera the other physicians 
left, he remained alone ; and such has been his 
incessant work, that the Turkish authorities have 
publicly acknowledged the services rendered by 
him. He has lately been sent to Italy for a 
change, and writes to the Committee that he has 
called on several Jewish patients sufiering irom. 
chronic diseases, and that these sufferers were 
willing to hear of the Great Physician who heals 
bodies and souls. Ho has, besides that, been 
visited by respectable Jews, who came for the 
express purpose of speaking to him about reli- 
gion. 

A Hebrew Pbofbssob. — Mr. Salkinson, another 
missionary of the British Society, has entered 
on a new field in Austria, and has found in an 
unconverted Jew a fellow-labourer. The man 
once advocated Jewish reform in the place, but 
did not succeed, though a good man, as the 
orthodox party is very strong in that town. When 



Uanh 1, 1666. J 



INTELLIQEN€E. 



71 



Mr. S. pointed oat to him that Jewish refiorm 
hmd nothing to build apon, having no Diviiie 
anthoritj or eyangelioal principles to tobBtitnte 
in room of Jewish tradition, he was willing to 
listen to the advice given to foUow the example 
of the apostles, and to reclaim the Jews by 
preaching Christ. 

"Abyssinia: its Past, Pbbsent, and Pho- 
BABLB Future."— Under this title the Bev. Dr. 
Margolionth has a work in tho press, bearing 
especiaUy on the British datives now in Ethi- 
opia. 

EXFLORATIONS IN PAUDSTOni. 

In continuation of the intelligence nnder this 
head on page 46, we now give the following ad- 
ditional particulars, which appeared in "The 
l^es " of February 21st :— 

I have received a third report finom Captain 

Wibon, Bojal Bng^neers, in charge of tho first 
exploring party of this Association. The party 
arrived at Tel Hum (north-east end of the Lake 
of Galilee) on the 20th of January, moved to 
Khan Minyeh on the 25th, and to Mejdel (centre 
of the west side of lake) on the 27th, at which 
date the report was despatched : — 

TopoesAPHT. — Astronomical observations 
have been made at Tel-el-Eftdy, Hunin, Kedes, 
Safed, Tel Hum, and Khan Mhiyeh. A recon- 
noiBaance sketch has been made of the district 
around Banias down to the junction of the Banias 
and Hasbany Bivers, across the valley to Mtelleh, 
and thence following the dividing ridge between 
tbe waters of the Litany and Mediterranean and 
those of the Jordan down to Safen, embracing 
also a large portion of the country on either side. 
The bad state of the weather, cold and wet, 
drore the party from Kefr Birim, but they have 
to return to investigate the ruins there, and at 
lEeiron and Yarum, and other places not pre- 
viooriy described, and will have an opportunity 
of getting in the topography of Jebel Jurmuk, 
and connecting it with the former work. A re- 
oonnoisaance has been commenced of the country 
bordering on the lake, and this Captain Wilson 
hopes to carry right round, and also to trace out 
the whole of tho Wadys running into tho western 
side of the lake. 

Archjboloqy. — A sketch has been made of 
the Castle of Hunin, the northern portion of 
which is surrounded by a ditch cut in the sohd 
vook to a depth of, in some places, twenty feet, 
a w<»k apparently of great antiquity. At Kedes 
aome excavations were made on the site of the 
mins ; the western building is a tomb containing 
eleven locuH, the eastern one is a temple of the 
sun of about the same date as Baalbek ; the 
richly-worked lintel over the main entrance was 
dug up. Close to the temple, and evidently 
b^onging to it, an altar with a Ghreek inscription 
was found, which has been squeezed and copied : 
a finely-worked buried sarcophagus was dug up, 
in better repair than those exposed to the air. 
Detailed plajis have been made of the mouldings, 
etc., on both the buildings and the sarcophagi, 
snfiioient to reconstruct the former with great 
accuracy. On the same hill somo curious tombs 
were found, of one of which a plan wan made. 
A littlo more than two miles south-east of Kedes, 
on an isolated hill called Tel Harah, were found 
the remains of a large dty of very ancient date ; 



the walls of the citadel and aportion of the city 
wall oonld be traced. This Ci^tain Wilson le- 
gards as the long-sou^t-for Hazor, in preference 
to Tel Khureibeh. At Tel Hum the White 
Synagogue had been so far excavated, and its 
plan and ornaments carefully recorded, but 
nothing else had been found. The ruins of 
Cfaorasdn at Kerazeh turn out to be far more im- 
portant than was previously suspected; they 
cover a much larger extent of ground than Tel 
Hum, and many of the private houses are almost 
perfect, with the exception of the roofs, tiie 
openings for doors and windows remaining in 
some cases. All the buildings, including a syna- 
gogue or church, are of basalt, and it is not till 
one is right in among them that one sees clearly 
what they are. Fifty or one hundred yards off 
they look nothing more than the rough heaps of 
basaltic stones so common in this country. Draw- 
ings have been made of the mouldings, etc., and 
a plan of the lai^ge building, as far as it oonld be 
made out. 

Photographs. — Two views of niches and 
fountain of Banias ; seven views of castle of 
Banias; three views of town and citadel of 
Banias ; one view of Hazor, Oak Gh*ove ; three 
views of sarcophagi at Kedes ; one view of large 
tomb at Kodes ; seven views of temple at 
Kedes; four views of ruins at Kerazeh; five 
views of ruins at Tel Hum. 

The broad cutting in the rock above Aiw el 
Tin proves to be a portion of a large aqueduct 
whidi formerly conveyed the whole of the foun- 
tain at Tabighah into the plain of Gennesareth 
for irrigation ; the water was raised in a tank, 
and carried round the contour of the Tabighah 
valley to the plain. The aqueduct still stands in 
small portions at several points, and can be 
easily traced the whole way by the number of 
stones with cement adhering to them lying on 
tho surface of the ploughed fields. Specimens 
of the waters of the fountains have been kept, 
and their temperatures taken. 

At Irhid some progress had been made in 
excavating the synagogue. Two additional pho- 
tographs had been taken ; one of an aqueduct 
hewn in rock, and one of the plain from above 
Khan Minyeh. The reconnoissance had been 
advanced to Mejdel, and observations made at 
Khan Minyeh. The maps are all greatly in error 
in this district. The whole of the ancient sys- 
tem for irrigating the Ghuweir had been traoed ; 
though on a smaller scale, it was as perfect as 
that of the Damascus plain. The mounds at 
Khan Minyeh had been excavated for two days, 
but without much result. The pottery and 
masonry appear to be comparatively modem. 
The maps promise to bo a valuable addition to 
the topography of Palestine. — Your obedient ser- 
vant, George Grove, Hon. Sec. 
Sydenham, Feb. 20. 

association for the dippusion op religious 
knowledge. 

Among the various associations of recent date 
organized by the Jews, " Tho Association for the 
DJiibsion of Religions Knowledge " deserves our 
attention, on account both of its oriffin and its 
obfecL 

As to its origin^ Christendom may justly be 
congratulated as not only having supplied a pat- 



72 



INTELLIQENCE, 



fThe Scattered NutioD, 
L March 1, 1866. 



tern for its organization, bat as really being the 
rock from whence this Association is hewn. As 
to its object, it is indeed most praiseworthy. It 
seeks to reach the ignorant and neglected, and 
to stay the torrent of infidelity rising among 
the Jews, by the difiosion of religions knowledge 
(this great spiritual destitution is well known to 
the Christian Missionary, the only agent who 
is practically and well acquainted with the condi- 
tion of the Jews in London) ; bat the Association 
has also (according to the tenor of their last 
Annnftl Bcport) a socondary object — viz., to 
£ght against " a dangerous and insidious foe'' — 
».«., all Christian agencies for the circulation of 
Biblical truth to the homes and hearts of these 
long-neglocted ones. 

The Association was founded by the late Bev. 
Bamett Abrahams, and claims to be an Anglo- 
Jewish Society. It has now been in existence 
five years. 

The means employed for carrying out the 
objects of the Society are the following : — 

Friday Evening Classes. 
Sabbath Afternoon Lectures. 
Sabbath Schools. 
Scripture Teaching. 
House-to-House Visitation. 
Tract and Bible Distribution. 
Prison Visitation. 

Most interesting are these moans, as speci- 
mens of truly Christian origin ; and it is indeed 
highly gratifying to find, that after many cen- 
turies our Jewish brethren have at last come to 
the conviction of the blessedness of those seve- 
ral branches of Christian effort. And in speak- 
ing of their Sabbath schools, the Report of the 
Association says : — " Let those who doubt the 
advantage of Sabbath schools visit the streets 
in which the poor dwell and congregate, and 
contrast the children without the school with 
those within it." 

The Association feel the great importance of 
the Sabbath afternoon Lectures, and the Report 
says: — " These lectures provide a rational 
method of occnpying what might otherwise be 
an unprofitably spent hour on the Sabbath 
day;" but they greatly lament the scarcity of 



The prison visitation is acknowledged by them 
as a " momentous matter" Of this, as also of 
the tract distribution and house-to-house visita- 
tion, it can certainly be said that they are not 
of " Hebrew extraction," and that a great and 
long-existing barrier has been broken down in , 
the mode of Jewish teaching. The following 
eulogy passed by the Association on missionary 
work in general must, indeed, be accepted as a 
token for good :— " Happy after all, however ar- 
duous, however grave, is the task of those who, 
as humble instruments of providential mercy, 
seek to make a cry of contrition in the sinner^s 
heart." 



JEWS* HOME. 

36, Kbwnham Stbkit, Edgware Road, W. 

Several Christian friends have complied with 

my request, and lent me a helping hand. Since 

the Lord led me to attempt establishing this Hove 

for some young men who have acknowledged 



Jesus as thair Messiah, I have been more than 
ever convinced of the importance, yea, of the 
necessity, of such an effort. I do not use the 
grand word ** Institution," for I have at present 
but two rooms, and I wish only to enlarge when 
the necessity is laid on me by Him who sends 
the men, and who will then g^ve the means for 
their maintenance. 

Both inmates spoken of in the flrtt number 
of this periodical are now baptized; and I 
hope in a future number to give some detcols 
with regard to (Jod's dealings with them, in 
order that the Qod of Israel may be glorified in 
this manifestation of his love. A third young 
man, baptized at Algiers, has promdeniially been 
brought to the Home. I use the word pro- 
videntiallt/f advisedly. And having been thus 
brought to mo, I have not the heart to cast him 
forth— a stranger, and almost ignorant of the 
English language — upon the streets of London. 
I believe hUn to be a thoroughly honest and 
earnest man ; ho possesses, in a, very high, degree, 
a knowledge of Hebrew and of Arabic — the latter 
being his native tongue. 

I now s^peal to all the readers of our 
periodical, and the friends of The Scatteeed 
Nation, to assist me in this my work for my 
brethren, and I beg to say that I shall feel 
gratefally obliged for every donation or annual 
subscription. I care more for the former than 
for the latter, because as our day so will our help 
certainly be from our God. 

We have prepared very neat collecting-cards, 
and it would give me great pleasure to send 
them wherever friends might feel stirred up to 
get help for the Home. I am ready to give, pri- 
vately, all needful information and full particulars. 
And now may the Lord bless all our friends, and 
make us a rich blessing to one another. 

Two others have applied for admission, and 
we trust that the friends of The Scattered 
Nation will enable us to receive them into the 
Home. 

C. Schwartz, D.D. 
4, 8L Leonard's Oardens, Paddington. 



TRINITY CHAPEL, JOHN STREET, 
EDGWARE ROAD. 

This chapel was built by the Rev. Ridley 
Herschell, with the earnest desire of benefiting 
his Jewish brethren thereby, more especially those 
who live in the West of our large metropolis. 
Having been called to succeed him in the 
ministxy, it is my prayerful wish to follow his 
example, and to bring before my Jewish brethren 
the claims of the King of Israel, and before my 
Christian hearers the dealings and designs of 
Gkxl with Israel. 

Our Bt^rviccs commence on Sonday morning^ 
at eleven, and in the evenings at seven o'clock. 

On Tuesday evening, at half-past seven, a 
lecture is delivered on the Pkt>phecie8 of Isaii^ 

In all the services, the Word of God is 
explained by comparing Scripture with Scrip- 
ture, and all lovers of God's Word in its majestic 
simplicity and grandeur are kindly invited. 

C. Schwartz, D.D. 



The Seatt«<ed NAtionn 
April i, 1866. J 



THE TESTIMONY OF ENEMIES. 



73 



THE TESTIMONY OP ENEMIES. 



BY THE EDrroa. 



The Jews have lately celebrated the feast of 
TsniB PuRiM, and they have good reason so to 
do, for they therein commemorate one of 
those wonderful deliverances which prove to 
friends and foes that Jehovah has chosen 
this people, and has made with them a cove- 
nant which cannot depart, though mountains 
may depart and hills be removed. 

"We need not enter into a detailed 
account, as our readers are no doubt well 
acquainted with the Book of Esther, where 
the machinations of the enemy, the distress 
of the nation, the faithful language of Mor- 
decai, and the boldness of Esther, are touch- 
ingly described. We simply draw attention 
to the declaration of Haman, the bitter and 
resolute enemy of the Jews. When he tried 
to induce the king to allow him to deal with 
the people of Israel as he chose, he said : 
** There is a certain people scattered abroad 
and dispersed among the people in all the 
provinces of thy kingdom ; and their laws 
are diverse from all people; neither keep 
they the king's laws : therefore it is not for 
the king's profit to sufier them " (Esther iii. 
"^S). No one will suspect Haman of saying 
anything in favour of Israel ; and yet whilst 
he simply states a fact known to the king 
himself and all that were conversant with 
the state of the Jewish people in those days, 
he at the same time is compelled to acknow- 
ledge one of the great peculiarities of that 
people, which distinguishes it altogether 
from all the nations of the earth. 

Haman says literally, There is one 
people, as if he was going to say, Thy king- 
dom, extensive as it is, embraces a great 
many and various nationalities; but diffe- 
rent though they may be, still they have a 
good many things in common, and their 
mutual intercourse and the relation they 
stand in to one another clearly prove that 
they are fruits of the same tree, have sprung 
up from the same root. For even when 
separated from one another by lofty moun- 
tains, or mighty and dark woods, or broad 
and deep rivers, still they feel knit together 
by many ties, and they are willing to 
intermarry and to come into close contact. 
But there is one people, small and appa- 

VOL. I.— NO. IV. 



rently weak and insignificant, and in a cer- 
tain sense scarcely a people at all, for it is 
scattered abroad and dispersed in all the 
many provinces of the kmgdom, and yet a 
people every way distinguished from the 
other peoples, so much so, that whilst all 
the other nations stand as it were on one 
side, this one people, scattered among them, 
is so wonderfully united in itself, that it 
stands quite alone on the other side, mani- 
festing by its language, its manners and 
habits, its principles and its conduct, in 
short, by everything wherein the life and 
peculiarities of nations can be seen, that it 
is of another growth, and cannot be num- 
bered among the peoples around. 

It would be less strange to find a people 
living in some remote comer of this vast 
empire, shut off from all intercourse with 
the rest of the kingdom, differing in its 
forms and laws from all others ; but the 
marvel is that this people live in the very 
midst of the empire, come in daily contact 
with its subjects, and yet preserve their 
nationality intact, and at any sacrifice keep 
their own laws, which distinguish them 
every way and at all times from every other 
community. 

Haman adds, no doubt in order to obtain 
the consent of the king for his murderous 
plans : " Neither keep they the king's laws," 
and thus tries to make their fideUty sus- 
pected in the eyes of a jealous monarch. This 
wretched calunmy has frequently been re- 
peated by the slanderers of the Jews, who 
then only could not comply with the laws of 
the king when they were opposed to the 
laws of the King of kings. The latter part, 
then, of Haman's testimony is a slander 
invented to serve his special purpose, but 
the former is one of those many proofs of 
divine sovereignty which makes even the 
wrath of man to praise Qod, and to confirm 
eternal truths He has declared regarding 
his purposes with this people and kingdom. 

Scattered — and yet a nation. Living in 
the midst of all peoples — and yet not amal- 
gamated with them. Every effort is made 
to deprive the Jew of his nationality : violence 
and kindness are alike resorted to. At one 



74 



THB TSSTDiONT OF ENEMIES. 



L April S, IMS. 



time the Jews are exposed to the bitterest 
persecution, and their very existence is in 
jeopardy ; at other times they are flattered, 
ciy'oled, and offers are made to receive and 
absorb them among the nations; but neither 
threats nor promises avail : they soom the 
one, and they reject the other. 

Strange to say th%t Haman had been 
preceded by another enemy, who was oaUed 
to ourse, and was compelled to bless ; and 
though himself a liar, he wa» coustrained 
by the Spirit of God to give a truthlul tes- 
timony to the nationality of IsraeL I am 
referring to Balaait, who was hired by 
Balak to curse the people he wished to de- 
stroy by the edge of the sword ; and Ba3aam 
would most gladly have done what wm re- 
quired and expected of him, had he not 
been prevented from cursing and defying 
them whom Grod would neither curse star 
defy. Nay, he is forced to eocdaim, "Lo, 
the pec^e shall dwell alone, and shall not 
be reckoned amqng the nations." As far as 
he could ii\jure Israel, he did it most readily, 
for by his treacherous advice Israel was in- 
duced to join himself to Baal-peor, and not 
less than twenty >four thousand died in the 
plague. But though Israel stumbled for a 
abort time, it was not cut off. i3ven the 
wily Balaam had to testify* " Not reckoned 
among the nations." 

We need not, then, appeal to friends. 
We can even take our testimony from what 
the bitterest adversaries of Israel disclose 
Tegarding thali pe(^e» though w« perfectly 
know that these enemies had to proclaim 
this truth, because it was in aooordstfioe with 
Qod's Word. Haman and Balaam have 
gone to their place, and but for the sacred 
record of Israel's history, their names would 
hikve perished with them. The messengers 
are worthless ; but their message is highly 
valuable : it has been confirmed by succeed- 
ing ages, and is established by what we see 
in our own days, with our own eyes. Israel 
is scattered, not only in the province of one 
kingdom, vast though it be, but it is dis- 
persed among all the nations, even unto the 
ends of the earth. Still it is a people pre- 
serving its nationaliiy by its sacred lan- 
guage, imderstood by the Jews in every 
olime, and by the recollection of its wonder- 
ful history, preoLous to the Jew in erery 
land* They ar» the deapised of ^arfch, yot 



they are admitted to all the privileges thai 
other peoples can bestow on fellow-citizens ; 
but, whatever their national condition may 
be, their laws are diverse from those of the 
nations in the midst of which they sojourn; 
You can emancipate but not amalgamate 
them; you can obtain of them a hdping- 
hand to do good to others, but still they 
dwell alone, and shall not be reckoned amon^ 
the nationa The distinotion between Jew 
and Qreek is not <^ man's mi^dng. but of 
God's appointment; and e^ery arbitrary 
attempt to unite what God has separated 
is as sure to fail as every endeavour to 
separate what God has dosely joined toge* 
thar. 

We claim, then, for the Jew a special, tk 
divinely-fixed position in this world's his- 
tory; and the very marked, lofty lOace God 
has allotted to this people necessarily ohal^ 
lenges attention, and gives to the Jewish 
nation a great influenca for evil or for good. 
Years may roll on, and some other people 
not Jfiss numerous than the Jewish may 
soarcely have attracted any notice, yea^. 
while nations were bom and disappeared^ aU 
went on as usual ; it is not so with the Jew. 
Depend upon it that in eveiy ^d, in 
every position of life, in every branch of 
industry and oommercs, of literature and 
art, in the oouncils of the nations and in the 
cabinets of kings and queens, everywhere^ 
their iofluence isf<^t»if it does not evenpre^ 
dominate. 

iivery observer of the times most see- 
that among the Jews the richest bankers 
the ablest musicians, the most exquisite 
painters, the devereat writers, are to be 
found. The purse and the pen , are at their 
disposal, and mighty weapons they no doubt 
are in our money-nu^ung and book-devonr* 
ing age. Can you doubt that it is of im- 
mense importance whether they wield these 
weapons for or idigainet Chriet P Can yon 
deny that in winning them for Christ you 
not only save their own souls, more precious 
in the sight of God than a whole world, 
but bring into the field an army the like of 
which has never yet been seen in the Church 
of Christ ? Can you ignore the fact that the 
battle rages around us everywhere„and that 
from the two camps of B4]Uiionalism and 
Bomanism a simultaneous attack is made, 
not only on the exteimal entrenchments, but 



The Boatiwad 2Sr«tioB,l 



THE TESTIMONY OF EITEMIES, 



75 



on the yery foandations of the Christian 
dtadel? 

It is not a sham fight ; it is not a straggle 
on some minor points which conld readily be 
abandcuied; it is a battle for life or death: and 
we have tc^d jon already, the victory cannot 
\» aohioTed nnlees the Grentile Church builds 
in good and real i^rest on the IsraeUie foun- 
dation; and we now add* the enemy cannot 
be oyerocnne except (be JeM9 take part, not 
t«>8«9' take the lead, in this moBMotous 
WMrfikrew 

Let no one suppose that they have been 
preserved a nation, though scattered among 
aH peoples, without some very ^Mcial, 
aU-important object. The Jew is now a 
witness of Gk)d's bolinees ; he shall one day 
be the great witness to Qod's £Eu;thftilne8s : 
and the natkm so bitter and coosisteat in its 
liatred of the gospel and rejection of the 
Messiah shall be as earnest and as persever- 
ing in its burning desire for the advancement 
of the kingdom when it shall have itself sub- 
mitted to the King of Israel. ThinkofSan) 
breathing out threatenings and slaughter 
against the disciples of the Lord, and of 
Paul, who could wish to be himself accursed 
from Christ for his kinsmen, and you will 
nnderstand what I mean. 

But not only the people, the King of 
the Jews has also received wonderM testi- 
mony from his enemies. Again, we know 
that these enemies said and did what 
they have said and have done ** that the 
Scriptures might be fulfilled,*' but stiH it is 
of importance to call to remembrance the 
declarations made on behalf of Christ by 
« some of his antagonists. We select one or 
two instances recorded in the history of his 
last sufibrings and deepest humiliation. 

The first place must be allotted to that 
wretched disciple, who had been with Christ 
for many days, had witnessed his miracles, 
and had heard his words of authority and of 
power. Frustrated in his ezpeetations of 
earthly grandeur, and horrified at the idea 
of a sufibring Messiah, Judas offered to be- 
tray his Master, and the highest dignitaries 
availed themselves of this impious ofier. The 
bargain, so degrading for thp leaders of the 
nation, was accepted, and they thought that 
they had accomplished their design in resist- 
ing and rejecting the claims of Jesus to be the 
Messiah. But who can describe the horror 



that seized their souls when the traitor him* 
self came into their midst, and cried with a 
voice trembling in despair, " I have sinned 
in that I have betrayed innocent blood " ? 

Not only the Jew Judas, but also the 
heathen Pilate, must raise his voice on be- 
half of the maligned Jesus. He, the great 
sceptic, who, in his indifference to all truths, 
could not come farther even when the King: 
of truth stood before him, than to ask y^^ 
a shrug of his shoulder, "What is tn»1jlb?" 
even he must come forward, and washing 
his hands before the multitude, exclainv 
''I am innocent of the blood of this Just 
person." 

The bitterest, the most resolute of all the 
enemies of Jesus was the high priest Caia- 
phas. He, like Balaam of old, came to curse, 
and he was compelled to bless. He, like 
Hainan, was bent upon destat>ying the most 
glorious Son, the foundaticm and hope of 
Israel, and with unsparing recklessness, he 
said, " It is expedient for us that one man 
should die for the people, and that the whole 
nation perish not." It was not with Caia- 
phas, the highest judge in the land, a ques- 
tion of right or wrong, but of expediency. 
Nay, his very words clearly intimate that he 
did not believe Jesus to be guilty; but, to save 
the nation, he was ready to deliver Jesus into 
the hands of the Eomans. Haman tried, 
against God's will, to destroy the nation,.. 
and he ruined himself and his house. Caia^ 
phas essayed to preserve the nation by re- 
jecting the Messmh, and he brought eternal 
shame on himself, and long and woeful 
misery on the nation, scattered till this very 
day. 

We might almost adopt the words used 
by Caiaphas against Jesus, and with a sin- 
gle modification, exclaim. What fertber need 
have we of witnesses* now ye have heard his^ 
(Caiaphas's) ** iesiMmmtf* ? The very fact 
that an [act done to keep away the Romans 
and to asave the city and the people has had 
no other effect than to bring these Bomans 
nigh the holy city, to encompass it, and 
to leave not one stone on the other, as had 
been foretold by Jesus when weeping over 
Jerusalem ; the very fact that Israel is dis- 
persed and their house is left desolate because 
they have not yet called Him blessed who 
came in the name of the Lord, all which is 
done that the word of Jeeiia should befidfiUed, 



76 



LYEA EXPECTANTIUM. 



fTha Scattered KaitkMi, 
L Aptfl 2, 186C 



all this is so marvellous that all who do not 
choose to shut iheir eyes must see in ic the 
finger of God. 

But we do not wish to close these re- 
marks with the words of enemies ; we prefer 
adding a testimony of one who loved the 
nation and adored the King. John, the 
beloved disciple, who leaned on the bosom 
of Jesus —and, what says infinitely more, in 
whose heart Christ lived — ^tells us of the 
words of Caiaphas : " This spake he not of 
himself t hut being high 'priest thai year, he 
jyrophesied that Jesus should die poe that 
NATiox/* Caiaphas thought evil against 
Jesus, but God meant it for good, to bring 
to pass to save much people. The high 
priest of tliat year did all he could to destroy 
Israel ; the eternal High Priest brought about 
an eternal salvation. For his blood is shed 
even on their behalf; his prayer on the cross 
intercedes for them, and his arms, stretched 



out on the cross, are open to receive them ; 
for though they have rejected Him fornearly 
eighteen hundred years, they are not cast 
off for ever. 

When the veil shall be removed firom the 
hearts of the Je^s, and their eyes shall be 
opened to see Him whom they have pierced, 
then shall they know that Caiaphas de- 
stroyed, and Jesus saved, the nation; and as 
they once eagerly cried, " Crucify! crucify !" 
so shall they unceasingly shout, ** Glorify- ! 
glorify !" His blood shaU come over than, 
and purify them from all uncleanness, and 
they shall be altogether devoted to the service 
of Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the JewB. 
Around his banner they shall rally; before 
his throne they shall bow; his commands 
they shall execute ; his kingdom they shall 
promote ; and thus the Scriptures shall be 
fulfilled, that their reception is "life from 
the dead." 



LYRA EXPECTANTIUM.— No. n. 

BT W. STONE, M.A. 

'* Say Qoto the cities of Jndah, Behold joxu Ood.**— Iia. zL 9. 

" Now IB out miration ntarer than when we beUeTod."— Box. ziii. 11. 



Ye Messengers of Peace, 
Proclaim the Bridegroom near ! 

Upliffc the thrilling voice, nor cease 
Until the Kino appear. 

Oh, fear not to snstam 

The high and sacred trust : 
Behold ! He comes from heaven to reign, 

The Holy and the Jnst ! 

Let Judah's cities hear, 

And call her sons trom £cur. 
From crowded mart and desert drear : 

The Lord's highway prepare ! 

^e lofty looks abase, • 

The weak and low exalt, 
The feeble strengthen for the race ; 

Bring forth the blind and halt ! 



He comes with oonqaering hand« 

Avenging his " elect " ; 
With soeptral might to rule the land. 

His sheep-fold to protect. 

The *' lambs," with tender arm. 

He gently carries home, 
Safe in his bosom lodged from harm : 

The weak and strong may come. 

Ye heralds of the King, 

To long-lost Israel cry ; 
Glad tidings to the wanderers bring, 

Of Heroy drawing nigh ! 

With Faith's nnveilM eye, 
" Prisoners of hope," be firee ! 

Salvation beaming in the sky, 
Yom* bless'd Messiah see ! 



The ScAttond Nfttion,-! 
Aprfl3,1886. J 



I8EAJEF8 MISSION, AIW MISSIONS TO ISRAEL. 



77 



ISRAELIS MISSION, AND MISSIONS TO ISRAEL. 

BY DR. WM. GEAHAM, OF BONN. 



m. WHY AB£ THE JEW» SCATTERED' P 

1. Their dispersion is a great fad, written 
on the page of oniTersal history, and patent 
to the eye of every observer. Wonderful 
must have been the canse and terrible the 
stroke which broke into fragments the firmest 
political and religions constitution in the 
world. Ages have rolled over them, and 
they remain scattered. No nation has a 
deeper patriotism, and they remain expa- 
triated : no nation contains greater elements 
of union, and yet they remain dispersed : no 
nation has suffered such chastisements, and 
yet they remain unsubdued: no nation 
was for ages more quiet and agricultural, 
and now, in their long dispersion, they are 
only and altogether merchants. Enthusiasm 
and the love of plunder led the Arabs, under 
celebrated warriors and kings, from their 
desert-sands into the fieurest and richest 
provinces of civilization: enthusiasm and 
love of plunder impelled the northern na- 
tions to rise up against the waning majesty 
of Eome : the love of liberty and the fear 
of Qod led the pUgrim fathers to leave home 
and country for the woods and forests of the 
Western world. We can, by reason and 
reflection, account for the prodigious move- 
ment of the European nations which caused 
the East and the West, the Crescent and the 
Gross, to battle for ages around the tomb of 
Christ : and indeed all the great movements 
of the other nations and races can be easily 
accounted for on human principles. Not so 
the dispersion of the Israelitish nation. It 
contains deeper mysteries, and reaches far- 
ther into the secrets of the Divine adminis- 
tration. 

2. There are various captivities men- 
tioned in Scripture. There is the bondage 
of Egypt of four hundred years ; the cap- 
tivity of eight years, firom which Othniel 
the son of Kenaz delivered them (Judges 
iii. 10) ; the captivity of eighteen years under 
Eglon, from which Ehud delivered them 
(iii. 14) ; the captivity from which they were 
delivered by Shamgar (iii. 81) ; the captivity 
under Jabin, King of Canaan, from which 
they were delivered by Deborah and Barak 



(iv.); the captivity under Midian, from 
which they were delivered by Gideon (vi. 
1—12) ; and, finally, the captivity of seventy 
years in Babylon. In all these the people 
were subjugi^ied and punished for their sins, 
according to the express declarations of 
God; but the nation remained unbroken,, 
and when the punishment was completed they 
wererestoredto their former condition. The 
present dispersion is altogether different, and. 
must rest on much deeper enormity. They 
are not in one place, but in all places; 
they could easily get a local habitation and 
a name in America ; but though they are the 
most brotherly of nations, they do not choose 
to unite : they could easily purchase Pales- 
tine from the Porte, but they do not, though 
burning with affection for the holy city: 
they are a nation of from five to seven mil- 
lions of highly-civilized men, living in 
poverty and wretchedness among nations 
less civilized than themselves. This is a 
wonderful fact, and nothing similar is to be. 
found in the history of the world. 

3. Now, it is certain that the seventy- 
years' captivity, and all the captivities that 
preceded it, were the accomplishment of 
threatenings which the prophets had an- 
nounced as the chastisement of their sins. 
Moses calls heaven and earth to witness 
against them, and announces their disper- 
sion among the nations on account of image- 
worship and idolatry (Deut. iv. 26). For 
their sins, and disobedience to the Divine 
will especially, God declares, ** I will scatter 
you among the heathen, and will draw out a 
sword after you : and your land shall be 
desolate, and your cities waste " (Lev. xxvi. 
33). Jeremiah denounces the nation as 
guilty of the most awful crimes, as adultery, 
impiety, idolatry, stubbornness ; and by type 
after type, and sign after sign, he shadows 
forth the coming captivity of the city and 
the people. 

4. Bear then in mind that these most 
awful sins were visited with the punishment 
of seventy years in Babylon, and you may 
begin to anticipate what must be the enor- 
mity of the sins which have broken and 
banished them for nineteen hundred years I 



78 



ISBAUrs MISSION, AND MISSIONS TO ISRAEL. 



pThe Boftttared Nitiotu 
L April i, 1866. 



Yet in the days of the Messiah the Jews 
were not idolaters : they were hypocritical 
and Pharisaical, and might well be com- 
pared to a generation of vipers ; but idolaters 
they were not. They held to the unity and 
supremacy of Txod, and their chief opposi* 
tion to Jesus of Nazareth was because He 
claimed the titles and honours of Jehovrfi. 
What sin then were they guilty of, which 
is followed by such terrible consequences f 
Hear me, ye children of Israel! Why are 
ye not in Jerusalem P Ye are five millions, 
and the land is waste and waiting for you ; 
and all the power of the Turks cannot con- 
quer and keep quiet a few thousands of vil- 
lagers in Mount Lebanon! Why do yon 
not, in right of your anciwit covenant with 
'God, walk into the land of your fathers, 
:and claim it as your own P England, France, 
'Germany, and all the European nations, 
would rejoice to see the Turkish empire bro- 
ken to pieces. Are you a nation of cowards P 
Do you forget the Maccabees, and the heroic 
ancestors of former times P Yes, you forget 
it idl ; and you flee when none pursueth ; 
and the shaking of a leaf frightens you, and 
the strong purpose of Orod holds you in 
thrall. Not for your superstition are ye 
banished ; nor for your spiritual pride ; nor 
for the sin of idolatry; nor for lawck of bro- 
therly love, as the Rabbis assert ; but because 
ye rejected the long-promised Messiah, and 
-crucified at Jerusalem the incarnate Son of 
Ood ! This is the crime that follows you 
like a dark shadow, and unmans the national 
resolution, so that with a noble country 
waiting for you, you dare not even claim it 1 
This terrible deed of darkness and blood 
eacplains your dispersion during eighteen 
centuries : the punishment is something like 
the crime; the effect vindicates and illus- 
trates the cause. 

All the elements which aggravate the 
enormity of transgression were found in 
that act of God-defying rebellion and apos- 
tasy. The time, the place, the circum- 
stances, the Person sinned against and the 
persons sinning, the clearness of the pro- 
phecies which you would not understand, 
the brightness of the light in which ye 
would not walk, the beauty of holiness 
which rebuked and condemned you, the 
Divine gentleness which your treacheries 
could not ruffle, the dying love which con- 



quered in dying, and slew by being slain — 
all, all combined to make that deed of your 
nation the most sinful ever transacted on 
earth. It was fitting that such guilt should 
be accompanied by symbols of sympathy 
and terror. Nature put on garments of 
mourning, and the stable laws of the uni- 
verse were shaken. Light seemed to be 
quenched in its orb «nd life in its fountain^ 
when by your guilty hands Messiah, the 
Prince of Glory, died. This wttft iiie deed 
of horror of which the light of heaven waa 
ashamed — ^which disturbed :for a time the 
covenant relations which existed between 
you and your Creator. This was the black 
death {atra mors) which dissolved your 
national poHty, gave your temple and land 
to the spoiler, and banished you to the ends 
of the earth for eighteen hundred years. 

It is vain for you to talk of ordinary sins 
as the cause of such tremendous retribtition; 
it is vain to repeat in your liturgies, "the 
great and heavy sins" for which yon arfr 
banished from the land of your fothers. The 
proportions between punishment and crime, 
the Divine consistency Mid regularity of 
God's moral government, show the absurdity 
of sJl such pretences. Tamerlane killed more 
than two millions of the human race, wasted 
many countries with fire and sword, utterly 
destroyed more than one thousand populous 
cities, and raised on the ruins of Bagdad a 
pyramid of ninety thousand human heads; 
yet God did not visit his descendants or his 
nation with expatriation for eighteen cen- 
turies. "No such punishment as has fallen 
on the Jews followed the Sicilian Vespers : 
no such punishment followed the Bartholo- 
mew massacre, though the king and the 
queen and the nation concurred with and 
stimulated the bloodthirsty slaughterers in 
that butchery of God's saints: no such 
punishment has ever fallen on any other 
nation, because no other has been guilty of a 
similar crime. Te rejected infinite love; ye 
refused eternal life; ye resisted the com- 
bined ' evidence of miracles, prophecy, and 
immaculate holiness; ye stoned the prophets, 
and put to death the Son of God ; and there- 
fore it is that Grod's severe visitations are 
come upon you. 

Nor will they cease to follow you till ye 
return to the Lord from whom ye have 
revolted. Eepent, and believe the gospel. 






THE JEWS OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 



79 



t n fiiute m^oj, fhU and free as its Author, 
•waits to welcome you to the fold of the 
Messiah : many nations, and most of all the 
British, wili welcome yon witii haUelujahs o£ 
praLse. Come, oome qniokly, and come i^ 
There is room in the heart of 6k)d for the 
ScATTBBEj) Nation ; there is mercy, there is 
pardon^ in the blood of the Messiah, eren for 
perseoators and murderers; and there are 
<2rowns of gold, and royal robes, and palms 
of victory waiting for you in the kingdom of 
God. Come, dear and beloved brethren of 
mj Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, oome 
and share with us the rich blessings of the 
^ospeL Wo seek not yours but you; and 
being freed from the burden of our own 
flias, by the peace-speaking blood of J^sus, 



we wish to make aU men, and you above all 
others, partakers of our joy. Brethren, w^e 
can truly say, with one of the noblest of the 
sons of Abraham, " Our hearts' desire and 
prayer to God for Israel is, that they may 
be saved," 

It is thd S»Yiour'f voice : 

He oallB his wanderers home, 

Who in his name rejoice. 

" Cora^ weary sinners, oome 

Where streams of mercy flow, 
At once to quench your thirst 
And wo^ you white as snow. 

" Come, ye doubters, come ; 
Dismiss your guilty f eais : 
The Book of Aires stands 
Eternal aa his years." 



THE JEWS OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.— m. 

BY JAMES 3B1NN, ESQ. 



(late H.B JL Consul at Jerosalem.) 



CHAJPTEE IV. 



Ik the middle of the fifth oenturyi the 
£iir(^>eaEi section of the Bomau Empire be*' 
oome the prey of northeam barbarians. 

The Eoman proconsuls of Spain had 
aoeceeded each other in brief and unstable 
authority * since the palmy days of the 
Cffisars and Antonines ; but soon afler the 
partition of the Empire by Arcadios and 
Honoring in a.d. 409, the Pyrenees were 
crossed by hordes of Suevi, Alari, and 
Vandals. The devastation and massacre 
that ensued, as related by Idatius, were 
•dreadful in the extreme; but Procopius 
refused to describe them, lest he should 
thereby afford lessons of inhumanity to 
fatore ages. 

Many of the original inhabitants retired 
to the mountains of the north, where they 
maintained their independence. These hare 
been ever since denominated the Basques, 
<»' Biacayans. 

Soon afterwards, a king of the Wisi (or 
irestem) Groths, from the south of France, 
made incursions upon the barbarians in 
Spain, pretending to do so in aid of his ally 
the Emperor of Bome. More devastation 
enaoed, till, in 429, the Yandals and Alari 



withdrew into Africa, leaving only the 
Suevi ; and these were mastered in 459 by 
Theodoric the Wisi-Gk)th. 

The last shadow of Boman name de. 
parted in 472, when Euric seized the do- 
minion of Spain in his own name. The 
Franks came from Germany into France, 
and drove all the Wisi-GK)ths into Spain. 
Both Franks and Qoths professed to be 
Christians : the former held the Catholio 
doctrine of the Nicene Creed ; the latter 
were Arians. 

Beligious animosities were rife on this 
account on each side of the Pyrenees till, in 
A.D. 589, Xing Becared and his Queen Baddo, 
at Toledo, at the Third Council of that 
city, accepted the orthodox creed, and thus 
terminated the bickerings and violent scenes 
of nearly 200 years. This was regarded aa 
a very great event by the ecclesiastics and 
politicians of the time, and furnishes an 
endless theme of gratulation to Spanish 
CathoHc writers ever since. But it deeply 
affected the welfare of the Jews. 

The triumphant party having thus es- 
tablished the doctrine of Christ's absolute 
divinity, carried their victory beyond the 
Ariang to the Jews. Among the canona 



80 



THE JEWS OF SPAIN AND POBTUQAL. 



fTlM Scattered ITetioB, 
l_ April 2, 1966. 



of this Council we find the following 
(Aguirre):— 

"Xiy. — Conformably to the opinion of 
the Conncil^ our glorious Lord [Uie Eling] 
has ordered to be inserted among the 
canons that it shall not be permitted for 
Jews to have Christian wiyes or concubines, 
or to purchase slaves for their own service ; 
and all children bom of such union are to be 
brought to baptism. Neither shall they hold 
any public office by virtue of which any 
punishment may be inflicted on Christians ; 
and if Christians [slaves] be circumcised, 
their freedom shall be restored without pay- 
ment of ransom, and they revert to the 
Christian religion. 

"IX. — This above all is decreed: that 
Jews shall not be sufiered to carry the 
bodies of their dead with the singing of 
psalms, but to observe their ancient custom 
of carrying and depositing them. And in 
penalty for transgression of this decree, six 
ounoes [of gold] shall be paid to the Count 
of the city." 

(The XX find canon expressly enjoined 
that psalms and hymns are to be sung at 
Christian funerals, and the heathen customs 
of wailing and beating the breast to be dis- 
continued, quoting the words of 1 Thess. 
iv.l3.) 

Thus a broad line of distinction, even in 
death, was drawn between Christians and 
Jews. 

It is said, that on the promulgation of 
these decrees the Jews endeavoured to bribe 
the king with a large sum of money, to 
obtain a mitigation of their severity, but 
without effect. 

We may remark the altered tone, the 
more rigid expressions, adopted in this 
CouncD, over those used at Elvira. 

After more than twenty years of civil 
discord, and the assassination of two sove- 
reigns, we find Sisebut, a vigorous and am- 
bitious king, upon the throne. After securing 
the land fortresses, he formed armaments at 
sea^ and in 614 sent an embassy to Constan- 
tinople ; and Heraclius, the Emperor, who 
was much addicted to astrology, sent him 
word, as he had learned from his astrologers, 
that Spain was in imminent danger from 
*' the circumcised race." " And this, which 
he ought to have understood of the Arabs, 
he understood to mean the Jews; where- 



upon he set about persecuting that nation 
by all means and measures in his power." — 
(Mariana and others.) 

. The emperor was at the time losing 
province after province by the Persians, 
aided by Arabs and Jews, especially in 
Syria ; and consequently was greatly exas- 
perated against the Jews, and made it a. 
primary condition in the Spanish treaty that 
the Jews should be expelled from the penin- 
sula. 

The king at Toledo was but too willing 
to comply, and the following proclamation 
was issued. It is now found among the 
documents afterwards compiled under the 
name of Fuero Juzgo : — 

"Whereas. Truth itself instructs us to 
ask and to knock, assuring us that the king- 
dom of heaven sufiereth violence : it cannot 
be doubted that whosoever fails to approach 
it with an ardent, desire is a despiser of tiie 
proffered grace. 

" Wherefore, if any of those Jews as yet 
unbaptized, shall delay to be himself bap- 
tized, or neglect to send his children and 
slaves to the priest for baptism while it is 
offered, thus abiding without the grace of 
baptism for the space of one year from the 
issue of this decree, every such transgressor, 
wherever found, shajl bo stripped, and shall 
suffer one hundred lashes, as likewise the 
due penalty of exile; his goods shall be 
forfeit to the king, and in order that his life 
may be the more painftil, if unamended, 
such goods shall become the perpetual pro- 
perty of those on whom the king shall 
bestow them." 

This was the first, but not the last per- 
secution of this nature to which the imhappy 
people were subjected in that country. Let 
us see how this proceeding is regarded by 
historians of later times. 

In the history of the Gk>ths by John, 
brother of Glaus Magnus, the author is 
transported with delight at the occurrence. 
" The king did not say, I will first care for 
my realm and secure my throne, and then 
revive the decaying cause of Christ, but he 
first of all was careful that the honour due 
to the Divine Majesty should be fully ren- 
dered by all the people under him ; and he 
omitted nothing that seemed necessary to 
the increase and conservation of Christi- 
anity. And so great was his zeal for the 



Hm Sotit«nd Katloa,! 
Aprils, 1M8. J 



THE JEWS OF SPAHT AND PORTUGAL. 



81 



said most holy &ith, that by ^ re%i(m9 
eahoriaiUm 90,000 Jews were conyerted to 
Ghristi and reoeired the sacrament of bi^ 
tism." 

Isidore of Seville, who lired attheiame, 
records in his " Ohronide of the Goths "-— 
" Sisebat reigned six years and six months 
after his call to royalty; who, in the com- 
menoement of his reign, bynrging the Jews 
into Christianity, had, indeed, 'a seal iat 
God, bnt not according to kno^dedge ' (Bom. 
X.), for he forcibly compelled those whom 
he shonld rather have persnaded by arga« 
ment of the fiuth . • • • bnt, as it is written, 
' whether in pretence or in tmth, Christ is 
preached; and I therein do rejoice, yea, 
and will rcrjoioe.' " (Phil, i.) 

In later times the Jesnit Mariana says, 
''Sisebnt .... not only banished the Jews 
from Spain and all Gothic territory, as the 
emperor had requested, bnt with threats 
and force he compelled them to be baptized, 
which is a thing unlawful and forbidden, 
that Christians should employ violence upon 
the will of any; and, moreover, this rash 
determination of Sisebut was contrary to the 
advice of the more prudent at the time, as 
St. Isidore .testifies. Among the Gbthic 
laws called the ' Fuero Ju2go,' there are two 
to this effect^ decreed by Sisebut, in the 
fourth year of his reign. But as things 
were begun at the wrong end, we need not 
wonder that he erred, for the king made 
himself judge of what should have been 
decided by the prelates. The kingly office 
is to rule in secular matters, but all that 
pertains to religion and spiritual govern- 
ment is the charge of ecclesiastics. Yet, 
alas, the self-will and obstinacy of princes 
are very great, and frequently are bishops 
obliged to dissemble in what they cannot 
remedy.** 

In the latter part of this, by Mariana, 
appears the Jesuit doctrine of hostility to 
kings, except as making them ministers 
under the Church. But it is worth notice 
how little reference is ever made to the 
Boman Piq)acy by the ancient Church of 
Spain. 

It is time to learn what the Jewish 
chronicles say of this persecution. (" Sceptre 
of Judah," p. 98.) 

"The most powerful of the Bomans 
[i.e.. Christians] was Sisebut. He com- 



manded all the Jews in Spain to be bap- 
tised; offering to make then} equal with 
Christians in every respect if they would 
consent. The Jews from every city assem- 
bled within the capital ; where, fasting 
and afflicting themselves, they uttered loud 
waHings and cries. Hie Christians inquired 
the meaning of this ; and when informed, 
they bade them submit to the king's com- 
mand, 'for he is a valiant king, firm, decided, 
and not to be moved by bribes : if ye obey 
not, he will compel you, and your fasting 
will profit you nothing.* They answered, 
' The precept of circumcision is the hinge 
of an our law : he asks but one compliance, 
but we know that he requires the whole ; 
and it is better for us all to die than to omit 
the slightest of our precepts, lest we pluck 
up the hinge of all our religion.' 

"They then approached the king, and 
showed how he had decreed the death of 
them all, for they would not transgress any 
precept of the law, much less that which is 
the hinge of all. The king replied, ' Ye 
wretched and foolish people, it is by Grod's 
ordinance that ye are groaning in affliction ; 
the realm shall speedily be freed from that 
obstinacy by which ye are hastening your* 
own ruin, aiming to usurp, and to retain by 
force, the dominion of this land. I swear 
that unless ye accept Christ's baptism ye 
will drive me to enforce your abandonment 
of all the law of Moses.* Then he pro- 
claimed that except they submitted within a 
month to Christian baptism, he would make 
them renounce the whole law, or put them 
to death. The Jews supplicated the nobles, 
presenting gold and sUver, and imploring 
that they would induce the king to leave 
them their religion ; though he should de- 
prive them of all their wealth, which he 
might employ in war. The king added, 
* In that case I could not uphold my cha- 
racter for piety among my fellow kings; 
they would suppose that I only made this 
decree as a means of extortion • from my 
Jews, and not from the urgent necessity of 
baptism. Besides, I do not constrain these 
wretches of the law to embrace our faith 
for the si^e of their riches, so much as from 
the consideration that they would do the 
same to us were they to become our masters.' 
Then answered Bobert the wise, ' king, 
our master, Moses, and his minister Joshua, 

4* 



THE JEWS OF SPAIN AJIW POBTUGAL. [^ 



Afril8,I»i* 



urged no people to receive the Hebrew law, 
but only the seven precepts of If oah| whkdi 
are — 

L To avoid idolatry. 

2. To eat no fleeh from a living ttoimaU 

3. To avoid reviling God, 

4. To avoid adultery. 
6. To avoid rapine. 

6. To avoid murder. 

7. To appoint magistrates. 

'These had been delivered as preoepts 
by Adam, the first man. And whenever 
Joshua besieged a city, be first proclaimed 
thus, *' Whosoever will make peace let him 
do so, but let him observe the seven pre- 
cepts of Noah : if not, let him leave the 
city; or if he will fight, let him come down 
and try the contest." ' 

*' The king rejoined, ' Joshua acted S3 he 
jdeased, and so will I. I will select from his 
three conditions, that which best suits mj 
de»gn — viz.y that instead of the seven pre* 
cepts of Koah, which Joshua obtruded on 
the profane heathen, ye shall receive the 
Christian baptism/ Then he added, *L 
counsel you for your salvation's sake, which 
ye will assuredly fcn*feit by persisting in 
refusing it ; for I have been informed by tiie 
bishops, what I have likewise learned from 
the pontiff himself, that all who do not ex- 
piate their guilt by Christian baptism are 
to be accounted impure^ and will perish 
everlastingly.' 

** One of the learned Jew^ then said, ' It 
is written in our law that Israel formerly 
despised the great gift of God« the land 
flowing with milk and honey. I ask, 
king, what should be the penalty of those 
who despise the gift of GrodP' The king 
replied, ' That, too, is wisely stated in your 
law : the loss of what they desp»ise,' The 
speaker continued, ' See then, king, to 
what thou hast said. Thou hast oi^red us 
in baptism a life everlasting. Be then ^6 
penalty for its neglect the loss of tdiat 
blessing/ But the king answered, 'Com- 
pulsion is unjust in matters concerning the 
body; and that goodly land related to tha 
body: but in things spiritual it is proger* 
iust as a child is coerced in his learning.' 

" Instantly he commanded all the prin- 
cipal Jews to be put in chains; and they 
passed in darkness a li£s more miserable 



thau death. ICany syna^oguea in. Spam* 
QveHbovBO by cnMifiuiferings,re&o«]iO0di]i0 
Imt of Mo0es. When the king daed, Mid 
there was liberty to leave the country, manj 
sought and fiorad aecuver set&ments for 
their religioo, but masy sought and fomnA 
not.'' 

Snob is thd Hebrew narral^ve of tbat 
period. The kst sentence in it ve/hv% i» 
thoee who escaped into Jffrm^ undeir Kins 
Dttgobert^ b«b found, to their grief thaA^ 
he too ImwL beesL infloenoed in ihe same 
way by tbe Emperor of <C4nsiiawt»Bopleb 
83 th« Ohrisliafn hi^tpriao, BaclboloQqia» 
teUsita. 

It might be ima^^xied th^t to yield to 
violence in acceptii^ jbaptism wa« not in. 
itself 00 diz^adful an evil after a^L. Time, 
ontwttrd c&a&^tmiify i» iH>t th^ .same this^> 
as ddiberate aposta^ from what ocid ooi- 
Bcissitioasfy believes to be saving f^ih; bui 
baptism was the saime to them as the 
sprinkling a few graaas of incense before an, 
imi^ was to the primitiye Ghristuns — ii 
involved the whole relJ^on; ,aad as the 
latter preformed oraea. death to the doing aQ» . 
so did the Jews, thoe^h under mistake, ia 
ihid matter of baptism. 

Nay, the question at issue was muoli 
worse in Spain, Ibr b^ism, wlien once 
received, subjeeted them to the Church cen- 
sures and disoipHne; and to recvoi back 
from Gbristiamty a^i^fwarda made them 
amenable to aevBrer punishments, and. 
undtor the Inqnisitioa that arose lately to 
flames and death. 

The generally t<derant charaoter oi Isi- 
dore, Bishop of Seville, inclines us to respect 
him more than 1^ other Bomaa CadM)lic8 
who have recorded the acts of ^seboti. 
but we owft hardly join witila them in throw<^ 
ing all the blame upon the king. He waa 
coniessedly much under the influcnoe of the 
clergy in this proceeding : he said as much 
to tbd Jews. And he could not have ba{>- 
tiaed the poor victims himself; it must have 
been done by tiie hands of thB clergy. And 
no (Gothic king was ever so muck of a dai^Mtt 
as to defy the whole body of the Church. 

Alas ! these safierings were not the end 
of what the Jews had to endure under the 
Christian monarchs prior to the Arab in- 
vasion. 






TSS TWBLVB TBIBE8, 



88 



THE TWELVE TBIBES. 



BY THE Bi:V. ANDREW A. BONAB* 



JUBAH. 

Thbbx is notihing sweeter than a true song 
of praifle. Every ear listens to it, er&ry 
heart is mored by it» and God Himself bends 
1^ heaivens to hear* In Moses' record of a 
HiUem world's history, the fhrst time that 
^firaise'' ooetirs is in Gen. xtiz. 85. It 
Worsts forth from tb« hoti9» of Jacob attd the 
lipQ of Leah, and may be said tx> accord well 
'Wii^ that Joyfdl boaat of the Psalmist in 
after^da^rs, when he is led to* sing that it 
« "in the tabernacles of the rtghteeus " yon 
iBSfy eaqf)ect to hear ''the Toiee of refoioing 
.4ind Mutation'' (Ps. oxtiii 16). It is in 
Jacob's tents that we first aee one wearing 
I'the garment of praise." 

There had been a sooeession of blessings, 
Kke waves from the deep ocean, breaking at 
the feet of Leah ; and when this fourth son 
was given, her exulting heart rose above its 
former self in gratitude. She takes up the 
liarp; " Now 'M" this time "is the literal 
rendering, as if she had her eye on Adam's 
exclamation of delight in Gen. ii. 23) — " Kow 
I vnU jpraue Jehovah T and even as the 
happy mother holds the harp she turns to her 
new-born son and calls him " Judah," which 
may mewi not simply " Peaise," but " one 
Jor whom Jehovah is praisedJ* Indeed, the 
word is most expressive, involving as it often 
does the idea of acknowledging and confessing. 
"Where the being and works, the name and 
excellences, the heart and hand, of Jehovah, 
are spoken of, this is praise; and thus it 
is used — Psalm cxlvii. 12: "Praise" {he a 
Judah to) "the Lord, Jerusalem." It 
18 instructive to observe how the Lord by 
repeated mercies has melted Leah's heart, so 
that, now, at any rate, if not before, her sel- 
fishness is drowned in praise. Nothing is 
so fitted to give a deadly blow to our selfish- 
ness at any time as real praise. Praise 
Ttdses its note over buried selfl Prabe is 
soAg when self is low and God high in our 
thoughts; and at such times, burdens roll off 
into Ohrist's sepulchre. It is at such times 
that heavenly work is done by men. 

#uch was Jubah's beginning ; Hke earth's 
fonndations, laid amid the songs of the morn- 
ing stars (Job zzxviiL 7). And if Jodah 



himself did not very remarkably call forth 
praise in after*days, his posterity surely 
inherited this blessing— the sons of him over 
whom praise was offered became men of note 
Jacob on his deathbed foretells (Gen. xSx. 
8 — ^12), wildi reference to the name, and per- 
haps hinting at the sad feelings of his heart 
previously in speaking of Beuben, Simeon, 
and Levi-* 

'^ Judah, thoa art he whom thy brethren shall 
praise s" 

not only thy mother^s sons, but " thy father' a 
sons" also: the children of Bachel, and 
Zilpah, and Bilhah shall all " bow down to 
thee." And there shall be good reason why 
thou shouldest be thus honoured and 
praised; for 

" Jodah is a lion's whelp," 

one who shall early show that he is to com- 
mand others. And did not this soon appear 
in Judah taking the lead in the desert 
march, and in going up foremost after 
Joshua's death to take possession? But 
"the young lion ** 'grew, and became indis- 
pntafc^ terribie to foes. Jacob sees him 
arrived at pre^eminene^ anticipating the 
time when the historian of the past should 
write, "Judah prevailed over his brethren, 
and of him come the Chief Buler " (1 Ohron. 
T. 2) ; and so he continues his delineation of 
that career which, was to entitfe him to the 
name Judah* 
" J^rom the prey, my son, thou hctst grme up /** 

Is not this the reign of Bamd specially, when 
every nation round felt the tremendous 
power of Judah's King, when David pros- 
pered whithersoever he went, and when he 
dedicated of the "spoils^ won in battles'* 
(1 Ghron. xxvL 27), an immense amount, for 
the Lord's use ? 

But see, says Jacob again— 

^Re has loAn djown ; he has couched Uke a lion ! 
And like a lioneast who shall rouse him up ?" 

A lioness is peculiarly fierce if her cubs be 
throatened. All this imagery sets before 
us the days when Solomon was King c^ 
Judah and Israel, quietly seated on his 
throne, h(moiured and feared by all the 



9* 



TEE TWELVE TRIBES. 



L April 1,1886. 



nations, none daring to do wrong to one of 
liis happy subjects. It was then that Judah 
was at the height of his pre-eminence, the 
praise of all lands. After that period, never- 
theless, he still held the high place assigned 
him ; for did not all the noblest and best 
of the kings spring from Jadah*s soil P and 
the most renowned of the prophets ? and all 
the sweet singers whose psalms and songs 
have been handed down to usP Jndah 
retained dominion too. '' The lion " was 
still his emblem; and looking on through 
long centuries, Jacob was inspired to sing of 
this feature also in Judah's history— 

" The aeeptre $7iaU not depart from JudaK, 
Nor the loAcgitw' (a mWs staff) firom between 

Ms feet, 
TiU Shiloh eome, wnd the na^iions le gathered 
toEim." 

Judah held his place as a kingdom till 
Messiah was bom, growing up unnoticed "as 
a tender plant;** for Shiloh is no other than 
Messiah, the name signifying " One who has 
peace,** or rest, or security. Messiah had rest 
and peace in Himself, and came to give it to* 
others : ** My peace I give unto you" (John 
xiy. 27). And this name given to Him here 
corresponds very much with "Solomon"; 
the man who " has peace,** and who makes 
others share it. In all probability, it was in 
reference to this name of Messiah, that the 
ark was so long kept at ShUoh, the town of 
Ephraim that bore the same signification. 
In due time, Messiah, long expected (but 
whose peace was not found at the town 
Shiloh, nor in the days of Solomon), did 
come; and ever since He came, "the na- 
tions," not the tribes of Israel only, have 
been gathering round Him, and giving will- 
ing obedience to Him. From year to year, 
ShUoh has been gathering willing subjects, 
and shall never cease till He has gathered 
all nations as well as all Israel (Ps. ciL 22). 
There may be an allusion to the fact that 
for a time Jervsalem was to be the resort of 
all true worshippers; but only till Shiloh 
should come (John iv. 21 — 23). 

Judah ! what praise belongs to thee ! 
What honour ! Divine sovereignty has given 
thee the birthright pre-eminence. "Well may 
thy brethren in all the earth join with thy 
" father's sons," in almost envious gratula- 
tion. Thou art he who wert honoured to 
give birth to Messiah, the King of kings, the 



Prince of Peace, the Saviour of sinners, the 
blessed and only Eedeemer of the lost sona 
of men ! All eternity shcJl remember thee. 
On account of all this honour, and because 
of all that his possessions in the land yielded 
him, Judah was yet further spoken of by^ 
Jadob as a tribe abounding in blessing. A^ 
this day the inhabitants of Lebanon, when 
at vintage season they have atript off th» 
rich clusters of grapes, and thrust th^n inta 
the wine-vats, tie to the vines the asses thair 
have been helping them, letting them eait 
the leaves and brandbcs as they please. la. 
allusicHL to this very ancient custom, whicd]^ 
spoke of vintage satisfactorily gatherBd in* 
and hinted at the gatherers having gon& 
away to the wine-vats, there to tread oair 
the grapes, Jacob describes Judah's plenty 
of all good things*— 

" Binding his ass to the vvne, cmd his a$^$ eoU to 
the choice vine," etCf 

enjoying all that might make the eye 
sparkle and the fauce flush with ruddy glow^ 
while also they had their full share of the 
land " flowing with milk." Think of Eshcol 
and Hebron, with hills terraced to the top 
with vines. Think of plains and valleys 
covered with cattle and goats. It would be 
easy to enlarge, but our limits forbid us to 
dwell on this feature of Judah's praise. We 
might add also that Shiloh the Prince of 
Peace, being a man of Judah as to his 
humanity, might be shown to embody in 
Himself all the leading features of the tribe ; 
praised — ^a man of might, the lion of the 
tribe, and yet the peaceful one (Fried-reich), 
introducing the gathered people into an 
inheritance flowing with milk and honey, aa 
inheritance better than Canaan. 

In the blessing of Moses (Deut. xxxiiL 7)p 
there is, at first sight, an apparently inten- 
tional ignoring of the name of Judah in 
reference to praise. It is of prayer we hear 
him speak : — 

" Hew, Lord, the voice cf Judah /" 

But this also is part of Judah's pre-emi« 
nence. Yes, he is remarkable above others 
for prayer. Was his first &ther so P Was 
not Judah that brother of Joseph who 
pleaded with his brethren (Gen. xxxviL 26^ 
27), and then so pathetically interceded with 
Joseph himself P (Gen. xliv. 18*-d4). That 
voice touched Joseph's heart ; and in aftw 



Ap«flS,lMO. J 



TMS TWELVE TRIBES. 



85 



days, the heart of Jehoyah was touched by 
desoendants of this same Jndah, who were 
mighty in prayer. Sach was Jabez ; such 
was David; such was Solomon; such was 
Asa ; and such was Hezekiah ; not to mention 
more of the Lord's &mous remembrancers. 
And in Judah, above all, stood The Temple, to 
which the chief alluinoa may be made here ; 
for it was " The house ofpra/ifer," from which 
ascended supplication oontimally from the 
days of Solomon's jnrayer down to the di^ 
of the publican who cried, ** O Gk>d, be mer< 
ciful to me a shmerl" No wonder Mbses 
selected, by the Spirit's guidance, this feature 
of Judah's tribe. 

We might farther notiee that it Is Judah 
who has given name to the whole nation. 
They are ''Jews;" that is, Judahitee; be* 
caose the tribe of Judah remained at Jeru- 
salem, when the ten tribes went into captivity 
and disappeared from view. And so agam, 
O Judah, thy bretiiren and the nations 
praise thee ! 

But listen to one who loved thee truly — 
Paul who sat once at tiie feet of Gknnali^ in 
Jerusalem; listen to him reminding thee: 
" He is not a Jew who is one outwardly, but 
he ia a Jew who is one inwardly, whose pradse 
ie not of men, Imi of €hd" (Bom.ii. 29). Come 
and join us in adoring Shiloh, greater t^ian 
all the mighty kings, the true ** Lion of ihe 
tnbe of Judah " (Rev. v. 5), and of David's 
line. He rests at the Father's right hand. 
Come and praise Him, for He has shed the 
true glory over thy tribe. He is the true 
Judah; praised by his innumerable saved 
oraes to 1^ eternity, to whom He gives far 
better than the wine and milk of your femed 
Judea. O Judah, the Grentiles love thee for 
Shiloh's sake; for He was thy brother, while 
He was also thy Lord, David's S(m and 
David's Lord. We love thee, and all thy 
brethren; and we sing in our dwellings 
songs that breathe out our longings for the 
day when thou shalt again be a " name and 
a praise among all people of the earth" 
(Zeph. iiL 20), when "Judah shall dwell 



for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to 
generation" (Joel iii. 20). 

''When the €air year 
Of your Deliverer oomes, 
And that lon^ frost, which now benumbs 

Your hearts, shall thaw ; when angels here 

Shall yet to man i^)pear, 

And familiarly oonf er 

Beneath the oak and juniper. 

" When tiie bright Dore, 
Which now these many, many spring* 
Hath kept abore, shall with spread wings 
Descend, and living waters flow 
To make dry dnst and dead trees grow. 

<<Oh,then,i^atI 
Might live, and see that olive-tree 
Bearing her proper branches ! which now lie 

Scattered each where, 
And withotit root and sap deeay. 
Cast of the httsbandman away. 

"And sure it is not fiu* ; 
For, as yonr first and fbnl decays 

Fofenmning the bcis^ Homing Staa*, 
Did sadly note his healing rays 
Would shine elsewhere, since you were bHnd» 
And would be cross when Qod was kind ; 

** So, by all signs. 
Our fulness, too, is now come in. 

And the same suui which here deolinos 
And sets, will few hours hence begin 
To rise on you again, and look 
Toward old Mamre and Eshcol's brook. 

" For surely He 
Who loved the world so as to give 

His only Son to make it free — 
Whose Spirit, too, doth mourn and grieve 
To see man lost— will, for old love, 
From your dark hearts this veil remove. 

'* Faith sqioumed^ft on earth with you. 

You were the dear and chosen flock ; 
The arm of God, glorious and true, 

Wta first revealed to be yowr Bock. 
You were the eldest child, and when 

Your stony hearts despised love, 
The youngest, e'en the G^tiles, then 

Were cheered, your jealousy to move. 

" Thus, lis^teous Father, dost thou deal 
With brutish men ! . Thy gifts go round 
By turns and timely, and so heal 
The lost son by the newly found." 

Vauohan. 



8d 



THE flAAST or THS P48S0VEB, 



rsk$ 



iVrtS^lMi. 



THE KBAST OF THE PASSOVER.* 



BT THE EDrtOB. 



Jews and Chri8t]tt&» cdebrste the Feast of 
the Passover on the same days. Hence it is 
of importance not only to have pointed out 
wherein the Sjnagog^ a^d 41m il/harch 
differ, bttt also to be T«anind^ of what they 
have in common, in order that we may 
rightly value the great things the same God 
has wrought for Israel and the nations of 
the earth. Jews and Christians acknow- 
ledge the Divine authority of the Old Tes- 
tament, and both look forward to the coming 
of the Messif^ in, glovj. Let lirari bee to 
it whether He wko efvidently is the light of 
the Oentiles be not also the glory of Israel. 
Let Christians oonsider that He ^o is 
their light osme finom Israoi, and that their 
own Passover rests on the work God has 
wrought in ttie midst of his own people. 
The Passover is the birthday of Israel as a 
nation, and is at the same time the feast of 
the resurrection, of the new creation. "With- 
out these festivals neither the people of 
Israel nor the Church of Christ oould have 
existed; for witiKmt the ¥aachA Lamb 
neither the redemption from Bgypt nor 
from the power of siii. oould haire been 
accomplished. Henoe the vital importance 
which was attached, under the old economy, 
to the solemn celebration of this great fes- 
tival; witness the days of Joshua, Hezekiah, 
and Josiah. Hence also the declaration of 
Paul, the Hebrew of the Hebrews, yea of all 
the apostles, '* If Christ be not risen your 
&ith is vain." 

HDB) means literaHy, to pom d&wly, to pass 
lyy, to 8pa/re, to save; and nDorr art signifies 
Feast of Deliverance. Jews and Christians 
attach the same name to the feast whidh they 
both celebrate, and the questions now arise : 
Delivered from what? Whereby? WheretoP 

The three great festivals of Israel stand 
in an intimate relation to the land and the 

• The Rev. Dr. Margolioath having been pre- 
vented by illness from favonring ns in this number 
with his osnal article on the "Feasts and Fasts 
of the Jews," the Editor begs the indulgence of his 
readers in presenting these few remarks on the 
Passover from his own pen. 



history of the people ; and how oMiM it be 
othmrwite ? foir the sane God gave to Abca* 
ham tbfi ps^mise of a seed and a land. 
Besidel^ aH ereotton is dependent oa the 
stat6 of man i by* Adam'a.sin all o^eotiOB was 
snfcjeotdd to vanity^ and at tiie oomplett' 
nwHiiftstadiop of ihe Tte d emp t ian by Glinflt, 
thd ctfrsa will be rwrneiftd, and blesBiagB 
hitherto unknown be eigoyed on earfiL The 
fdait of Israal bears two names 2 noott sn 
and tyyitan J% i.e«, the Feast of ike Bamcmer^ 
ofnd the Featt df UnteaoeTied Bread, which ia 
sometixnea ealted also >i\2^ utih, ue^ihA boned 
of mieery. The ftstml bee its first name 
beeaoee Israel was spared at the time when 
Qo6L*B judgments went ebreed a^;ainst Egypft 
and its gods. 

In aooQirdaaee with 1^ propheoiea com- 
municated to Abrahem, Israd had become 
a stnuiger in a land that was not thein» had 
been afBiotod for many years; blithe nation* 
whom they seorved J^korah was abooi t^ 
jadge, and the people were to come out witk 
great Bobetancew The enemy was very power-- 
ful, and kept down larael with aa iron arm» 
The people was weak in mind and body ; it 
could not save itselfl Whenoo should a 
saviour eome P 

The king of Egypt had given command 
not only to make the lives of the children 
of Israel bitter with hard bondage, but alai> 
to kin every son bom to them. In oonae- 
qtfenoe whereof ihe pride of the Bgyptiana 
incteased, and the despair of ik» Jews 
reached its dimaoc They were overwhelmed 
with grie^ and sighed by reason of the 
bondage, and cried out of a broken heart, 
'* Should there be deliverance even for us P" 

The servitude of Egypt lasted long» stifi 
not more than four hundred years. It waa 
very heavy, for the taskmasters of the people 
were rough and cruel men, and the king 
mocked at the misery of the Jews. Still 
they could but oppress the bodies, and their 
power vanished with death. There is ano- 
ther slavery infinitely more ruinous, much 
more general, and reaching much furthw 
than all the servitude of Egypt. This 






THE FEAST OF THE FASSOVBS. 



87 



dsvery is the servioe of am. For what is 
sin? BebelhcHi against God who is the 
SVmntain of life. Sin makes man a prey 
to Death, which is tih6 WB^es of aisi. &in» 
is to be bound by the chains of tike {nnnce 
of darkness ; and unless we be delirered 
from that bondage no power oaa save tie 
from eternal perdition. What a^ailetb 
freedom of body^ as long as the sotd is en^^ 
sIttvedP What {woffiteth it to be saved from 
hmnan oppression^ if we are eoehained by 
tkeenemy of GodaodmanP The free Jew 
coxdd still be a serrant of sin. The Chris- 
tian slaye a free man in ChrisL 

Surely the misery which sin produces is 
mulpeaka^]r greater ihsai all the degrada- 
tion nndei^goiie in Egypt; bat s4ill the 
d^ivemnoe from ^e fmnace of Sgypt is 
spoken of thronghoni; Scriptore as th» moat 
glorious deed of Jehovah on behalf of his 
people. Th& redemption wae the hope 
oi the miAion« and its plea in soooeeding 
aifes, when ahnost crushed nnder the power 
of its enemies. The Psahnists and all the 
mpophefts praised this detiveranoe, as a maai^ 
'estation of Ood's irresistifole power, which 
thus cast down tiie enenieB, and protested, 
wift a Father^B feithfalnesSf the peopte He 
had chosen, for Himself. IsraeVs inspired 
singers magnify Jehovah's love, who oared 
for them when exposed to the pursuing 
BgyptiaiBs, and stopped in their march by 
the tossing waives ci the Bed Sea. But 
have yon never read the words of the 
prophet, '^The days come, saith the Lord, 
that they shal) no more say, the Lord hveUi^ 
which brooght up the diildren of Israel ont 
of the land of Egypt "P ( Jer. zxiii. 7.) And 
why is this saidP Beoaase a dehvenmce, 
surpassing in grandeur even that of Egypt, 
wiH take place when God gathers his people 
from all eomitries whither He had driven 
them. When shall that be accomplished P 
When Israel shall know Him whom Qod 
hath raised unto David as a Bighteons 
Branch, and ^lall adore Him to whom He 
Himself has given the name, >3*pmr tvrv "the 

LOBD OUK BlOHTZOUSirESS." 

n. 
Israel vras rescued from the power of 
l^liaraoh, but by what means P Does Pharaoh 
yield to the demands of Moses ? Does Israel 
gird itself to a Moody straggle P Is recom- | 



penoe offered to the Egyptians? Do the 
Israelites leave the land of bondage in the 
sUence of the night? By no means. God 
stirred up a deliverer in Moses, who was 
fostered in the very houfie of the oppressor ; 
and through him larael, Egypt, Jehovah, 
and the idolsy enter the battibe-field. Already 
God had sent nina awful plagues on Pharaoh 
and hie people; still their -pridB was not 
broken, but they coatiaued in their resist- 
ance against the Qod of Israd. Onoe mare 
J^iovah stretches forth his hand against 
Egypt, and thou^ in the beginning tdus 
viaitaition also was but lightly oared for, 
nevertheless many laid down never to rise 
aggsin, and others to awake only to look 
around them in despair. In that awfril 
midnight hour the Destroyer went through 
the land, and every city, every street, every 
house had to mourn over it6 dead. 

It is not a pestil^ioe whidi drags to the 
grave pwsons without aaoy distinotiOT^. No, 
the dead, though differing in age, have one 
thing in common: they are Uiefoni-hom of 
the house. Children who but a few hours 
since played at their mother^t breast— young 
men who in the morning Battered them- 
selves with the prospect of a splendid 
future— husbands who but yesterday were 
the strength, the joy, and the pride of wives 
and children — ^Ue cm the ground cold and 
pale ; all cut down by Jehovah's arm. The 
loog-suflTermg Qod is risen to the battle, 
and, for the time betmg at least, the haughty 
Pharaoh is brought low. He who once 
mockingly asked, " Who is Jehovah ?** now 
entreats Moses to depart and bless him. 
True, he trembles <mly before the punish* 
nteiDt, and by no means repents of his sin ; 
nay, ere long shaU he with bis troops pursue 
Israel, and make a fresh attempt to reduce 
them to slavery. But he shall not succeed. 
Instead of a glorions triumph, he but pre- 
pares for himself and for his horsemen a 
sepulchre in the biOows of the Bed Sea. 

In the peaceful tents of Israel the Pass- 
over is celebrated. There songs of praise 
are heard, for God has frilftlled his promise 
and has redeemed his jieople. And do they 
receive these beneits simply because they 
are of the seed of Abraham, or on account 
of their own righteousness P By no means. 
God oommands them to take a lamb, to 
kill it in the evening, and to strike off the 



TSE FEAST OF THE PA880VEK 



rTli« Softtfared V«tiMi» 



blood on tho tw6 side posts and on the upper 
door post of their houses, in order that l^e 
blood might be seen by God and also hj 
Israel. It is positively declared that God 
would see the blood; and in consequence 
thereof pass over them^ so tkdbt the plague 
should not be upon them to destroy them 
(Ezod. xii* 13). Again, this sprinkling of 
the blood was a trial and an encouragement 
for Israel. Very easily might the Bgyp- 
tisns, on seeing the blood, ridicule or sus- 
pect them. On the other hand it was 
natural for the Jews to think that if God 
wished to save them He did not need the 
blood of a lamb : and if not, that blood 
would not avail ^em. They do not reason, 
but believe. They obey and are saved. The 
cause of the redemption was the lamb ap. 
pointed by God, but the blessing was realized 
by faith in, and obedience to, God's word. 

All sacrifices pointed to the Messiah; 
and does not the Paschal Lamb very spe* 
oially foreshadow Him P Isaiah teUs us that 
the servant of the Lord is led to the slaughter 
as the Lamb, 'nu^ (Isa. liii. 7). John the 
Baptist makes Him known as ''the Lamb 
which taketh away the sin of the world." 
Peter praises Him as the Lamb, infinitely 
more precious than gold and silver : and the 
apostiie and prophet who had leaned on Jesus* 
breast describes Him as beheld by him' in 
prophetic vision, a wonderftil combination 
of power and humility, the Lion of the tribe 
of Judah and the Lamb standing in l^e 
midst of the elders. 

The lambs of the Passover, like all sacri- 
fices, were imperfect and but shadows ; hence 
their continual repetition. Sacrifice could 
only be offered for sins of ignorance and 
errors; hence their weakness in purifying 
consciences from dead works. The Messiah, 
THJS Lamb, is the reality of these shadows. 
He combines in his own person the sacrifice 
and the sacrificer. He is the combined Moses 
and Aaron, for He is as much Mediator and 
King as He is High Priest. Whilst Aaron 
fell into sin, and Moses stumbled because of 
unbelief> Christ accompUshed what neither 
of the two» nor both of them together, could 
achieve; for He is a Mediator, a Sacrifice, a 
Priest, and a Leader into the Land of Pro- 
mise. The weakness of Moses is, so to speak, 
manifest from his very name mna which 
signifies '* dra/um oui" The j^ory of the 



Messiah is seen in his name ^no9* signifying 
" one that draws out" The mediator of the 
Egyptian deliverance must himself be saved. 
The mediator of the deliveranoe firom sin is 
the Saviour. 

His blood purges firom all sin and de* 
livers us from the power o[ Satan and hell^ 
for we also have a Passover. Paul glories in 
declaring t^at " Christ our Passover is saeri- 
fioed Ibr us ;" and as larad had to eat un<» 
leavened bread far seven days^ so it be- 
cometh us, Paul teadies, to "ke^ the feast 
with the unleaven of sincerity and truth'* 
(1 Cor. V. 7, 8). 

m. 

Historically, the eating of unleavened 
bread was connected with the hasty depar- 
ture from Egypt; but this accounts only for 
the first night, and for the name "bread of 
misery," reminding them of the pain and 
sorrow they had undergoxie in Egypt. The 
same holds true of onno " bitter herbs," a3 
expressive of the bitterness of spirit that 
was then upon them. But the Israelites ate 
unleavened bread during the seven following 
days, and that can only be accounted for when 
one knows that ihsj were to be recognized 
as a kingdom of priests and as a holy people^ 
who were to abstain from leaven and all that 
was defiled. 

In the Paschal Lamb Jehovah is declared 
to be the God of Israel ; in the eating of the 
unleavened bread Israel confessed to be 
the people of that God. God first gave and 
manifested his love; then followed Isr^d* 
who enjoyed and experiraiced this love. First 
the Lamb, and then the unleavened bread: 
in other words, first Redemption, and then 
Sanctification. This is God's order, whidi 
man continually tries to reverse. 

A noble and glorious feast it was in 
bygone days, when Israel sojourned in the 
Land of Promise, and the Gk>d of AbrahaxQ 
dwelt in their midst ; when they, a nation 
bom of a Promise, redeemed by the power 
of G^ led by his wisdom, rejoiced in his 
favour. And when in the Holy City the 
lambs were slain and the glorious deeds of 
God were magnified in the inspired Psalms, 
in that one great \hn Hallel, which gives aU 
the glory to Gbd and his Name alone, then 
it could indeed be said, " There is none like 
Thee, neither is there any God beside Thee ; 
. • . and what one nation in the earth is 



The Soatttnd K»tioD,1 
April 2, 1866. J 



A GOBBESPONDENCE BETWEEN TWO BB0THEB8. 



like thy people, even like Israel ^" (2 Sam. 
viL 22, 23). But now the Holy City is 
trodden down by the feet of the stranger, 
and well may Israel on the evening of the 
Passover Feast sigh, mir rtnwn ''Slaves at 
present" Of the Paschal lamb nothing re- 
mains but a single dry hone.* Kow they lack 
true liberty, they want a sacrifice; and all 
their efforts to put aside the external leaven, 
enable not the heart to walk in the unleaven 
of purity and truth. 

During many centuries the cry has been 
heard when Israel celebrates the Passover, 
pin »ia nfcon ra^t^ "Next year free men;" 
and we give Israel credit that it does not 
only ask for external liberty and political 
rights, but also for entire freedom to serve 
its God, as it can only do in the Promised 
Land. For centuries Israel has blessed the 
Passover Cup, but the Cup of Salvation 
they have not enjoyed. Again and again 
they have exclaimed, &»Vunn»a nkcn rxxti^ 
*' next year in Jerusalem ;" and to this hour 
they are strangers in a land not their own. 
Everywhere they sing, inpi ^na mi." build 
thy house speedily," and still the house is 
left desolate. 

How can it be otherwise P There is no 
liberty but in Him who is the Deliverer; 

* This alludes to a Jewish ceremony on the first 
two nights of the Feast of the PaBsover. 



there is no salvation but in the one Name 
before whom all knees must bow. Israel 
cannot be restored to its former glory, can- 
not enjoy the blessing of God's countenance^ 
without first looking at Him whom they 
have pierced. There is no other foundation 
of hope but that stone which the builders 
have rejected; and hence our prayer that^ 
the eyes of our nation may be turned to* 
wards Him who never ceased to look oa 
them with compassion. 

Blessed be God, the day vnH come when 
the dry bones of Israel shall be revived, 
and Ephraim and Judah shall rally round 
David their King. Then shall all enmity 
be put away, for all shall adore Him whom 
they once rejected; then shall Israel have 
the true Paschal Lamb, long foretold and 
foreshadowed; then shall they know that^ 
godly sorrow Zechariah and Paul so touch- 
ingly describe, bitter and sweet. At that 
time they shall be free indeed. Then shall 
they for ever be in the Land of Promise ; 
then shall they draw water with joy out 
of the wells of salvation. Jerusalem shall 
be restored, their house rebuilt, and then 
they will shout : " Hosanna to the Son of 
David; blessed be He who cometh in the 
name of the Lord." 

rr\rv omi ten ira 



A CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN TWO BROTHERS. 



On the 25th of December last one of the inmates 
of onr Jews' Home was received into the Chnrch 
of Christ by baptism. He felt it a duty incnm- 
bent on him to make known to one of his brothers 
how gradonsly the Lord led him to find the 
Messiah, and to nrg^ on his brother to search the 
Scriptnres, and to see for himself whether Jesns 
was not the Christ. 

The following reply received by him, which 
we publish withont any ftirther remarks, clearly 
shows what the Jew who acknowledges the 
claims of Jesns as his Messiah has to undergo 
even on the part of his nearest kindred. 

Hahxes, Feh. 12a, 1866. 

My DEAM.T BELOVID S— , — My not writing 
to yon ere this was by no means from a lack of 
love, for I had yon oontinnally on my mind, but 
felt content to know of yonr well-being. Of 
course, we, as the children of parents who are 
not very rich, mnst be satisfied to maintain our- 
selves in a hnmble, if it be but an honourable 
way. 

I feel now called upon as your elder brother 



to address you on a most serious matter ; for 
only yesterday I received a doleful letter from 

our beloved, honest, and steady brother J , 

enclosed in which was yours, bringing me the sad 
intelligence of your religious change. If want 
has prompted you to take such a step, I pity yon 
in the same manner as I would pity any otiier 
forger who does it for gain, for you could then 
readily excuse yourself by the well-known adage, 
" Want ignores all commandments." However, 
as such is not the case, your fanaticism dis- 
tresses me very much, for I am inclined to think 
thkt you are had ! ! ! 

Does your new creed possess more charm 
than Judaism ? K any one has only sufficiency 
of intellect to set aside some of the obsolete 
ceremonies of Judaism, he needs no Jesus nor 
any other supernatural conversion. Eveiy 
reflecting Jew can be his own Messiah, his own 
Beformer, and has no need of the influence of 
priestcraft. And is it not disgraoefhl on your 
part, that no sooner are you infected with this 
conversion (mania) malady— nay, you are not 
even yet a paid agent — ^but you seek abeady to 



90 



A OOBBESPONDENCE BETWEEN TWO BM0TSEB8. 



L Aplil 2, 1899. 



^ednoe your own brother to commit a. similar 
crime ! ! ! 

What greater crime does the forger coxmnit ? 
He fiilflifiee a name and yoa ikUiiy jour religion. 
Becall to your mind a letter you sent me on the 
13th of July, 1863, wherein yon express your 

great contempt for Mr. F- , a former friend of 

mine, owing to the good moral principles (which 
ought to be religious principles) you imbibed at 
home, and you avoided him in consequence of 
his changed faith, which conduct on your part I 
commended.* He will also have shown yon the 
letter I wrote to him, in reply to his allusions to 
his happiness as a Christian, wherein I told him 
that I am much happier as A/ree Jew, for I truly 
iibbor bapHsfM. 

For my part, dear S— ^,' you still remain my 
brother, even as a member of a Christian Church, 
but I ftilly believe that no sensible man can find 
peace except in the pure doctrines of Judaism. 
I abhor fanaticism in either Jew or Christian. 
Do read the Life of Christ, by B^nan, and yon 
will find that all acknowledge Jesus to be a mere 
man. Leesing says, ** Christianity is based on 
the dediarations of old women." I believe in 
Ood, and form my ideas of the deity in aooord- 
xmce with my own understanding, and do not 
cavil with the Jew about his ceremonies, 
Although I think them necessary. 

In yomr religious tremor you might have 
asked the advice of your brothers, and they 
would have, in tears, counselled you rather to 
go and oooaolt a physiciant to get some remedy 
for the frenzy pressing on your brain, but not to 
go to a priest, who is only too glad to entrap a 
German victim, for which Prussia has to pay the 
sum of fram 80,000 to 40,000 thalers annuity. 
Oh, how could you be so weak-minded ? 

If you would repent of your fault you would 
make us truly happy j come home, we shall share 
everything we possess with you. I will send 
jou the travelling expenses, even if it were my 
last penny, and no ono shall know a word of it. 
But if this does not induce you, consider your 
aged good father, whose continual anxiety was 
to hear of your welfare ; think of the weak state 
of your poor dear mother, who suffers much from 
ill-health, and whose great delight it was to hear 
of your well-being. What will they say when they 
hear of your change ? I fear that our dear mother 
cannot survive it, and that our dear father will 
fiink beneath the burden of grief and shame. 
Have your parents deserved that from you? 
Ton know they want nothing from you, and only 
vnah to hoar that you are in the path of happi- 
ness. 

If you are not to be prevailed upon to retract 
your step, I must pray and beseech you, do 
reniain a Jew towards jrour parents, and when 
you write to them let them not perceive your 
fanaticism ; tell them you are in business, other- 
wise you are their murderer. Kever send them 
any money or present from your ill-gotten money, 
I mean from the money you receive firom the 
Hission Society. Go to convert the heathen, but 
do not come to Germany. My letter will no 
4oubt grieve you much, but yours has robbed 
me of all peace, and made me very ill. I only 

* This alludes to a oorrespondeDioe between the 
writer and a former Jewish friend (^ his, but who, by 
^ grace of God, is now a missionsiy to th« Jews. 



hope that the dear parents maj never hear of it. 
I want an explicit answer, Mr. Proselyte, and am. 
your brother, A . 

We nowsmbjoin aoopy of the Ohristisai bro- 
ther's answer to the foregoiug, and we oonfi- 
dently appeal to all candid minds to judge in 
which of the two letters the spirit of truth and 
love, 78% of Hoses mad the prophets, is to be 
foond? 

Jews* Home, 

31, K«wmiAM St., Bdowark Ed., 

Lo2n>OK, feb. 1868. 

My deae Beothee,— You oannot possibly 
conceive the great pleasure your kind letter haa 
caused me. Overlooking all your attacks, I will 
endeavour to answer your question, and notice 
only some of the sentiments opntadnsd in yovr 
letter. I frilly anticipated that my religions 
change would pain you severely, and cause 
you ma<^ gfrief, wherefore I delayed writing fbr 
some time. However, I felt it to be wrong in toe 
to conceal it from you any longer. In your lettor 
you absolve me from the charge of having been 
induced by want to change my religion ; and you 
frurUier say that if snoh had actually been the 
case, you would have pitied and even excused 
me; but, dear brother, you wholly ignore my 
assurance to you that my change was fitnn pure 
conviction, and you at onoe nnhesitatingiy stcuup 
it as an act of madne^. 

Whether your views on this point are not in- 
consistettt, I must leave you to judge, because, 
whilst you suppose the former, and even by your 
charitable disposition defend it, you deny the 
latter (my conviction) in the fkce of more than 
two hnndbred noiUions of those who follow the 
same conviction. 

Furthermore, you glory in Judaism, espe- 
cially in the free position of the Jew. You sp^ik 
of the beautiful ideas contained in the Jewish 
religion; you mention everything except that 
Holy Book on which the foundation of Judaism 
is built, and hence must bo inseparably connected 
with it. Whither has enthusiasm led you? 
What you sketched in such lively colours does 
after tdl not approximate to the original, is not 
Judaism but your own self-conceived picture of 
imagination ? 

I will tell you what Judaism is, and what ia 
required of a Jew ! Let us read together Dent. 
X. 12, 13, " And now, Israel, what doth the Lord 
thy God require of thee, but to fear the Lord thy 
God, to wai in all his ways, and to love Him, 
and to serve the Lord thy God with all thy heart, 
snd with all thy soul, to keep the command- 
ments of the Lord and his statutes, which com- 
mand thee this day for thy good P** Here, dear 
brother, we have it pointed out plainly and dis- 
tinctly what is required of the Jew, and the waya 
in which he is to walk. 

Whence do you get your theory that every 
Jew is at liberty to form such notions of the deiiy 
as suit him best P Our forefathers of old, alter 
having received the law, and avowed implicit 
obedience to Jehovah, made the golden calf, try- 
ing to possess that liberty wherein you glory, 
namely, to form their own notion of the deity 5 
and they said of the calf, ^«*it»» P)»n!>« r5>» 
« These be thy gods, Israel.** And in a some- 
what similar wn^T>t^Ar (Joes the present genera- 



'^ aJSmsSI^ OUTBAQEOUS attack on EABL of SHAFTESBURY. 



91 



tion aot. Why shoakL w© Overlook the pnnish. 
ment that followed upon those nations ? Shoald 
it not rather oonviot ns of oar nnfUness, and 
cause OS to torn to Jehoyah's voice P 

Ton adviBe and reoommend me to read 
B^nan and Leasing in order to become convinced 
of the invalidity of Ohridtianity ; it may con- 
dnce to yonr comfort when I beg to assure yon 
that I have read ^e books yon named, and 
many many move of the same tendency ; nay, 
more, I have read far more against than for 
Christianity, bnt why confide infklUble man 
and not in the imrALLiBLB God P T^refore, my 
dear brother, believe me candidly that neither 
enticements, nor Iknatioism, nor want, nor mad- 
ness has indnoed me to become a convert to 
Christianity, bat a tull conviction that Jesns 
Christ is the promised Messiah, the King of the 
Jews. The Almighty Gtod, oar heavenly Father, 
and He only, knows the many trials and inward 
straggles and snflbrings I had to overcome, bat 
at last by his help, it was accomplished. 

I cannot possibly describe to yon the hjkp- 
pinesa I feel since that change, and I am rejoiced 
to say that now I know what a real spiritnal 
life is. Carnal desires have vanished, and I can 
rejoice in daily commanion with my Gk>d, from 
whom I had before as a Jew been estranged ; bat 
do not think that I have given np my nation- 
ality, I now ftiUy realize tiie privilege of being 
a Jew, yea, I am proud of it. Is not the Saviour 
whom the Gentiles /Ksknowledge and adore the 
King of onr nation P 



Believe me, dear brother, before my oonver* 
sion, I avoided the company of my Jewish 
brethren, bat now it is my delight to associate 
with them ; and, pray, what on earth coold pro- 
dace this salntary change in me, except the 
truth as it is in Jesus &ur Messiah P Tour de- 
sire for me to turn fh>m this fiuth I cannot com- 
ply with, nothing in this life can prevail on me 
to abandon this conviction, yea, I would rather 
suffer death than do so. As to our dear parents, 
for the reasons you name I f^lly concur in not 
bringing this matter to their direct notice 
at present, bat I hope they will bear of it 
soon. 

I am as yet under religions instrootion. 
What my future oaroer will be 1 do not know— 
I leave that entirely to the direction of the Lord, 
and say with oar father Abraham, D«m^ 
rmy " Tfie Lord will provide." 

Now, dear brother, I will conclude by wish- 
ing you a hearty adieu. Be assured that my 
love shall bo unceasing for you, and all our dear 
relatives- I have refrained from giving you a 
more detailed account of the reasons and evi- 
dences by which I was led to embrace Chris- 
tianity, in order not to give offence, and thus not 
to put a hindrance to our correspondence. I 
shall remain for ever your affectionate brother, 

S. D. 

Give my kind love to our dear parents, and 
all other relatives, and write again soon. 



-4- 



OUTRAGEOUS ATTACK ON THE EARL OP SHAFTESBURY. 



Wb have just read the "Jewish Chnmide" 
of March 2drd, which has for its leading article 
^ The ConversioniBte preparing for their Annual 
Demonstratioii." We know whenever anni- 
versaries of the Societies for the Propagation of 
the Gos|>el an^ong the Jews approach, the Editor 
cf that Jewish organ deems it his duty to 
ridioale all the efforts put forth to make the 
Jews acquainted with Jesus as the Messiah. 
He does the same this year, and we should cer^ 
toinlynot have noticed what he says were it 
not that his remarks contain an outrageous 
attadc on a man of whom it may truly be said, 
^ he loveth our nation." 

We do not intend to defend the London Jews' 
Sootetj, as this is not oar province. We do not 
wish to maintam the right tO proclaim the 
gospel even to the Jew, as this is quite certain 
to every candid mind. We do not desire to dis- 
miss the means employed, nor to extol the efforts 
naade in different parts of tlie world. We shall 
Bot even speak on the unworthy w^MMiav in 
Tdiioh the earnest .endeavours of conscientious 
men to make others share the blessing they re- 
4oioe in are ridicaled. We simply limit ourselves 
to the amira^eotu attack made on the Eakl or 
SBATTSSBuaT as President of the London Jews' 
Society. 

If there be any noble bom and noble-minded 
man in £ngland, if there be any man who has 
employed his gifts, his talents, his position, 
•verythiog that he has and is to the advance- 



ment of the moral, mental, and bodily well-being; 
of his fellow-creatures, ^ther Jew, Mohammedan, 
or Heathen, surely it is the indefatigable, bokL, 
and persevering nobleman, the Earl of Shaftes- 
bury. 

When Jews were ill-treated on a fool slander 
at Damascus, or a few women on becoming 
Roman Catholics were banished from Sweden, 
when Edgar Mortcura was stolen from his parental 
roof, and Matamoros was shut up in the prisons 
of (Granada, who intervened on their behalf but 
the Earl of Shaftesboty P When fhllen women 
are to be raised, thieves are to be rescued, the 
ragged and outcast of society are to be assisted 
and trained, and overw(M>ked children are to be 
relieved, who takes so prominent a part as the 
Earl of Shaftesbury ? Is there any generoos, 
patriotic, truly philanthropic deed done in 
England wherewith the honoured name of the 
Earl of Shaftesbury is not associated ? 

This man is thus spoken of by the " Jewidi 
Chroniole ":--" Ti§ hmro of tfU melodrama to he 
fefformtd, on tha tiagB of Exeter Sail will, qf 
coarM, be the $e»iimerUaI Earl of Shafietbury, 
A meeting of the * Jews' Society* 9oithout tkie 
ekampioH of romantieiem would be like the pU^f of 
* Samlet * withowt Samlet. S$ hoe now for yeare 
JO ident^ied himeelf with the torrent of vapid 
effkeion there poured forth year after year^ and 
the public hoe become eo aoenetomed to consider 
him as the guaramtee for the ewtraordinary steste^ 
wtente made em these ^eoasione by dekided deludersp 



92 



INTELLIQENCE. 



rSoattcred NatioB, 
April a, 1860. 



that were he to be abeent, we are pertuaded^ to 
uee a Stock Exchange term^ nothing would Afloat* 
We mojfy therefore^ expect that the noble Loid will 
again preeide.** 

Snoh ezpressionB recoil on. those that use 
them. Sorely the man who penned these lines 
clearly proves that he cannot distinguish be- 
tween a " ieiUimeni<U man " and a man of senti- 
ment. It might, then, seem unnecessary to say 
a word about it, did we not think it our duty to 
protest in the name of Jews against the "Jewish 
Chronicle." Not only we Jews who believe in 
Jesus Christ reject with cur whole heart this 
way of treatment, but we are convinced that we 
represent the feelings even of those Jewish bre- 
thren who differ fi:t)m us in regard to the claims 
of Jesus, when we say that they repudiate the 
would-be witty weapons of the Editor of the 
'* Jewish Chronicle." Nothing is eaaiei* than to 
use violence, or to ridicule a man of whom it is 
known that he will not defend himself; but the 
more this is known, the more careful one ought 
to be as to the language employed. Let no one 
henceforth attach any value to the slanders 



brought forward in that paper; for if even a 
man like the Earl of Shaftesbury cannot es- 
cape, how shall they be just to^^urds any o»e 
less known and respected in the land? Of 
the Bishop of Bipon they say, that h» "is 
for the preeent used mp. He cannot appear 
with the eame argwnenti over again on the eam& 
stage." 

The Bishop's arguments are God's words and 
works, Qod*s dealings and purposes, and they 
will remain full of power and life, freshness and 
vigour, as long as this world shall last. We 
thank God that He has filled the heart of the 
Bishop of Bipon with love for our nation ; we 
thank God that He has enabled the Earl of 
Shaftesbury to raise high the banner of the King 
of Israel for many years. We fully believe God 
will bless these men who pray and work for the 
peace of Jerusalem. 

Let no Christian judge the Jews by what one 

of them has written. And even of that one let 

them adopt the language of dying Love, " Father, 

foivive him, for he knoweth not what he doeth." 

BDiioa "ScATTBaiD Nation." 



INTELLIGENCE. 



EXPLORATIONS IN PALESTINE. 

The Hon. Secretary of the Palestine Explo- 
ration Fund has just published the following. 
This is in continuation of what appeared in our 
number for March: — 

I have received a fourth report firom Captain 
Wilson, Royal Engineers, in charge of the first 
expedition of the Association, dated Nazareth, 
February 20th, of which the following is the 
substance : — 

TopooaAPHT. — Astronomical observations 
have been made, fixing the positions of Elian 
Minyeh, Mejdel, Tiberias, Kefr Aijib (north-east 
end of lake), Wady Fik, 'Alma, Kafr Birim, 
Herion, Ailab^, and Nazareth, and considerable 
additions made to the map. Since reaching 
Banais a district has been reconnoitred and 
plotted to a scale of one inch to a mile, extend- 
ing from Belfort on the north to Tabor on the 
south, and from the Jordan on the east to 
Sep^horis on the west, giving with great exact- 
ness the main features of the country, the line of 
watershed, course of chief Wadys, etc. The 
greatest error found in the existing maps is in 
tiie course of the Wadys running into the plain 
of Genesareth ; the great bend of Wady Selameh 
shown by Van de Velde as forming portion 
of Wady Amud, being really a continuance 
of Wady Bubadiyeh. The par^ had been dis- 
appointed in being able to take the mules round 
the lake, and thoroughly explore the eastern 
side, the Gk)vemor of Tiberias, who appears to 
be at open war with the Bedouin, refusing to 
give an escort, while the mulcted would not 
cross the Jordan. Captain Wilson and Lieutenant 
Anderson, however, hired a boat at Tiberias, and 
landed at the mouth of the Jordan, made a 
three days' walking excursion, during which 
they were able to examine the country to about 



half a mile below Wady Fik, iaXL the weather 
compelled them to return to Tiberias. It ap- 
pears that there is only one place, about haLT- 
way between W. Fik and W. Semakh, which 
ftilfils all the conditions required by the Biblical 
narrative of the destruction of the herd of 
swine. 

ARCHiEOLoaT. — Some excavations were made 
at Lrbid, and detailed plans and drawings made 
of the building there, which is an old syna- 
g^ogue, but has suffered a good deal by having* 
been at one time converted into a mosque. The 
caverns Kalat Ibn Maan were explored, and 
found to have been at one time used as a con- 
vent. At Tiberias the ruins of the old town 
occupy a lai^ger area than had been expected, 
and an old aqueduct, which supplied the town 
with water, was traced to its course some miles 
off in the MUs. At the north end of the lake, El 
Tel was visited ; the ruins there are small, and 
no trace of architectural detail could be found 
amongst them. On the plain several old sites 
were visited ; one, near the northern edge, to 
which no name could be obtained, had a portion 
of the city wall standing, and a few basaltio 
fragments of architraves and cornices, one with 
a well-executed scroll of vine leaves and grapes ; 
on the shore were found some ruins called ELefir 
Aijib, of some extent, but containing nothing 
remaikable. At the mouth of W. Semakh are 
some ruins called Ehersa» much of the same 
character as those at Kefr Aijib; at Kalat el 
Husn (Gamala) are numerous capits^ and frag- 
ments, but no distinct plan of any building 
could be made out. The line of the entire street 
can still be plainly traced. Prom Tiberias they 
turned north again, to complete the examina- 
tion of the Jurmuk district, and at some ruins 
called Nebartein discovered an old synagogue, 
on the lintel of which was an inscription in 



Tbfi Soattend Nation,! 
April 2, 1866. J 



mTELLIGENGE. 



93 



Hebrew, and over it a representation of the 
candlestick with seven branches, similar to the 
T^U-known one on Titns' arch at Borne — a 
eqneeze was taken of the inscription. At 
Elasjnn the rains of a small temple were fonnd, 
and a mutilated Qreek inscription; at Kefr 
Birim some small excavations were made to dis- 
close the plans of the two synagogues, of both 
of which detailed plans, drawings, and photo- 
f^phs have been made. A plan was also made 
of the ohnroh at Yaribi, the style of architecture 
of which is very peculiar, and like nothing they 
had seen elsewhere; the cross had been used 
with great freedom as an ornament, and no two 
capitals were found aUke— on«one were some 
curious designs, on another each face had a bust 
in the centre, etc. Two Greek inscriptions 
were found at YaHin, both mutilated. At 
Heiron, plans, etc., were made of the synagogue, 
and drawings of some of the tombs, which are 
peculiar. At Um el Amud were found the ruins 
of another synagogue, and a broken slab on 
which are two lions. Some fine sarcophagi, 
similar to those at Eedes, were found at Shalab^Ln 
(north of Kefr Birim). 

Photographs, — The following have been 
added to our list : — 

View of the Ghuweir from Khan Minyeh. 

View of the Aqueduct at Khan Minyeh. 

Two views of ruins at Irbid. 

View of Eum Hattin (Mount of Beatitudes). 

View of Wady el Hammam. 

Yiew of ruins at Ealat el Husn (Gamala). 

View of Tiberias. 

View of lintel with insoription and candle- 
stiok, at Nebartein. 

Pour views of ruins at Kefr Birim. 

View of ruins at Meiron. 

View of large sarcophagus at Meiron. 

View of slab with lions at Um el Amud. 

Mbteorology.— The three aneroids sent from 
lAndon on the 10th Jan., and forwarded by the 
Ambassador at Constantinople, through the kind 
])ermis8ion of Earl Russell and Mr. Layard, M.P., 
had reached the party the day they left Tiberias, 
and since then a regular series of barometrical 
and hygprometrical observations (unavoidably in- 
terrupted by the derangement of the aneroids 
and Gay-Lussac barometer originally taken out) 
had been resumed. 

Great assistance had been afforded by the 
Bev. Mr. Zeller, the Anglican clergyman at 
Kazareth, well known to travellers for his know- 
ledge, ability, and kindness, who had drawn up 
lists of ancient sites, and intended accompanying 
them to Beisan, in the Jordan valley, where his 
personal acquaintance with the Bedouin will be 
of the greatest assistance to the party in their 
explorations. From Beisan it was intended to 
g^, vid Zerin, to Sebastiyeh and Nabln3, though, 
owing to the Adouan and Sukka Bedouin being 
at war, and a grand fight being imminent, it was 
probable the intended programme might be 
slightly altered. The whole country round wm 
Tery much disturbed, the people being in many 
places absolutely starving; the locusts had 
cleared off last year's crops, and were then eat- 
ing up the Jordan valley, threatening to return 
to the mountains when summer sets in; the 
cattle disease was so severe that enough cattle 
were not left to plough the land, and there 



was every prospect of an increase in the dis- 
tress. 

So far Captain Wilson. It will be observed 
that of the places mentioned in this hurried 
report no less than five — Kefr Arjib, Khersa, 
Nebartein, Ailabi!bi, Um el Amud — are not to be 
found on the maps of Van de Velde or Schultz. 
Sydenham, Georgb G&ove, Hon. Sec. 



America. — Twenty-two years ago, I intro- 
duced a Jew to a princess, who took a hearty in- 
terest in Israel's conversion, requesting her to 
use her influence with the directors of a railway 
company to give him employment. Sinoe that 
time, it has pleased the Lord to draw him unto 
Himself, and, having been led by the good hand 
of God to America, he has been for many years 
a zealous labourer in the Lord's vineyai^, more 
especially in connection with the propagation of 
the gospel among Israel. In a letter received a 
few days ago, he writes : — 

" With a grateful heart I look back to the 
year 1865, sis I have been permitted to lead eight 
of the house of Israel to their Messiah, our Righ- 
teousness and Glory. Four have joined different 
Christian denominations, one died in the Lord, 
and three have been so much persecuted by their 
relatives that they have left for the far West, 
there to profess the Lord whom they have found. 
God has also used me to bong nine uominal 
Christians to a saving knowledge of Jesus. 

** Two months ago, I again attempted to hold 
private meetings with our JewicQi Christian 
brethren and sisters, and the Lord seems to smile 
on my effort, for, while our first meeting was 
attended by four, the number has increased 
within two months to iwenty^even** 

Our friend has, since 1857, been publishing 
a monthly called "The Israelite Indeed," a 
periodical " devoted to the illustration and de- 
fence of Hebrew Christianity, which is founded 
on Moses, the prophets, and the apostles, and to 
the true interests of the Jewish nation generally." 
It has for its motto the verses Isa. Izii. 1, and 
Bom. xi. 1, 2. The publication /ii//y answers to 
its title. It exhibite much research into Scrip- 
ture, and can be heartily recommended as worthy 
of perusal, even when one cannot adopt aU the 
conclusions arrived at. 

Constantinople. — Many years ago, I met a 
young Jew at Pesth, where he had come fr*om 
Vienna, and proclaimed to him the riches of the 
gospel as it is in Jesus. For several years he has 
been preaching Christ to our brethren in the capi- 
tal of Turkey, and is doing a good and extensive 
work there by several schools he superintends. 
He is connected with the Free Church of Scot- 
land, and we leam from his letters that the 
schools are in a very floorishing condition. They 
are full and well attended. In the German 
school (the Jewish population consiste of Germans 
and Spaniards, and both require different schools) 
the girls especially presented a cheering sight. 
There were at least seventy girls present, very 
much improved in appearance. When one knows 
that most of these Jews are refugees from 
Austria, Wallachia, and Russia, and that these 
children, of whom no one took care, now get 
thorough Biblical instruction, and are thus 
brought under Christian influence, the presence of 
seventy girls and boys is of no small importance. 



94 



INTBLLIQBNOE. 



L April a»lM6. 



The next daj the Spanish azid Italian eohoola 
were examined. The girls went through a most 
searching and interesting Bible leason t^com the 
first chapter of Hebrews. How richly the minds 
of the children are stored with Bible tmths was 
breaght oat by a series of promises and pro- 
phecies which they repeated by heart. "The 
two schools/' Mr. Tomory, the missionary, writes, 
" show best what hold we have on the Jewish 
oommxmity. New schools rise on all sides, and 
yet onr nnmbers are steadily on the increase." 
Hay the Lord bless the instroction given to these 
ohildren to the saving of their souls. 

Smtkna. — The last year was one of painful 
visitation for the Jews in this dty. Mr. Spaeth, 
who has succeeded in establishing a Christian 
0dK>ol, writes : — ^** We began the year with great 
expectations. Oar school was fireqaented by 
fifty 'five ebildr^i, a nomber never reached be- 
fore; and frequently on Saturdays fifty adult 
Jews came to my house, with whom I read God's 
Word. Very soon it was proclaimed in all the 
synagogues that all who should continue to visit 
Mr. S., or send tiieir children to his school, would 
be visited with the great exoommunicatioa {eke- 
ram gmiot). Besides this, the ohief rabbi cited 
before him eaoh of the parents i^>ert, and declared 
to them that, if they did not take away their ohil> 
dren from the school, their children would not be 
eircumoised, and^eir daughters would not be 
married, nor their dead buried. This frightened 
the people so much that all> with the exception 
of one family, submitted. Then came tibbe 
cholera, and excited much terror and confusion, 
especially among the Jews, who, deserted by 
their chief rabln, were like sheep without a 
shepherd. Many suffered great YC^t, and the 
Jews, who are very poor, were severely afflicted 
by the visitation ; and now in the winter their 
want is very great. Almost all that were tidren 
away by the cholera were m$n, so that the 
fiumUes were deprived of their natural suppor- 
ters." Mr. S^ having received from the Prussian 
oonsul 593 francs for the poor Jews, visited the 
Jewish quarter^ aceompanied by two Jew8» and 
discovered a state of misery scero^y to be de- 
scribed. He first went to the so-called Ijaaaretto, 
a sort of poor^ouse, where 150 fiunilies remde, 
and forty or fifty still poorer widows with their 
children. Many have nothing to cover them- 
selves with even by night. As to mattresses or 
bedding, nothing of the kind is to be found there ; 
they wrap themselves up in their miserable rags 
and sleep on the bare floor, and suffw starvation. 
Our friend was enabled to give some lidight relief, 
but what is that to so many ? 

He remarks : " Inthis land, where the Jews 
see Christianity in the idolatrous forms of the 
Bomish and G^ek Churches, and scarcely come 
in contact with any but such Christians, frY>m 
whom they sujSer much reproach and persecution, 
it afieots them very much when we show them 
by our deeds that we Christians love them sin- 
cerely and try to help them in their great distress. 
The Jews ask one another, and also their leaders 
{ehtchommt or wise men, is the official title), 
' Whence does it oome that the Protestant visits 
our poor and does them good, whilst oiir leaders 
do nothing for them and seek only their own 
advantage ?' " 

3ilrw S. appeals to OhristiMBft to aosisi him in 



relieving the great distress of the poor Jews at 
Smyrna. I kn<m that he is a trustworthy and 
judicious man, and, if any of our readers shoifld 
feel disposed to w&dA me some m<mey for the 
poor Jews at Smyrna, I shall be most happy to 
forward it to the place of destination. When 
we remember that ^e Lord Himself healed Uie- 
sick and fed the hungry, though He knew they^ 
came only for the bread that perishes, it becomea 
us to follow his holy exaoaple in relieving even, 
tibie bodily wants of poor Israel, who, having^ 
suffered much frxun persecution by so-called 
Christians, need greatly the soothing influenoea 
of Christian ^rmpathy to induce them to believe 
in disinterestec^love, and thus to be prepared for 
the reoqDtion of the gospel.-^ED. S. Nation. 

Algisbs. — Bev. J. B. Gihsbueo reports th& 
following baptisms : — 

The first Sunday of the present month,, two 
Israelites were publicly admitted by the sacred 
rite of baptism into the membership of the 
visible church of Chzist. Three were prqwred 
to confess the Saviour that day, but when, during> 
the week preceding the solemn ceremony, I 
examined them daily, as to their knowledge, I 
felt it would not be amiss if I postponed the 
admission of the third, for the satiafaction of 
my own conscience, though to the great dis- 
appointment of the inquirar. I hope, however^ 
the sacrament will be administered soon to the 
third also. 

One of these neoi^iytes, is M. M ^ bom in 

1834, at M , the capital of M . He had 

received the first impressions of the gospel in 
the Holy City. On the 7th of March, 1864, 
passing on board tho " Sydney Hall," from 
Mogador w& Mosagan, I saw from, the latter 
place, embarking on the same steamer, an in- 
dividual who had taken active part in dis- 
cussions I had held when visiting Moxagan a few 
weeks before. This rabbi, who had fbUowed me 
(dosely — first at. the last named place, ,then<Bt-* 
Tangiers, and again at Gibraltar— had, as it 
appears, no vest until he discovered ;ny re- 
sidence. This he found out at Gibraltar, and 
availed himself of the first oj^rtnnity of oomiBf^ 
to Algpers. The 1st of June last he began a 
regular oourse of instruotion preparatory for his 
bi^tism. During a succession of straggles^ 
trials, and temptations, he manifested a knowu 
ledge of his sinf al self, and of Jesus the Great 
Physician and Bedeemer of mankind. His con- 
dnot, too, allowance b^ng made for rabbinieal 
temper and pharisaioal caprices, harmoniaed with 
his profession. He was to have been baptized, 
on his incessant demands, on the 17th of Sep- 
tember, but my short absence altered the pre- 
vious arrangements. 

The second is M. D , also from M ^ 

bom 1845. He presented himself for instruction 
the end of last year, when he came with a letter 
of introduction from one of our dear proselytes 
at Constantina. He was immediately received 
in the Home, and put as ^|>prentioe at another 
proselyte's, to learn the trshde of shoemaldng. 
Thou^ untaught in the rabbinical lore — in £Bct 
I might say because he is ignorant of the 
Tahnud — he gives me less anxiety, and makes 
me hope that he is one of those Israelites indeed 
in whom there is no guile. 

Tho third is F. B , from M . After 



ISbi Iciitttiad Hatuttn 
AvnlS,18t8. J 



INTBLUOSNCE. 



95 



the monung servioe, on the 16tk Sunday 
after Trinity, the bi^^^amal aemoe wm read in 
French, and the qneriee to the candidates asked 
in Hebrew. Befbre the dismiiaory blessing was 
pronoonoed. Pastor Hontine deliTered a short 
address in the French language. Thus the Lord 
oolleots his people '^one by one/' "one of a 
city and two of a family.'' Let ns, nntil his 
tune has oome when Israel shall be bron^^in 
** all at a time," in a national oqMcity, labour to 
brii^ in, with his aid, individnal sools, and en- 
deavonr to conlbrm them to the image and 
qunt^al life of Christ Himself. 

THB NUMBEB Of THX JIW8. 

Aa flor as we can gather it £rom offldal 
acconnts, it stands thns : — 

The Nethbblands.— 63,500 Jews in the midst 
of a population of 3,291,578 souls. There are in 
that small country more Jews than in Great 
Britain, where their number does not exceed 

6o,ooa 

FRAifcx.--**The Jewish population of that 
ooontry, exolusiye of its colonies, is 88,986; 
whereof 22,000 belong to the rabbinical district 
of Fisris, 20,986 to Strasbourg, and 17,000 to 
Golmar. Besides that there are 7000 at Algiers, 
600 at Ohraa, and 4600 at Oonstantine. 

Italt.-— 44^190 Jews divided into sizty-siz con- 
gregations. At Trieste 6000, at Bome 4400, 
Leghorn 4840, Yenetia 2600, Turin, Florence, 
Hantna, Modena, each 2000, Ferrara 1600, 
Ancona 1500, Verona 1400, Alessandria 800, 
Fisa 800, Ca«ale700, Bologna 650, Milaii, Fadua, 
and Yeroelli, each 600, Naples 850, Panna 280, 
Genoa 260, Nice 120. The otiier congregations 
are small i in two there are no more than 40. 

BussiA.— -The Minister of the Interior (Heme 
Secretary) dedares that of the 68 millions of 
inhabitants, 1,460,000 are Jews. 

AuflTa4LiA.-^Acoosding to official accoimte, 
of the 640,822 inhabitants of Victoria, 6903 are 
Jews. Among the religions denominations, 
Israelites and Christian IsraeHtee are mentioned. 
The number of the latter is 396. 

HiaioTBK.^-Of the 1,928,492 tnhaWtanf of 
that kingdom, 12,424 are Jews. 

B40BN.— In that dmahj liv« 25,284. 

Ooxn;.— Of a popolation of 18,000 sonis, the 
third pert consists cSt Jews, the poorer of whom 
still lire in the Ghetto. They distingoiah them- 
weiLreM by the blue garments they wear, but 
mnoh less by thnr external appearance than in 
other soutlMm countries. Most of them are 
roeohanics. 

Qhitbcb Missionaby CoiiLxeB, IsuKoxoir, 
London, Feb, 14<A, 1866. 
Bey. Doctob, — Haying long felt a deep inte- 
rest in the spiritual welfare of the Scattered 
Nation, I have been indnced to take in the early 
numbers of your periodical, and after reading 
them orer, the thought impressed itself deeply 
upon my mind that if a series of papers were 
pnblished, specially bearing upon the benefits 
reoeiTed by the Church of Christ from the Jews, 
eonrerted or unconyerted, they would, under 
Ck)d's blessing, be produotiye of much good. 
This hint (if desirable), might be pat into eflbct 
either by singling out such beneficial instances 
frost GkoBroh History, and throwing them into 



proper fbrm, or by writing biographies of such 
men as Lyra and Neander. 

I am persuaded that many well-educated 
Christians need to be better infbnned upon so 
important a topic than they now are ; and feel- 
ing that your periodical is likely to commend 
itself to such men, I cannot withstand tte temp- 
tation of expressing my humble opinion to you. 

Mi^ God bless your eiKnrts to extend the 
kingdom of Jehovah and of his Messiah ! — I am, 
Ker. Doctor, respeetfrdly yours, 

Geo. Shibt (Student). 

Bev. Dr. Schwartz. 

[We shall oonplj wiHh the snggMtion of otir oorratpoii- 
&eni M soon as possible. Bi the meantime we point oul to 
Mm a littto ««lasM, «• Jewish Witnesses,*' pablished by tb» 
Bev. B. H«rseheU, wherein th« U?cs of soiae emineat 
proeftlytei are (ieacribed.~BD.J 

ABT89IVU : rrs PAST, PSXSBRT, AND PBOBABSS 

putube". 

Such is the title of a renMrJtdble lecture of 
our excellent friend and fellow-labourer, the Rev. 
Dr, Margoliouth, LL.D., which came to hand 
when our magazine was almost out of the hands 
of the printer. Still we cannot prevail on our- 
selves to let a whole month pass by without 
having called attention to it. Let us say, then, in 
a few words, that we felt whilst reading it that it- 
is the production of a man thoroughly acquainted 
with the subject: of one who enters into it 
fully equipped with all that is required to do it 
justice ; for he possesses Biblical, geog^phical, 
and historical knowledge. He has carefiilly 
studied the despatches, discussions, and reports 
of the Foreign Office^and is minutely acquainted 
with the persons, the sufferings, aiad the writings 
of the noble prisoners. The book reads like a 
romance, and has all the charms which a loving 
heart alone can impart even to the writing H" 
truth. 

We now add that the photographs of the 
fier. H. A. Steirn and Captain Oameren» and 
the last aocoonts given by the former ave alao 
embodied in. the book, and that the proceeds 
of the sale are destined to strengthen the hands 
of those who have gone forth endeavouring to 
obtain the liberation of these captives. Need 
we say more to stir up oor readers to proenre a 
copy of a lectnre as instructive as it is edi^png, 
and a« pleasant as it is profitable ? 

EDXTO& " SCATnBSI> l^AJVm^ 

SSEKnrO IBS TBUB WEtPABB OP ISRAEL. 

<*No! the work amongst Israel is not in 
vain," declares I>r. Thdnok, the honoured pro- 
fessor at Halle, "but there is need of much 
labour, and very fireqBently the labour lacks 
love, or the love wisdom. For it is not sufficient 
to give lectures on the Jews, nor to give awa^ 
good books, and distribute tracts ; all this oaa 
be done witiiout toil and without tears. We 
mmst aeek tkeir sonh. But to do this as Jeeos 
the good Shepherd does it, seeking his sheep 
and lambs on the moontains luod in the 
valleys — this cannot be done without tail and 
tears. In this way the souls of the house of 
Israel must be sought. Ye preachers to Israel, 
first make the Jews, who beUeve with their heads, 
l»ous Jews before you try to make them pious 
Ghristians. Humbly do. I praise my Gk>d, 
who has permitted me during the nearily ^y 



96 



INTELLIGENCE, 



rTh« Soattered ITatkHi. 
L April 2, 1866. 



years I have preached the Word, to see the power 
of that Word manifested in the hearts of so 
many young men ; but I will not forget that in 
the first year of my ministry, when I myself 
was still a young man, the first soul the Lord 
gave me was that of a young Jew. Thus I say : 
Jerusalffm, if I forget thee, let my right hand 
be forgotten j and I pray for thy peace, O Jeru- 
salem, and I do belieye that they shall prosper 
that love thee." 

iNSUEEECnON AGAINST THE JeWS IN BOHBMIA. 

— ^We greatly regret to have to report the fol- 
lowing. Some days since a telegram from 
Yienna announced that troops from the garrisons 
in Hungary had received orders to proceed to 
Bohemia. That announcement is now explained 
by the fact that disturbances had broken out at 
several points in the latter country. The Jews 
have been the objects of acts of violence re- 
calling to memory the worst periods of the 
middle ages. At Schuttenhofen, an industrial 
town, several houses were pillaged, the inter- 
vention of the authorities proving useless. The 
troops hesitated at firing and were disarmed by 
the crowd ; and the populace, armed with sticks, 
spread through the city, chasing before them 
peU-mell the soldiery, gendarmes, and Jews. Hie 
tumult had become most serious, when a dispute 
arose amongst the insurgents relative to the 
•division of the spoil, and enabled the authorities 
to restore something like order. 

JEWS* HOME. 
ZQ, Newnham Steeet, Bdgwaee Boad, W. 

Several Ohristian friends have complied with 
my request, and lent me a helping hand. Since 
the Lord led me toattempt establi^ng this Home 
for some young men who have aolmowledged 
Jesus as their Messiah, I have been more tiian 
ever convinced of the importance, yea, of the 
necessity, of such an effort. I do not lise the 
more imposing word ** Institution," for I have at 
present but three rooms, and I wish only to en- 
large when the necessity is laid on me by Him 
who sends the men, and who will then give the 
means for their maintenance. 

I had promised to give some details with 
regard to God's dealings with the three inmates 
of the Home, but am unable to redeem my promise 
in this number, partly on account of bodUf indu^ 
poHHon, and partly because our space has been 
occupied by the article, " Oorrespondence be- 
tween two Brothers." These letters themselves 
flhow the necessity of having some place in 
which to receive such young men, who have not 
only to undergo the loss of their employment, 
but also run the risk of being cast off, at least 
for a time, by those with whom they have been 
80 tenderly united, even from the day of their 
birth. 

It would be ungrateful iti me were I not to 
acknowledge the many kind gifts sent, and the 
very hearty expressions of sympathy I have 
received from various parts of the country. It 
has strengthened in me the conviction thi^ it is 
the Lord's work, and- that He inclines the 
hearts of many of his own dear people to come 
forward to help me. He that moved them to do 
his will surely will reward richly their manifest- 
ation of Ohristian love, according to his promise 
fai Matt. XXV. 40. 



I have no doubt that He who commenced this 
good work will continue to carry it on, and give 
us every day whatsoever we stand in need of. 
Hitherto He has helped us, and we expect of his 
faithfulness that the friends we have gained 
will not forsake us ; and that new friends will 
day by day gather around us. I shall feel 
greatly obliged for any donation or subscription. 
Various friends have implied for collecting-cards 
(which have been issued for the Home), and it 
would give me great pleasure if many more 
would kindly follow their example. 

I shall be happy to give privately any iurtfaiBr 
information which may be desired. May the 
Lord bless all our friends, and make us a rich 
blessing. C. Schwabtz, D.D. 

4, St. LeonarcTs Gardem, Faddinffton, W. 

We add these two letters as specimens, out 
of many, of hearty love for Israel. 

A poor widow who has long taken a deep 
interest in the chosen people of God, and 
earnestly longs and prays for the time when 
they shall know and believe in Him whom they 
once rejected, and when all the promises of God 
shall be frdfilled in them, and liiey, as a nation, 
be restored to his favour and to their country 
and city, desires to forward a mite towards the 
Home established for those amongst them who 
are now rejoicing in a Saviour, and who need an 
earthly home in which to serve and honour 
Him. s. g. 

Dear Sie, — I have been very greatly in- 
terested in reading your account of the Jews' 
Home, in « The Scattered Nation " Magazine ; 
and though I am now a widow with very limited 
meads, I should be mowt ihankfyX and glad to 
contribute my mite towards such a Christian 
work of love ; and will be happy also to take a 
collecting-card, if you will Idndly enclose me 
one; and will endeavour to make the cause 
known amongst other Christian friends as far as 
I am enabled to do so. 

From earliest youth I have ever taken a 
deep interest ip GM's own people Israel, still 
" beloved for the fathers* sakes." 

When all the glorious promises connected 
with their restoration and return shall, at the 
coming of the Lord Jesus, be realized to them as 
a nation, which the prophecies of Isaiah so frdly 
open out to us (the time for the accomplishment 
of which I cannot think far distant), the Gentile 
Churches will, no doubt, share in their blessingrg. 
Desiring for you large success in your labonrsy 
and an abundant blessing frx)m the Lord, allow 
me to remain, dear sir, yours faithfully in 
Christ, F. M. 



HBBEEW-CHBISTL^ UKION. 

36, Newnham Steeet, Edowaee Boad, W. 

The meetings of the above Union will be 
held (D.V.) on the second and fourth Wednesday 
in each month, viz., on Wednesday, April 11th, 
and on Wednesday, April 25th. Tea as usual at 
five o'clock. The meetings close at eight. All 
Christian Jews are most cordially invited to 
attend these meetings. 

C. Schwartz, D.D. 



April 3» 1866. J 



SUPPLEMENT TO TEE 8CATTEBED NATION. 



07 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE SCATTERED NATION FOR APRIL. 



Just on tlie eve of publication, very interesting intelligence reached jxa from Paris and Lidia. Aa 
we were anxious to bring this at once under the eye of our readers, in preference to delaying the same 
for another month, we have given an additional four pages, the contents of which we have no doubt 
will oommend themselveB to the favourable acceptance of oar subscribers.— Ed. " Scattibsd Nation." 



MEETING OF EOMAN CATHOLICS, 
PEOTESTANTS, AND JEWS. 

Pa»is, March 22, 1860. 

The whalring I spoke of in mj last letter 
siiU oontinaes. Israel is gaining attention, 
and beginning to take a higher stand; and, 
meeting with minds of a loftier stamp, re- 
lative positions are being better understood. 
Paris has now an Arohbidu>p of a great and 
conciliating spirit— a man who has never dipped 
his pen in controversy, and who wishes to 
remove as many stombling^blooks as possible 
from the path of those who disbelieve the doo- 
trinoe of Christ. Thus he admits into his 
dioceee as few ultramontane preachers as maj be : 
some even find the pulpits wholly closed against 
them, and carry their disappointments to another 
peart of the ooontry. He sees the danger from 
withoot, a thousand times increased firom within 
by inoantious zeal for the superstiticms. He has 
acted firmly, both in excluding a violent and 
abusive champion of Jesuitism, and in securing 
the eloquent preacher, Hyacinthe, for the 
Advent lectures at Notre Dame. The editor 
of the " Univers Israelite*' inserted a review of 
these lectures, and sent a copy of his article to 
the Carmelite monk, who repUed in the following 
words: — 

" Sib, — I thank yon fw the copy of the 
' Univers Israelite,' which you did me the honour 
to send me, and which contains a review of my 
recent conferences at Notre Dame. I think you, 
are too indulgent to me, and too severe with the 
Ch^tholic Church. I shall not discuss the re* 
proaohes you think proper to address to it. I 
would merely remind yon that I carefully distin- 
guished between the institution and its abuse, be- 
tween the doctrines and authorized conduct of 
those who represent it, and the accidental discre- 
panoiea (defaillancee) necessarily brought about 
by the course of ages and the passions of men. I 
prefer telling you that I have read with deep 
interest whatever in your journal could g^ve me 
information respecting the present state of the 
Synagogue. As a deeply convinced Catholic, I 
deplore the painful schism which separated it 
from Jesus Christ and his apostles, who had, 
according to me, the key of its destinies ; but I 
none the less reverence its past history, the 
antique root of the fertile olive-tree upon which 
we G^entiles have been grafted ; and in its future, 
the generoiis ferment which wiLl restore life to 
the corrupt world, and will be, according to the 
energetic expression of St. Paul, as a resurrec- 
tion firom the dead. The present state of Israel, 
at once so grand and melancholy, is the provi- 
dential transition between these two states, and 
it is consequently bound to the most important 
religions interests of the human race. I cannot 
VOL I.— NO. IV. 



conceive that an intelligent and zealous Chris- 
tian should not have for this present state of 
Israel the most attentive eye, and the deepest 
emotional feeling."— JfeJ. 7, 1866. 

Mr. Bloch adds the following :— «' If the last 
words of this letter, which the venerable writer 
does not understand, doubtless, in the same 
manner as we do, express for Judaism a pious 
sympathy, and offer a powerful encouragement, 
the first part does our heart g^ood ! The faithfVil 
teacher of the Church brands with the name of 
ahvses, disorepaneieM, and human passhtu all the 
harm that for ages has been done us in the name 
of that Church. The preacher of Notre Dame 
in 1866 thus makes glorious amends for the sins 
committed, too many times, alas ! by other 
preachers, who authorized or ordered, in the 
name of Christianity, all the cruel persecutions 
perpetrated on the house of Israel. When all 
Christian nations, opening their heart and soul 
to the sacred words and prophetic accents of the 
Bev. Father Hyacinthe^ are at length convinced 
that their religion commands toleration, religious 
liberty, and brotherly love between all the 
membeors of the human race, then will the Syna- 
gogae recognize in the Church a worthy daughter. 
The Jew will bless Christianity for having g^ven 
him two hundred millions of friends and 
brethren, and the Messianic times will be at 
handl" 

A wonderful step towards this was publicly 
taken last night (March 21) in a glorious meeting 
of first-rate men, believers in the Bible aa a 
revelation from God, Jews, Catholics, and Pro- 
testants, at the Sorbonne. 

A few years ag^ an Israelite was travelling 
with^his wife through part of Switzerland: a 
letter of introduction brou^t them to a re- 
sidence on a mountain side, whose open gate 
disclosed a venerable man, with ''Welcome to 
Israel" embroidered on part of his head-dress. 
They stayed in that abode of peace for a few 
days, and close intimacy sprung up between the 
Jew and one of the sons. They worshipped 
together, and read the glorious Hebrew text 
together, until they both glowed with the desire 
to see it worthily rendered into their native 
tongpie. Emmanuel P^tavel was engaged in 
deep reseftrches into the past history of French 
versions, and at length brought out ** La Bible en 
France," in which, after an interesting review of 
what has been done, he proposes what every 
fraction of the Church desires— a new and na- 
tional translation. Levy Bing, the banker and 
Orientalist, member of the Afoatic Society, con- 
tinued his philological, gprammatical, and Biblical 
studies. Both were struck with the necessity of 
turning the attention of enlightened men among 
the Catholics to the subject. The right man was 
found, an ecdesiastio of the highest standing ; 

6 



©8 



SUPPLEiCENT TO TEE SCATTEBEB NATION. [**• 5;^5jl5i*^ 



and the grand and blessed resnlt of the binding 
together of the three-fold oord was, after months 
of labour and several preliminary meetings, the 
general and public assembly of last night. 

The amphitheatre was full to the top, with an 
intelligent eager public of both sexes ; the plat- 
form was occupied by two close rows of Catholic 
priests, Protestant pastors, and Protestant and 
Jewish laymen. The chairman, Am^d6e Thierry, 
historian, senator, and member of the Institute, 
had on his right, Martin de Noirlieu, cur^ of St. 
Louis d'Antin; Pastor Yallette, of the Confession 
of Augsburgh ;, Pastor Emmanuel F^tavel, secre- 
tary ; and M. Cremieux, president of the Uniyersal 
Israelite Alliance: on his lefb sat Aristide 
AstruCfthe Gh:und Babbi; Paulin Paris, member of 
the Institute ; Levy Bing ; Eichhoff, honorary in- 
spector of the University. The first two tiers 
of the h^mioyde were filled with the promoters 
of the work, sixty remarkable men of science 
and faith chosen from the three religious com- 
munities. 

M. Am^^ Thierry proclaimed the formation 
of the Naiianal Soeietyfor a new irantlettion of 
ike Soly Scripiurei into the I^eneh tongue. 
There is one Book, said he, which is unique. It 
contains the life rather than the stoiy of a 
nation ; it is the depository of its laws, religion, 
civilization, morals: no other nation possesses 
Buoh an inventory of its past history. A book 
whose preservation is no less phenomenal than 
the existence of the nation itself, ever main- 
taining its unity in its world-wide dispersion — 
the Bible/ the book become universal, the 
book of civilization itself, the book which gives 
light to the 'learned, light in the dwelling, light 
to the mind. Of this incomparable book we 
have no adequate translation. Each section of 
the churches has its own. We need a national 
version, that all may appeal to as correct ; we 
need to put forth what St. Jerome, and after 
him Bosffuet, called Mehrew truth. God has en- 
dowed man with an intense thirst for truth ; let 
science and religion join hands, lot Israelites, 
Catholic Christians, roformed Chri^ians, philo- 
logists, men of science, all bring their humble 
stone to the edifice, without renouncing a con- 
viction or a dogma, without merging their indi- 
viduality. It is not a strange, but a novel asso- 
ciation, called for imperatively by a common 
danger, and offering a promise of union and 
binding together of hearts too long estranged by 
prejudice. 

The report was read by Em. P^tavel. It 
shows the need of a common version, to attract 
readers, and to efiJace the fatal prejudices which 
have led to the rejection of the version of one 
communion by the members of another. It 
glorifies the Word of God j it shows the many 
secondary advantages to be secured by making 
a translation which would be a real monument 
of the French language, fixing it before it begins 
to decay. It unfolds the manner of effecting 
this. "We open an universal arena for the trans- 
lations of the learned and pious. We translate 
all the books, deuterocanonical and protocanoni- 
cal ; but we fix no canon ; our society is nowise 
doctrinal; it is literary and philological. Its 
imjfmmaturwin be affixed to each separate book, 
giving its approbation to it in tiie measure of its 
philological and scientific competence. Each 



communion will be free to o^pprave, interpret, 
adopt, edit, or comment upon it, as it sees fit." 
The text translated, of course, wiU be the 
Hebrew for the Old Testament, and the usual 
Greek text for the New — ^the various readings 
being taken account of. The seat of the asso- 
ciation is in Paris, but it receives help from pro- 
vincial and foreign committees. A perio&cal 
paper will give an aoeeunt of progreas, and ci 
the weekly meetings. A journal will give the 
attempts at translation, with margin sufficient 
for the manuscript notes of readers, who return 
them annotated to the central ccnnmittee. The 
report ends by an i^peal to Catholics, Protes- 
tants, and Jews to aid in the work : — " Israelite 
brethren, archivists and depositaries of the CHd 
Testament oracles, our elder brethren, with 
whom the sacred tongue lives to this day ! yoa 
shall judge between us. We solicit yofor sld; 
do not fear that wo shall make a forced transla- • 
tion of such and such prophetic lines. All ye 
who believe that Qod speaks in the Holy Bocdc, 
it sufficeth us ; you are welcomed to our midst, 
and according to the wish expressed by one of 
your savants (Ad. Franck) ten years ago, we 
shall have discovered a field in which we may 
work in harmony .*' 

llie speeches that followed were in the most 
genial strain. 

Abb^ Martin de Noirlieu spoke of the mdon 
between men of various creeds on fdndamental 
points as the necessaty battle-front to oppose to 
the spirit of division, and prayed God that his 
Word, putting forth its converting and uniting 
power, should draw all to the same centre of 
light and love. 

Pastor Yallette said no new discovery or new 
truth would be elicited, but a national transla- 
tion would make known the old truth to France. 
His quotation of Hebrew texts was a subject of 
much interest to the Israelites. 

Chief Kabbi Astmc said that the vene- 
rable speakers represented the younger branches, 
while his religion was represented by Saint Paul 
as the tree from whidi they sprung. He doubted 
not that his adhesion to the Society would be 
ratified by the whole Israelitish community. He 
congratulated France that this translation will 
be made in the international tongue, or the one 
that is to become so. Judaism must approve of 
the union of Catholics, Protestants, and Israel- 
ites, leaving doginas in the background, in order 
to seek out the literal sense of the Holy Scrip- 
tures. 

Can<m Bertrand, of Yersaines Cathedral, 
told of a village near Paris, and within easy 
reach of the vices of the great metrop<dis, 
which has remained happy, united, and pure 
(comparatively), simply by the Bible, without 
note or comment, being read in eveiy house. 
The best interpretation of the text of the Bible 
is the Bible itself. (Isa, Iv. 10, 11.) 

Levy Bing said : MTho would have thought 
that I should raise my voice in such an august 
assembly P the most imposing enrer met in 
France and in the venerable Sorbonne, and 
formed by the union of three sister creeds, too 
long separated— met, not to confound their 
belief or to change their convictions, but on 
purely scientific views. Is it not a sign of fhture 
union? Surely my very presence here is one. 



The Seattmd Kfttfan,! 
April 2, 1866. J 



SUPPLEMENT TO TEE SCATTERED NATION. 



99 



I, the most humble of the sons of Israel, seated 
amofng the strong ones, simply beoanse, thongh 
Telatively young, I have been more than four 
thousand years in ezistenoe! Ye younger 
brethren, see Israel "still full of sap, the 
most remarkable of the Orientals, remarkable 
above all for its Bible, the food for all young 
generations." Th^ are the words of M. Dumy, 
Minister of Public Instruction. France has 
overturned many a barrier, and aspires to-day 
to endow the country with a bond of union 
«nd happiness. 

Abbe Loyson, cor6 of St. Clotilde, spoke of 
the various branOhes and the trunk all bearing 
the same firuit, and urged on the work of seek- 
ing thepure veins of gold from the mine of 
GcKi's Word. He pointed on the security of 
fixing ^e real meaning by working in harmony 
upon the translation, no party being led to give 
Mb own bias to the Word of God. He illnded 
to times of attempted compulsion being happily 
passed, and pointed on to the glorious time 
when we should all enoirole the throne of the 
Kaster to receive the crown in bliss. 

The President closed the proceedings with 
repeating the raUying-cry of our ancestors, 
**Dieu nous aide!" 

The cordiality and intensely-genial feeling 
which pervaded the whole, the warm grasping 
of hands of these men who seemed in a new 
world of affection, and the thundering applause 
of the audience, were overpowering, and filled our 
hearts with overwhelming gratitude to Him the 
entrance of whose Word giveth light ! 

S.P.B. 



INDIA. 



€k)d is opening up a way for us in different 
qnarters. We look on it as a token for good, 
that at the time we have received such important 
infbrmation from Paris we also obtained two 
letters from Lodiana and Calcutta, which clearly 
show that " Ths Scattebed Nation" is forgotten 
in neither of those places. We thank our friends 
heartily for the help they afford us by taking 
notice of this our periodical, and sending us 
information frt)m places otherwise inaccessible 
to us, and which will interest our readers as 
much as it gratified us. 

We trust that other friends will follow their 
good example. We shall be glad to open up a 
correspondence with any part of the globe where 
Jews are to be met with, and brethren are to be 
found ready to give us reliable information. We 
subjoin the following note frx)m Lodiana :-— 
Lodiana, Noethben India, Ihb. 6, 1866. 

Bbab Doctoe,— I see advertised " The Scat- 
TEEBD Nation," edited by the Rev. Dr. Schwartz. 
This is what I have long desired, if it be what I 
think it is. There are three missionaries at 
Lodiana, of whom I have the pleasure of being 
one, and they have appointed me to send for a 
few numbers of your monthly. Please send us 
the back numbers, and if we do not wish to 
continue it we will let you know shortly after 
their arrival, but I have no fear of discon- 
tinuance. Please send to my address — Bev. 
J. H. Myers, Missionary, Lodiana, Northern 
India. — ^Tours affectionately in Christ Jesus, 

Ebv. De. Schwaetz. J. H. Myees. 



We immediately complied with this request, 
and have written to the Bev. Mr. Myers for in- 
formation from that important field of labour. 
We scarcely doubt that our brother is one 
of those sons of Israel who have found their 
Messiah, and now proclaims life and light to 
those nations that are still sitting in darkness 
and in the shadow of death. 

Our second extract is from Calcutta. 

MBS. EWAET's JEITISH SCHOOL. 

The annual examination and distribution of 
prizes took place on Dec. 22, at twelve o'clock, 
in the house of Elias S. Gubboy, Esq., 42, Doom- 
tollah Street, whose kindness and libeittlity in 
assisting and carrying out all the objects of this 
excellent school are beyond all praise. The front 
of the house was draped with gay fiags, and the 
interior was fitted up in a most tastefxd manner. 
Hie long room frt>nting the street was converted 
for the occasion into a tiffin-room for the visitors. 
The landing at the head of the staircase was set 
apart as a kind of show-room for various articles 
of needlework, fancy and plain crochet work, 
in all the hues of the rainbow, the production of 
the scholars, old and young. 

The large hall was fitted up for the scholars 
and the visitors, and the spectacle presented on 
entering it was very pleasing indeed. The large 
number of ladies of the Jewish persuasion pre- 
sent in their peculiar type of fascinating beauty 
of fiu)e and figure, enhanced as it was by their 
gorgeous Oriental costume, which, in many cases, 
was literally blazing with "jewels and gold," 
formed an admirable foil to the more sombre, 
although more elegant, attire of their Christian 
sisters, who also attended in large numbers. 
The Jewish children, too, were all most mag^- 
fioently apparelled, and formed not the least 
attractive portion of the pretty picture. Lady 
Lawrence had signified her intention of being 
present, and, her intention having been noised 
abroad, great crowds turned out in all the streets 
leading to DoomtoUah to have a peep. A strong 
force of police (belonging to the Beserve), under 
the charge of Inspector Lynam, kept the passage 
clear, and at twelve o'clock her Ladyship, ac- 
companied by the Misses Lawrence, reached the 
house. We observed present, Mrs. Muir, Miss 
Anson, Mrs. Farquhar, Mrs. H. B. Chapman, 
Mrs. Monteath, Mrs. Anderson, Mrs. Boothby, 
Mrs. Gillanders, Mrs. Pourie, Mrs. Maodon^d, 
etc., etc. ; Dr. Hathaway, the Private Secretaiy 
to the Gbvemor-General ; Colonel Seymour 
Blane ; Major Vicars, A.D.C. ; Lieutenant Lock- 
wood, A.D.C.; Bev. Mr. Henderson, Bev. Mr. 
Don, etc., etc. Among the Jewish gentlemen 
present were the Ghibboy family, old and young, 
who take such an interest in the school, and 
nearly all the notabilities of the persuasion in 
Calcutta, with their wives, daughters, and lady 
friends. 

After the arrival of her Ladyship, the scholars 
sang very sweetly, "O CJod of Bethel"; and, 
after a prayer had been offered up by the Bev. 
Mr. Don, the examination commenced. It ex- 
tended, for the junior class, to subjects of 
Old Testament liostory, ftx}m the creation to 
the history of Joseph. For the senior division, 
the subjects were Scripture history from the 
birth of Moses to the return of the Israelites 
from Babylon, and the history of England from 



100 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE BOATTEBED NATION. 



ri3id Seattend NatioB. 
L ApTJl i, 1886. 



the Roman Invasion to the Norman Conqneet. 
For the first and second classes, the subjects 
were the life of Christ (for the Christian por- 
tion of the class), granmmr, and geography. 
The examination was oondncted by Messrs. 
McLnckie, Sime, Eoberts, White, and McArthnr, 
of the Doveton College, and was highly satis- 
factory. Mrs. MoLnckie, the head mistress of 
the school, examined the children in the life 
of Christ, and to her and her coacljators, Mrs. 
Ockleton and Mrs. Swaries, no small praise is 
dne for the proficiency exhibited by the scholars. 
The gallery exercises of the infiant school were 
mnch admired, also the recitation and singing 
of the elder pupils ; and this part of the pro- 
ceedings was concluded by nine of the pupils 
chanting the song of Moses in Hebrew, assisted 
by the Babbi Ezra Cohen. 

At the conclusion of the examination the 
prizes were distributed by Lady Lawrence. 
They consisted of workboxes, books, and toys, 
and some special prizes were given for the en- 
couragement of the children. It is to be remarked 
that idl these prizes were the gift of Mr. Gub- 
boy. When the distribution was over, Mr. E. S. 
Grubboy presented Mrs. MoLuckie with a very 
handsome silver-mounted inkstand and tray, 
accompanying the gift with a short and appro- 
priate speech in these words — " Mrs. McLuckie, 
I present this to you as a token of my respect 
and esteem for your kind care of the cluldren of 
Israel. May the Qod of Israel bless you." 

The Bev. Mr. Don, as representing the mis- 
siou of the Free Church of Scotland deputed to 
take charge of the school, then returned thanks 
to the kind fHends who had favoured them with 
their attendance that day. He thanked, in a 
special manner, Mr. E. S. Gubboy for placing his 
house at the disposal of the school. There was 
no report published as to the state of the school, 
and he would, in a few words, endeavour to con- 
vey to his hearers an accurate idea of how its 
prospects stood affected. Since the last exami- 
nation the school had been progressing much in 
the usual way, although a great drawback had 
been suffered in consequence of the prevalence 
of the small-pox in the locality of the school 
premises, and during the months of January and 
February the school had been closed. However, 
since that period matters had been going on 
much as usual. There were at present ninety- 
one children on the roll, sixty-five of whom were 
Jewesses. The school was supported by a 
Government grant, school fees, and contribu- 
tions from friends. There were no funds in 
hand save what were raised from month to 
month ; and he found that they were, so far as 
regarded the funds, in a position, he regretted 
to say, to require still greater assistance from 
those who had already helped them so much, 
and that the subscriptions required to be in- 
creased in order that the ftmds be kept up. He 
referred to the great difficulty experienced in 
procuring a school-house, to the high rents, and 
to the very unsatisfactory position in which they 
had recently been placed in reg^ard to the school, 
the house in which it was held having been sold ; 
and said that but for the kindness of Mr. and Mrs. 
Aaron Gubboy, who were always ready to assist 
Mrs. MoLuckie, they would have been left with- 
out a school-house at all. He did not know of 



any other house, and he had no ftmds to build ; 
and he appealed to his Jewish friends to look 
out for one that would suit the school, and kindly 
make a present of it to them, for which he would 
be veiT much obliged. The want of a good 
school-house, he considered, was a great draw- 
back to the school. The reverend gentleman 
then adverted to the great kindness shown by 
the Babbi Ezra Cohen, who assisted Mrs. 
MoLuckie g^reatly in the management of the 
school. In a school oompoeed partly of JewB 
and partly of Christians, ther^ would ooca- 
sionally arise little difficulties which re- 
quired smoothing down, and that had efiBoc- 
tually been done by the Babbi. He attributed 
the success of the school and the profidenoj 
of the scholars to the great energy of Mrs. 
McLuckie, which no words could sufficiently 
express ; and there was no one more delighted 
than he to observe the graceful way in whidi 
Mr. E. S. Gubboy had recognised azid admow- 
ledged Mrs. McLuckie's kindness to the daugh- 
ters of Israel. He was desirous that Jews and 
Christians should know and feel that they were 
equal as friends of education. He wished his 
Jewish friends to understand that it was the 
g^reat interest they took in them which led to 
the sustaining of the school, and the intention 
to sustain it. It was because they were Chris- 
tians that they took such an interest in the 
school, and cherished hearty feelings of kind- 
liness and love. At present it could not be 
said that Jew and Christian saw eye to eye, 
but they must only hope and^ pray that 
the time would come when such would be tho 
case. He then alluded to the great interest 
Mrs. Ewart took in the progress of the school, 
and said she had at one time recently made up 
her mind to come out to India again, not to 
take charge of the school, but to attend to its 
interests otherwise : she had, however, changed 
her plans, having f\ill confidence in the present 
management. Her labours at home, and they 
were not light, were labours of love for the 
interests of the school, and prayers for its 
success. Mrs. Ewart had annually despatched 
a box containing prizes for the scholars ; and 
on this occasion it had been despatched^ but 
through some fatality it had not reached its 
destination, and they were indebted to the 
liberality of Mr. E. S. Gubboy for the present 
prizes. (Applause.) The rev. gentleman again 
thanked his friends for their attendance, and 
addressed the children, especially those of them 
who had been unsuccessful, and urged them to 
greater exertion, that they might be more 
successful on a future occasion. He reminded 
them of the great sickness which had taken 
away some of the number who had been there 
last year, and might have taken them, and ex- 
horted them always to prepare for the future— 
for eternity— to search the Scriptures, that they 
might be taught the way to eternal life, and to 
pray that they might bo made wise imto salva- 
tion. Afterwards he adverted to the great 
interest taken in the children by friends at home, 
one of whom (Mrs. Cleghom) had sent out a 
box of work which she intended to be sold hero 
for the benefit of the school j and he concluded 
his address by again commending the school to 
their liberality and their prayers. 



M»7 1, 1806. J 



ISRAEL m HISTORY, 



101 



ISRAEL IN HISTORY.— I. 

BT PROFESSOR P. CASSEL, OF BERLIN. , 



Anacrbon calls the grasshopper chirping in 
the grass the prophet of summer, for it is 
the harbinger of its sweetness; Pindar 
speaks of the wine cup in his friend's hand 
as the prophet of the feast, for festive joy 
sparkles there : and poets themselves named 
Plato the prophet of the muses, for he ex- 
pressed their thoughts. When Apollo is 
called by -^schylus the prophet of Jove, it 
is not because he foretells events, but be- 
cause he expresses his father's mind; his 
name Loxias, was derived from Logos, the 
word he spoke. Therefore, it was not with- 
out deep meaning that the good men who 
translated the Old Testament into Greek 
gave the name of prophets to those wise 
men who were learned in the Holy Scrip- 
tare, not merely as prophets in the ordinary 
sense, but as interpreters, speakers, wit- 
nesses, or heralds of their Lord. They 
were not soothsayers, jugglers, inventors of 
oracles nor augurs, but wibnesses of the 
Holy Ghost. They were seers, for they saw 
Crod; and they spoke of the future, for they 
spoke of the Eternal One. They proclaimed 
the truth of God, which eternally proves 
itself in history and in life, and were there- 
fore truth-sayers and proof-givers of eternal 
life. They knew the light, and therefore 
beheld the eventide when there should be 
light. 

Prophecy, the outspeaking qf the Grod 
who made heaven and earth, existed only in 
Israel. Israel himself was a prophet's son ; 
his father Abraham was a prophet. Because 
he believed in Him whose stars he was not 
able to number, he was made father of a 
nation. Because Jacob prophetically looked 
into heaven, believed, and wrestled in tears, 
he obtained the name of Israel — Israel is a 
prophet from father to son, ancestor and 
descendant. Abraham alone in the wilder- 
ness, at the tree of Beersheba, surrounded 
by idolaters— alone in the whole world, alone 
with Him whom he only confessed, the sole 
witness, praying-man, worshipper, prophet 
— ^what a wondrous picture ! and Israel his 
people, alone for centuries on the mountains 
of Judah in the midst of the powerful peoples 

VOL I.— KO. V. 



of the earth, hidden and unknown, the only 
witness, praying people, and preacher of God 
the judge of all. What a picture for the 
universe ! What Abraham was, his people 
will be, the prophet in the world's history. 
His path is like the milky way in heaven, 
composed of prophetic lights. His law is a 
prophecy of the state, a political and social 
prophecy, no mere constitution for the then 
existing people, but a setting forth of Divine 
proclamations for the whole world. His 
literature is prophetic. The king playing 
on his harp is a prophet not merely of the 
tuneful muses, but of the God who must 
reign from sea to sea. Here we listen, in 
the song of songs, to the voice of the turtle, 
the prophet of no passing summer, but of 
the everlasting spring, all whose trees are 
evergreen. His history is prophetic : here 
sparkles the flowing bowl, the prophet not of 
pleasure but of God, who dispenses it either 
as the cup of salvation or as the cup of his 
fury and of judgment. 

The history of Israel not only has pro- 
phets who declare God, his consolations and 
his judgments, not only has Moses and David, 
Elijah and Elisha, Isaiah and Jeremiah ; but 
Israel in his history is a prophet. His sig- 
nification is to be a prophet. His calling in 
the world is prophecy, active and passive. 
He is himself altogether the declaration of 
the truth of the great God. Israel in histor}- 
is the prophet of light and judgment, of 
comfort and proscription, of the burnings of 
love and wrath, everywhere the prophet of 
fulfilment. His history is unlike all others, 
for whilst God revealed Himself to all nations 
as their Creator, He showed Himself to Israel 
alone as the dispenser of reward and punish- 
ment. All have felt God, but God taught 
Israel. To all people God gave rain and 
sun, but to Israel He gave his Name. 
Everywhere else men blindly guessed at 
Him ; but to Israel was his light revealed. 
Elsewhere men sought after Him darkly in 
idols of wood and stone ; but to Israel He 
manifested Himself in flesh and blood. With 
Israel He li/ved. Then when He had lived 
and prophesied as none other ever did, 

6 



102 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. 



L lfaqrl,lM6. 



was the salvation and judgment of Israel 
folfilled and drawn out of seclusion into 
publicity, out of solitude into life amongst 
the nations, out of local retirement into the 
name which is spoken agunst, and to 
which heart and life are sacrifioed as to no 
other. 

Hitherto Israel lived secluded from the 
world's history; now his prophetic light 
and judgment enter into the fulness of the 
world's history. 

Christian Israel, the Jewish disciples, 
Peter and Paul, James and John, left 
Jerusalem as Israel formerly left Egypt — 
tiirough the Bed Sea of martyrdom, through 
the wilderness of flight and banishment, 
through the cunning devices of sorcerers 
they move on and they attain the kingdom. 



On thousands of towers and pinnacles at 
last gleam the sign of death in victory. " In 
the sign' of the cross Thou shalt conquer," 
comes to be the indelible motto of history. 
The girdle which bound the martyrs has be- 
come the measure to span the world, fiat 
Jerusalem that slew her prophets bums to 
tiiis very day; her flames illuminate uni- 
versal judgment. Out of the gold dross in 
those ruins have innumerable synagogues 
been built ; but the flame is not quenched, 
and Eaohers tears for her diildren have not 
extinguished it; and flames and tears are 
yet flowing like eternal springs of Israel 
through the history of the world, till at last 
they both fall into the sea of Christ's love, 
which, like the ocean, sustains and encirdea 
aUUfe. 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

BY THE EDITOE. 



We published in our last number a fiill 
report of a meeting held at Paris for the 
formation of a NaUonal Society for Promoting 
a New TranshMon of ihs Holy Scriptures into 
live French ToTigue, We oflered no comment 
on it, but simply printed the very interesting 
details furnished us by our correspondent, 
who feels deeply for and S3rmpathizes heartily 
with aU that concerns the well-being of IsraeL 
We rejoice in the frank admission of Father 
Hyacinthe, that the cruel persecutions per- 
petrated on Israel by the Boman Catholic 
Church cannot be defended, but must be 
branded as dbusea, discrqpandeef and as the 
result of human pasaions. He does it in 
order to justify his Church, which we believe 
is accountable for all the wrong done; 
for she has persecuted the children of God 
in all ages ; and, heathenish as she was and 
is, she could not but persecute the Jews. 
Still, it is of importance that the eloquent 
Carmelite monk positively states . — " I can- 
not conceive that an intellig^it and zealous 
Christian should not have for the present 
state of Israel the most attentive eye, and 
the deepest emotional feeling." It is, no 
doubt, very good that Jews and Christians 
meet sometimes on the same platform ; and 
not only call to mind wherein they differ, but 



also remember wherein they agree. Both 
acknowledge that God spake at sundry timee 
and divers mannerB by the prophets to the 
fathers ; both revere the Scriptures of the 
Old Testament as the revelation of God*a 
will and love ; and hence ought to strengthen 
one another's hand against the eoimnot^ 
enemy, who denies that Chd ever spake, and 
Idiat the testimony of Holy Writ rests on 
Qod's authority, and must be submitted to. 

We have no difficulty in allowing that 
tibie authorized version, excellent though it 
be, stands in need and is capable of improve- 
ment. It would be foolish to ignore that 
sdenoe has advanced much, and that our 
knowledge of the original languages, of the 
country, the manners, and habits of the Jew- 
ish nation, is much greater than two or three 
centuries ago. Still, we maint4>in that the 
cmthoriaed version should remain intact. It 
has stood the test of centuries, it has en- 
deared itself to the hearte, and impressed 
itself on the minds of the people, and is so 
intimately connected with their rehgious 
thinking and feeling, that it would be as 
wrong as cruel to meddle with it, and to 
deprive it of its freshness and life. All that 
is needed can be supplied by private indi- 
viduals meoting together, making use of all 



Th0 BoaMeNd Nfttion,! 

M^i^ises. J 



A NEW TEANBLATJON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. 



103 



that philology and the latest disooveries sup- 
ply, and giving us a translation of their 
own. To tell the truth, we do not believe 
that our doubting, critical age can produce 
a woric that breathes so much the spvrU of 
the origin^ as the authorized translation — 
we speak of the English — does. We might 
be more correct in j^artioidars, but be found 
wxmting in realizing the power of the whole 
Word. 

But even they who differ on this point 
must aUow that a translation made by 
Boman Catholics, Protestants, and Jews is 
animpoasihili^. Neither the Bomish Church 
nor the Evangelical Church, nor the syna- 
gogue, could approve of a translation made 
by some individuals without being autho- 
rized by their respective churches and the 
synagogue. The new translation would 
therefore be of very little value, as &r as the 
synagogue and the churches are concerned. 
But a fatal objection to the whole plan, 
beautiful though it may appear, is to be 
found in the very principles on which 
it is based. The secretary states in his 
report, " We open an xmiversal arena for the 
translations of the learned and the pious. 
We translate all the books, deuterocanonical 
and protocanonical; but we fix no canon; 
our Society is nowise doctrinal : it is literary 
and philological." 

We protest against the last sentenoe 
with our whole heart. For it clearly inti- 
mates that, in order to give a good and accu- 
rate translation of the Bible, nothing but a 
literaiy and philological knowledge is re- 
quired. The Chief Babbi Astmc^ who 
doubted not that his adhesion to the Society 
-would be ratified by the whole laraelitish 
community, said that we must leave dogmas 
in the background, in order to seek out the 
literal sense of the Holy Scrqitures. It is 
a great mistake to suppose that you can 
translate the Bible as any other dassioal 
book, and that a mere knowledge of lan- 
guage and literature is sufficient. No; in 
order to discern s^nritual things, one must 
be spiritually minded; and if you are not 
filled with the Spirit of Christ, which is the 
spirit of prophecy, you cannot understand 
the prophets rightly, and you canmot trans- 
late them correctly. It is taking very low 
ground, yea, it is misunderstanding alto- 
gether the special excellency and grandeur of 



Ood's Word if one supposes that literary 
attainments are all that is required. A great 
many passages camwt be decided by mere 
philological statements and arguments ; . 
they must be read in the Spirit of Christ, 
to whom they render testimony. 

It is our heart's desire to stir up the 
Jews to read the Word of God, to search the 
Scriptures; but we positively declare that 
we ea/nnot accept their ira/nslaUon as being 
impartial, because by their rejection of Jesus, 
by their denial of a suffering Messiah, 
they have made it impossible for them to do 
justice to all those passages which foretell 
what He was to endure even by the Jews 
themselves. I can perfectly understand a 
Jew and a Christian uniting together to 
translate Homer, or Virgil, or Goethe — any 
classical book you choose ; but never can they 
who consider Jesus as the fulfiUer of all pro- 
phecies, as the foretold Messiah, and they 
who. reject Him as an impostor who arro- 
gated to Himself titles He had no right to, 
join together in translating the Old Testa- 
ment Soriptures. If Jesus before his cruci- 
fixion and after his resurrection i^peaLed to 
these very Scriptures, leading his disciples 
unto the law, the prophets, and the psalms, 
in order to maintain his Messiahship, and 
the Jews now-a-days use these very Scrip- 
tures to dispute the validity of his claims, 
how then can Jews and Christians be united 
in the translation of these Scriptures, so 
differently, so oppositely understood by 
themP 

Just let me mention an instance, how 
little the plainest things are understood even 
by the Chief Babbi Astruc. He said that 
the venerable Christian speakers represented 
the younger branches, while his religion 
was represented by Saint Paul as the tree 
ftcfm which they sprung. Any one who has 
attentively read the eleventh diapter of the 
Epistle to the Bomans, to which the Babbi 
aUnde6,knows perfectly well that thid Apostle 
does not say that Christianity, in comparison 
with the Old Testament dispensation, repre- 
sents the younger branches, but the en- 
grafted Qenkles are compared with Israel as 
branches engrafted in the root. Christianity 
is for Paul not a new thing, but is as old as 
the first promise given in Paradise — ^nay, it is 
nothing but Israelitism glorified in the per- 
son of Him who is its comer and head-stone. 



lOi ISRAEL'S MISSION, AND MISSIONS TO ISRAEL. [ 



The Soattered Fation* 
Mi^ 1, 1889. 



The Eabbi's religion is the religion of the 
Tahnud, in many respects differing from, 
yea, opposed to, the law and the prophets, 
and is in its present development mnch 
younger than even the engrafting of the 
Gentiles. 

We speak so very decidedly because, with 
Paul, it is our heart's desire that Israel 
should be saved. But that is not to be 
achieved by allowing the Jews to flatter 
themselves with a false hope, but by telling 
them plainly that they have deprived them- 
selves of light and life by shutting out 
Him who is the Sun of Eighteousness, and 
rejecting Him who is the Life. Before 



Israel can fully understand the Scriptures, 
the veil must be removed, and the Spirit of 
grace and supplication be poured on them 
to look on Him whom they have pierced. 
Then, and then only, will the appeal made 
in Paris be true, "Israelite brethren, ar- 
chivists and depositaries of the Old Testa- 
ment oracles, our elder brethren, with whom 
the sacred tongue lives to this day ! you shall 
judge between us !" 

Let us neither flatter nor roh the Jews ! 
Allow them what God gave them in his 
Word ; help to take from them wherewith 
they deceive themselves. Thus you will act as 
Paul did, loving truth and showing true love. 



ISRAEL'S MISSION, AND MISSIONS TO ISRAEL. 

BY DR. WM. GRAHAM, OF BONN. 



IV. — ^WHY ARE THE JEWS KEPT A DISTINCT 
PEOPLE? 

We note, in the first place, that their 
being so is contrary to the universal experi- 
ence of other nations. Their scattered and 
separate existence is a solecism in the history 
of mankind. But everything connected 
with this people is wondcrftil, if not mira- 
culous. United bodies of men easily retain 
their principles, and scattered individuals 
easily lose them ; yet the ten tribes who are 
not scattered have yielded to the customs of 
the Gentiles, and the two and a half tribes 
who are scattered remain true to the prin- 
ciples of their ancestors. So also the greater 
number, viz., the ten tribes, cannot be found ; 
and the smaller number, the two and a half 
tribes, cannot be concealed (Isa. xL 12). The 
ten tribes are outcoMs in some one place, so as 
to be in contrast with the dispersed of Judah. 
They shall both be united in due time, ac- 
cording to the purpose and promise of Grod. 
But it is with The Scattered Nation we have 
to do in this letter. I have said their remain- 
ing separate in all nations during nineteen 
centuries, is a very astonishing fiact in Divine 
providence. Our island contains a multitude 
of different nations, but Britons, and Danes, 
and Saxons, and Norman conquerors have 
all, in the course of time, been blended to- 
gether in the British nation— all save the few 
thousands of the seed of Abraham ! They 



remain separate ! In France we see the 
same thing. Gktuls, Franks, Bomans, and 
Grermans have lost their peculiarities in one 
great consolidated nation — all but the few 
thousand Jews in Paris and the chief cities 
of the kingdom. Look east, west, north, 
and south, and you find the same principle 
of national fusion in active operation ; and 
everywhere you find only one people. The 
Scattered Nation, resisting it. Now, this 
leads me to think that the purpose for which 
they are kept separate must be a great one. 
Such a peculiarity in the ways of Divine 
providence argues something great and 
marvellous in the purpose of God concerning 
them. 

1. Wo answer, then, this question, Why 
are the Jews not coalescing with the nations ? 
Because Ood h^is not yet done with them as a 
nation. There is before them and over 
them a bright and glorious future, sun-grilt 
and beaming with Divine effulgency, yet not 
without clouds and storms. The Church is 
the vessel and instrument of the Lord in 
respect of all spiritual blessings, and hence 
she has her appropriate names and symbols. 
She is the body, the living temple, and the 
vine. In like manner is Israel the instru- 
ment and vessel of the Lord in respect of 
earthly things and temporal judgments. 
And the names and symbols applied to 
Jerusalem are equally significant. Israel 



Tlie Soattend Katton,! 



ISRAEL'S MISSION, AND MISSIONS TO ISRAEL. 



105 



is the burdensome stone which shall regulate 
and cut through the nations (Zech. xii. 3) ; 
Israel is the iron horn and brazen hoof yrhich. 
is to beat in pieces many people (Micah iv. 
13) ; Israel is to be the new, sharp threshing 
instrument with teeth (Isa. xli. 16), which is 
to thrash the mountains ; and now in their 
dispersion and separation the Lord is pre- 
paring them for it. The rulers of Israel are 
to be like a hearth of fire among the wood, 
and like a torch of fire in a sheaf, to devour 
the people on the right hand and on the 
left (Zech. xii. 6) ; and now in dispersion 
and separation the Lord is preparing them 
for their mission. Israel is to become the 
missionaries of the world, to declare the 
glory of the Lord to the Gentiles (Isa. Ixyi. 
19); and hence they are kept separated 
among the nations, that they may know all 
languages, learn all customs, endure all cli- 
mates, and be ready, without change of 
place, without a moment's delay, when the 
veil is taken from their hearts, to testify in 
all lands and languages the wonders of 
redeeming love ! The evil-doer becomes the 
good adviser! This is an end and an 
instrument altogether like Grod and worthy 
of the wisdom of Qod; and this gives the 
key to most of the difficulties connected 
with the present condition of the Jews. 
This answers my question, " Why are they 
scattered, and yet kept from amalgamating 
with the nations ?" 

2. But, secondly, Grod is, I think, teaching 
us by the present state of Israel the strength 
and tenacity of the Divine purpose. He 
forms his plan, and brings it to pass in 
spite of all impediments, working still as in 
the days of his Son among men, with means 
(John iii. 36), without means (John xL 43), 
and contrary to means (John ix. 6), according 
to his pleasure. He has said they shall 
exist, and persecution cannot kill them. He 
has said they shall be scattered, and human 
wisdom cannot unite them. You may give 
them liberty and political rights, but they 
remain strangers still, for the home that is 
to attract them is not yet found. He says 
to the minority, " Be ye concealed till the 
time of the end;" and no ingenuity has 
hitherto been able to discover or identify 
them. He says to the minority, " Wander 
among the nations : be ye monuments of my 
wrath among all nations ;*' and there they 



are, tribes of the weary breast and wander- 
ing foot, manifest unto all men, and 
patiently fulfilling the purposes of Grod. 

3. But I say further, they are kept sepa- 
rate that they may be the Lord's witnesses 
among the nations, and this office they are 
in many ways fulfilling. (1) Whenever you 
see the dark eye and the well-known Abra- 
hamic features of a Jew, you see a living 
witness for the awfulness of sin and the 
holiness of Qod. In England, in France, in 
Grermany, in Africa, and in Asia, in America, 
and in Australia, we meet these men, and 
we say, "Brother man, what brought you 
here? You have a country and home of 
your own." And the answer always and 
everywhere is the same : " We had a goodly 
land for our home, but the nation committed 
a great crime, and the Lord has banished us 
and scattered us into all lands." (2) Then 
again there may be men, as there have been, 
who say that God is bound to fulfil his 
promises because we seek tlieir fulfilment, 
but that He is not bound to accomplish his 
threatenings because we do not desire their 
accomplishment. Israel everywhere scat- 
tered testifies universally that the Lord is a 
God of judgment, and that his threatenings 
are as certain as his promises. There are 
others, indeed, who are ready enough in the 
case of Israel to reverse this principle by 
allowing Israel all the curses of the Bible, 
and claiming for themselves the blessings. 
Israel cursed is the literal Israel, but Israel 
blessed is the Christian Church; Israel scat- 
tered is quite literal, but Israel's restoration 
is corwersion to the Christian &ith. The 
curses of their present misery and dispersion 
you give them cheerfully, but the promises 
of restoration and national glory under 
David their King (Ezek. xxxvii. 24) you take 
to yourselves. This is simply pubUc plunder 
as to the property of your neighbour, and 
infidelity as to the interpretation of Scrip- 
ture. But at present we are not dealing with 
these orthodox evangehcal infidels and ra- 
tionalists. 

4. In some ages of the Church the feel- 
ing is entirely for the supernatural and 
miraculous working of God, and in others 
the tendency is quite the other way. At 
the present time, in many countries the most 
influential classes of society are yielding a 
willing ear to the seductions of lUtionalism 



106 



I8BJJEF8 MISSION, AND MISSION'S TO ISRAEL. 



L Uaf 1, 18S8. 



and Pantheism. A great modem professor 
of theology in Heidelberg denies that Christ 
rose from the dead. A famous preacher in 
Switzerland on Ascension-day divided his 
discourse into three heads :— (1) I shall prove 
tiiat He did^not die ; (2) I shall prove that He 
did not rise from the dead ; and (8) lastly, I 
shall prove that He did not ascend- to heaven. 
In feet, science, intellect, philosophy, and 
higher mental cultnre of all kinds are, in 
the present age, gradually inclining to the 
side of brute force and unchangeable mate- 
rialism. We are to have no miraclesi no 
supernatural grace, no special providence (or 
better still, no providence at all), no actual 
presence of Jesus or the HolylGhost in the 
Church, no positive interference of a living 
Gk)d in the creation. All is to be iron law 
and eternal materialism, which it is hoped in 
the end will leave man without a ftiture aod 
the world without a God. Now The Scat- 
TBKED Nation are a living protest against such 
unworthy speculations. They are at once 
the exponents of a miraculous history and 
the proofs of a supernatural providence. 
The past, the present, and the future of the 
Jew is all miraculous. He is identified in 
every conceivable way with the action of a 
waking, judging, living God. Their scat- 
tered existence is a file for the teeth of infi- 
delity, while to the thoughtful it is another 
remarkable evidence of the literal fulfil- 
ment of prophecy. 

6. Then again, we must not forget that 
they are scattered often among idolatrous 
nations, and are, in such cases, witnesses 
for the Divine unity which has, in the na- 
tional religions of the world, been far more 
corrupted and denied than the doctrine of 
lihe Trinity has been in the Christian Church. 
In this way Gh>d may be using them still in 



some nations ; and surely it would relkre 
our minds to think they might be used for 
other ends besides manifesting the enormity 
of sin and the certainty of the curse that 
fbllowB it. 

6. Finally, it may be asked. Does the 
Lord not use gpeddl means for keeping the 
people separate though scattered P He does, 
and I shall indicate a few of these. They 
are kept separate by a sacred language ; they 
are kept separate by the oldest and truest 
national literature in the world; they are 
kept separate, too, by the hatred which 
the nations bear them ; they are kept sepa- 
rate by a national, deep, inexplicable, bat 
inerradicable hope of foture greatness ; they 
are kept separate by a multitude of Divine 
promises; and they are kept separate by 
their attachment to Palestine and the holy 
city of Jerusalem. 

** God of Jacob, let thy grace, 
Beach Thine ancient chosen race, 
Let thy mercy, fall and free, 
Bring the wanderers back to Thee. 

" Sorrow cannot conquer sin, 
LoYO alone the soul can win ; 
Onra'd for eighteen hundred years. 
Hardened still their heart appears. 

^* As the tempest lender blows, 
Deeper still their hatred grows ; 
Persecutions rage in yain. 
Hostile stiU their hearts remain. 

** Lore can oonqner, lore alone. 
Lots that melts the heart of stone, 
Lore that from the Saviour sheds 
Goals of fire on guilty heads. 

''JesosI Leader of thehlind, 
Jesus ! SaTiour of mankind, 
Jesus I bom of Ahraham's race» 
Bring them hack to God and grace." 

w. a. 




She 8eatt«nd ir«tfoii,l 
Uaj I, 18M. J 



TEE FEAST OF PENTECOST. 



107 



"THE FEAST OF PENTECOST/'— I. 

BY THE RIV. DE. MAEGOIJOTJTH. 



This is an eventful month in the annals of 
the sons of The Scatibbbd Nation ! whether 
they be of the mass of the house of Jacob, 
who profess to be under the obligation of the 
Old Testament, or whether thej be the 
** small remnant " of Israel, who enjoy the 
unspeakable blessings brought to light in the 
Crospels and Epistles. Professing followers of 
the Old Coyenant, and participators in the 
priyileges of the New Covenant, solemnize, 
this month, occurrences of the most momen- 
tous import! The principal event which 
the Jewish synagogues commemorate, in the 
course of the month of May, is ** the Feast 
of Pentecost," indiscriminately called in the 
Old Testament, " the Feast of Harvest," " the 
I'east of Weeks," and "the Day of First- 
Pruits,"* which different names suggested 
the threefold heading of this paper. 

Post-biblical Hebrew writers frequently 
apeak of that consecrated anniversary as 
fYTWn jn " the festival of a solemn convoca- 
tion." It is a term especially applicable to 
the last day, to the close of a festive season. 
The Feast of Weeks, according to the ex- 
position of the earliest Hebrew commen- 
tators, is the proper consummation of the 
Feast of Passover. The Feast of Pentecost 
ia also often spoken of in uninspired Hebrew 
religious literature as mvi ]no pt " the time 
of the granting of the law." The Jews 
have, from tide immemorial, universally 
believed that the law, i.e^ the Decalogue, 
was oommitted to Israel's keeping on that 
day. 

The great event which the Christian 
churches celebrate this month, is the de- 
scent of the Holy Spirit^ the Third Person in 
the ever-blessed Trinity in Unity, as hence- 
forth the Eemembrancer, Gnide, Teacher, 
and Comforter of the children of God, 
dunng this dispensation of ingathering of 
the first-fruits for the kingdom of heaven. 

* Exod. xziii. 16 ; xxziv. 82; Lerit xcii. 15^21 ; 
Num. xxviiL 26—31; Deut xvi. 10, I65 2Chroii. 
Tiiul3. 



The desoent of that Spirit took place fifby 
days after the Bedeemer*s resurrection ; on 
the very day which the Jews celebrated as 
the Feast of Harvest, the Feast of Weeks, the 
Day of First-Fruits, the time of the giving 
of the law, etc. Thus we read : ** And when 
the day of Pentecost was fully come, they 
were all with one accord in one place. And 
suddenly there came a sound from heaven 
as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled 
all the house where they were sitting. And 
there appeared unto them cloven tongues 
like as of fire,, and it sat upon each of them. 
And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, 
and began to speak with other tongues, as 
the Spirit gave them utterance."* It so 
happens this year, in spite of the confrision 
of calendars,t that the Jewish conmiemora- 
tion, and the Christian celebration of that 
anniversay, synchronize to a day — ^namely, 
Sunday, May 20. 

We purpose, in accordance with our plan 
is these papers, to discuss the eventfrd and 
portentous anniversary in its two-fbld light ; 
t.e., the light in which the mass of The 
ScATTEKED Nation are as yet considering 
that festival, and the light in which the 
minority of the Christian churches, along 
with the followers of the Bedeemer, 

** The ohosen seed of Israers raoe, 
A romnant weak and small, 
Who hail Hiif who saTes them by grace, 
And crown Him Lord of all," 

are viewing that twin anniversary. 

The greatest Jewish Babbinical authori- 
ties attach more importance to the festival 
under review than to that of the Passover, 
or of the Tabernacles, as will be demon- 
strated! in the sequel of this article. One 
of the earliest Apocryphal productions, 
rri^ivrr ibd the Book 01 Jubilees, which, 
purports to treat of the events which oc- 
curred (according to its author's comptUa- 
tion) in the fifty jubilees between the crea- 
tion of the world and Israel's settlement 



• Aoteii.1-4 



t SeePartLp.lU 



108 



THE FEAST OF PENTECOST. 



tThe Softtt«red K«tion. 
1C»7 1,1860. 



in Canaan,* affirms that the Feast of 
Pentecost was first instituted in connection 
with the covenant which God made with 
Noah. It was enforced in the terms of the 
covenant which God made with Abraham, 
and firmly established at the giving of the 
law on Mount Sinai. With characteristic 
ingenuity does that author intimate that 
the giving of the Decalogue took place on 
the anniversary of the exodus of Noah's 
family from the ark, and of the setting of 
God's bow in the doud in token of the 
covenant then made. We do not feel called 
upon here to do more than simply men- 
tion the circumstance. 

Apart, however, from adventitious and 
ingenious traditions, legends, and fables, 
the festival which The Scatteeed Nation 
commemorate this month, must have been 
considered peculiarly significant to the 
house of Israel, even at the time of its 
very institution, by reason of the number 
of rites and sacrifices connected with the 
institution. We give here a digest of the 
same, as prescribed in the Pentateuch. In 
common with the other two of that triad of 
festivals, the Feast of Pentecost was ordained 
to be " a holy convocation," no manner of 
work was to be done on the sacred day. The 
male population— such as were in the prime 
of health and strength — had to put in an 
appearance in the Gt)d-appointed sanctuary, 
where the taniDi " the first-fruits," or as it 
is also called nurm rmio " a new meat-ofier- 
ing," literally, "a new presentation offer- 
ing " — ^was presented before the Lord. This 
consisted of two loaves, each made of the 
tenth of an ephah — ^between three and four 

* The work is the production of the first century 
B.C. It existed for a long time in Hebrew and 
Greek. It has been frequently quoted and cited by 
the primitiye Babbins, and the early Christian 
Fathers. In the adverse vicissitudes which befell 
the Church and the synagogue in the early centuries 
A.D., both versions have been lost. Some years ago, 
however, Dr. Krapf discovered an ancient transla- 
tion, in the Ethiopic language, of the lon^-sought 
for nibivn IBD, in Abyssinia, and a precious boon 
it proves to BibUcal critics, and writers on Jewish 
history. Some of its contents^notwithstanding 
the large amount of legend and &ble with which 
it is interspersed— throw considerable light on cer- 
tain apparently obscure passages in the Books of 
Genesis and Exodus. The MS. copy which Dr. 
Erapf took away with him from Abyssinia is de- 
posited in the Library of Tubingen University. 



quarts, according to our measure. They were 
to " be of fine fiour," and, significant ! they 
were to be " baken with leaven."* With the 
two loaves were offered up seven lambs of 
the first year, one young bullock, and two 
lambs as a burnt-offering. A goat was 
offered up as a sin-offering; two lambs of 
the first year were offered up as a thanks- 
giving, or peace-offering. The peace-offer- 
ing, which consisted of the two lambs, ac- 
companied by two loaves of the first-fruit, 
were waved before the Lord by the priests. 
These were over and above the proper festival 
sacrifice prescribed for Pentecost, which 
consisted of a burnt-offering of two bullocks, 
one ram, and seven lambs .f Josephus thus, 
sums up the manifold Pentecostal sacrifice : 
" They slay three bullocks for a burnt-offer- 
ing, and two rams and fourteen lambs, with 
two kids of the goats for sins."^ 

It is not a little surprising that some of the 
most eminent of the German Biblical critics, 
such as Knobel and Vaihinger, got bewildered 
and perplexed by the several accounts of the- 
Pentecostal sacrifice as given in different 
Books of the Pentateuch, and found relief in 
the characteristic German solution — ^namely, 
that the sacred writer contradicted himself 
by mistake. When will wise men becomo 
more careful, more diligent, students of the 
Word of the living God ! 

The manifold sacrifice, hitherto spoken 
of, was that offered in behalf, and for the 
whole nation ; but the Feast of Pentecost, 
like that of the Passover and Tabernacles, 
was commemorated with individual free- 
will offerings, according to the wor- 
shipper's abilities; part of which was 
bestowed upon the Priests and Levites, 
and the remainder was eaten by the offerers* 
families, along with such of the strangers 
and the poor as may have been invited to 
partake of the respective worshippers* hos- 
pitality. Thus far have we given the account 
of the observance of the festival, which may 
be culled from the Pentateuch. 

• Levit. xziii. 

t Num. zzviii. 27. 

X Antiq. iii. x. 6. The two kids of the goats, 
instead of three» is admitted to be the result of a 
transcriber's mistake. 



The- SoatCared Natios,! 
Mft7 1, 1806. J 



THE QIANT CITIES OF BA8HAN. 



109 



THE GIANT CITIES OF BASHAN * 



Western Palestixb is now one of the beaten 
paths of tourists, but strange to saj, the 
country lying east of the Jordan — the land 
of giants, with its rich and varied land- 
scape and its innumerable relics of bygone 
ages — has remained till now comparatively 
unknown. Scarcely half-a-dozen Europeans 
have entered Bashan, and some of these 
have described it in such terms as to con- 
ceal rather than disclose its wonders. Half 
a century ago Burckhardt visited several of 
the ancient cities, but his attention seems to 
have been principally occupied with a few 
mouldering remains of Greek and Eoman 
art. He failed to appreciate the extreme 
interest attaching to the works of a far 
more remote antiquity which lay before 
him. Mr. J. S. Buckingham afterwards 
passed through part of the country, but he 
is silent respecting its chief objects of 
interest. One or two later travellers have 
been more observant ; but it was reserved for 
Professor Porter to show what marvellous 
testimony this desolate land bears to the 
accuracy of the Scripture narrative, and the 
literal fulfilment of prophe<gr. 

The aboriginal Kephaim, or giants, of 
Bashan, had almost become extinct when 
the Israelites advanced to the conquest of 
the country — Og, the king, who ruled over 
an Amoritish population, being one of the 
few left alive ; but the cities they had built 
remained, and they remain stiU. " In Argob, 
Jair took no less than sixty great cities, 
fenced with high walls, gates, and bars; 
besides unwalled towns a great many (Deut. 
iii 4, 5, 14). Such a statement seems all 
but incredible. It would not stand the 
arithmetic of Bishop Colenso for a moment. 
Often when reading the passage I used to 
think that some strange statistical mystery 
hung over it ; for how could a province, 
measuring not more than thirty miles by 
twenty, support such a number of fortified 
cities, especially when the greater part of it 
was a wilderness of rocks. But mysterious, 
incredible, as this seemed, on the spot with 
my own eyes I have seen that it is literally 

• "The Giant Cities of Basban, and Syria's 
Holy Places." By the Eev. J. L. Porteb, A.M. 
London : T. KelBon and Sons. 



true. The cities are there to this day.*' 
When Mr. Porter and his companions 
ascended that part of the mountain range 
of Bashan overlooking the Lejah (the 
ancient Argob) not less than thirty of the 
threescore cities were in view at once. Later 
in the journey, when he reached Salcah, in 
the south-eastern comer of Bashan, and 
climbed the battlements of the castle, ho 
again counted some thirty towns and villages, 
dotting the surface of the vast plain. And 
yet for many centuries they had been unin- 
habited. " It may easily be imagined with 
what feelings I read on that day and on 
that spot the remarkable words of Moses, in 
Deut. xxix. 22—24, 'The generation to 
come of your children that shall rise up 
afijer you, and tlie stranger that shall come 
from a far land, shall say when they see the 
plagues of that land .... even all nations 
shall say, Wherefore hath the Lord done 
thus unto this land? what meaneth the 
heat of this great anger P' " 

Although these cities are silent and 
deserted, and the stranger may roam 
through them and select his lodging-place 
where he will, many of the houses are as 
perfect as' if only finished yesterday. " The 
walls are sound, the roofs unbroken, the 
doors and even the window-shutters in their 
places. Let not my readers think that I 
am translating a passage from the ' Arabian 
Nights.' I am simply telling what I have 
seen. 'But how,' you ask me, 'can we 
account for the preservation of ordinary 
dwellings in a land of ruins ? If one of our 
modem English cities were deserted for a 
millennium, there would scarcely be a frag- 
ment of a wall standing.' The reply is easy 
enough. The houses of Bashan are not 
ordinary houses ; the walls are from five to 
eight feet thick, built of large squared 
blocks of basalt; the roofs are formed of 
slabs of the same material hewn like planks, 
and reaching from wall to wall; the very 
doors and window-shutters are of stone, 
hung upon pivots projecting above and 
below. Some of these ancient cities have 
from two to five hundred houses still 
perfect, but not a man to dwell in them." 

The evidence is irresistible that these 

6* 



110 



THE QIAim CITIES OF B ASEAN. 



I M*7 1, 1806. 



are the actual cities mentioned in Deuter- 
onomy. Their extraordinary number cor- 
responds with the Scriptural account, and 
some of them bear to this day the names 
mentioned in the Bible. They were con- 
sidered ancient even in the days of the 
Koman historian, Ammianus Marcellinus, 
who particularly mentions them ; and their 
construction is precisely such as a race of 
giants might be expected to produce, and 
such as fits them to endure for ages. Mr. 
Porter measured a door in one of the cities ; 
it was nine feet high, four and a half feet 
wide, and ten inches thick — one solid slab 
of stone. Hie folding gates of another 
town were still larger. "Time produces 
little effect on such buildings as these. The 
heavy stone slabs of the roofs resting on the 
massive walls make the structure as firm as 
if built of solid masonry, and the black 
basalt used is almost as hard as iron. 
There can scarcely be a doubt, therefore, 
that these are the very cities erected and 
inhabited by the Bephaim, the aboriginal 
inhabitants of Bashui." Here, then, are 
houses nearly four thousand years old, and 
by far the most ancient in existence. 

Many of the cities contain ruined towers, 
palaces, and temples, the less enduring 
memorials of successive conquests and 
changes, which passed over the country in 
the first centuries of the Christian era. It 
was in Bashan, which then formed part of 
the kingdom of Arabia, that Paul first 
preached the gospel after his conversion. 
" When it pleased Grod, who separated me 
from my mother's womb, end called me by 
his grace, to reveal his Son in me, that I 
might preach Him among the heathen; im- 
mediately I conferred not witii flesh and 
blood: neither went I up to Jerusalem to 
them which were apostles before me ; but I 
went into Arabia " (Gal. L 15—17). Of the 
incidents of this mission we know nothing, 
but the Church then planted made such 
progress that, in the fourth century, nearly 
the whole of the inhabitants professed the 
faith of Christ; heathen temples had been 
converted into churches, and new churches 
built in every town and village. The 
Christians are now nearly all gone, but 
their churches are there still. Two or three 
have been turned into mosques, but the 
majority stand desolate, and some are almost 



perfect, as if awaiting the influx of a new 
Christian population. 

Not only the aboriginal dwellings of 
Bashan, but the manners and customs of 
the few scattered inhabitants, remain un- 
changed since the days of the patriarchs ; 
and in other respects the description of the 
country in the Old Testament is in exact 
agreement with its present condition. Bern- 
nants of the oak forests (Ezek. xxvii. 6) still 
clothe the mountain sides ; the pastures on 
the downs, and the soil of the plains, are 
rich as of yore ( Jer. 1. 19) ; and tiiough the 
periodic raids of Arab tribes have greatly 
thinned the flocks and herds, as they have 
desolated the cities, yet such as remain, the 
rams, and lambs, and goats, and bulls, may 
be appropriately described as " all of thorn 
fiEbtlings of Bashan" (Ezek. xxxix. 18; Ps. 
xxii. 12 ; Micah viL 14). 

While the historical portions of Scripture 
are thus illustrated, the fulfilment of pro- 
phecy is shown to be most striking and com- 
plete. As he rode through the ruined land, 
Mr. Porter saw how exactly such words as 
these had come to pass : " I wiU deetroy your 
high places;** " JmK Tnake yotw cities waste, 
amd bring your sanctuaries unto desolaiion " 
(Lev. xxvi. 30) ; " The pcdaces shall he 
forsaken " (Isa. xxxiL 14) ; " The land shaU he 
utterly ^oHed** {Ia&, xdY, S), Although the 
mountains of Bashan are rugged and rocky, 
everywhere on their sides are to be seen the 
remains of old terraces, telling of fonner 
toil and industry, as do also the heaps of 
loose stones that have been collected oif'the 
soil, and piled up in the comers of the little 
fields. " In the days of Bashan's glory, fig- 
treeSf and olives, and pomegranates, were 
ranged along those terraces, and vines hun^ 
down in rich festoons over their broken 
walls. But now Bashan has ' cast off its 
fruits. ' ' For a nation is come up upon my 
land, strong and without number. He hath 
laid my vine wa6te,and barked my fig-tree: he 
hath made it clean bare and cast it away. The 
field is wasted, the land moumeth ' " (Joel 
L 6). The stillness of death now reigns over 
desolate plains and deserted towns. ** Yet 
there was a time when the land teemed with 
an industrious, a bustling, and a joyous 
population. At that time prophets wrote : 
* Yotw highwoAfs shall he desolate ' (Lev. xxvi. 
22) ; * The wayfaring num ceaseth. The earth 



The 8Mttor«4 Vfttion,! 
Mft7 1, 1866. J 



THE OIANT CITIES OF BA8HAN. 



Ill 



monmdh atnd lartguMikdh' (Isa. zxxiiL 8); 
' The hmd shaU he utterly emptied and utterly 
spoUed : for ike Lard hoik spoken this word. 
Therefore hath the ewrse devowred the land. 
Therefore the inhdbitante of the land OM'e c<m- 
sixnned, and few mem, Ufi, Every house is shut 
up. The mirth of the land is gone. In the 
city is left desolation, and the gaie is smitten 
-with destruction' (Isa. xadv. 3 — 12). Many 
of the people of those days doubtless thought 
the prophets were but gloomy dreamers. 
Just as many in our own day regard their 
writings as gorgeous fancy pictures of 
Eastern poets; but with my own eyes I 
eaw l^at time has changed every prediction 
into a historic fiwjt." " Were ttie same holy 
men inspired now by the same Divine Spirit 
to describe the actual state of Palestine, they 
could not possibly select language more ap- 
propriate or more graphic than that foxmd 
in their own predictions, penned thousands 
of years ago. This is no vague state- 
ment made at random, or penned for effect. 
It is the result of years of study and years 
of traveL It is the ^result of a calm 
and thorough comparison of each pro- 
phecy of Scripture regarding Palestine's 
history and doom with its fulfilment on the 
spot." 

Mr. Cyril Graham, afiiend of Mr. Porter's, 
who was the first of European travellers to 
penetrate the plains of Moab beyond Salcah, 
lias the same story to tell. Of Bethgamul 
he says : " On reaching this city, I left my 
Arabs at one particular spot, and wandered 
Aboutquitealone in theold streets of thetown, 
entered one by one the old houses, went up 
stairs, visited the rooms, and, in short, made 
a careful ezan^ination of the whole place ; but 
so perfect was every street,every house, every 
room, that I almost fancied I was in a dream, 
wandering alone in this city of the dead, 
seeing all perfect, yet not hearing a sound. 
I don't wish to moralize too much, but one 
cannot help reflecting on a people once so 
great and powerful, who, living in these 
houses of stone within their walled cities, 
must have thou^t themselves invincible; 
who had their palaces and sculptures ; and 
who, no doubt, claimed to be the great 
nation, as all Eastern nations have done; 
and that this people should have so passed 
away, that for so many centuries the country 
they inhabited has been reckoned as a de- 



sert, until some traveller from a distant land, 
curious to explore these regions, finds these 
old towns standing alone, and telling of a 
race long gone by, whose history is unknown, 
and whose very name is a matter of dispute. 
Yet this very state of things is predicted by 
Jeremiah. Oonceming this very country he 
says these very words — * For the cities thereof 
shall be desolate, without any to dwell 
therein' (Jer. xlviii. 9); *and the people 
piioab] shall be destroyed from being a 
people' (ver. 42). Here I think there can be 
no ambiguity. Visit these ancient cities, 
and turn to that ancient Book — ^no further 
comment is necessary." In short, Mr. Porter 
sums i^> the result of his own and his 
Mend's investigations, in these words, " The 
whole ofBashan and Moah is one greatfulfiUed 
prophecy." 

The terms of the prophecies directed 
against these countries, and their literal ful- 
filment, will appear the more remarkable if 
we compare them with the doom pronounced 
upon the dtiee of Western Palestine. That 
doom, in many cases, was utter destruction, 
and it has come to pass. " Zion is ploughed 
like a field" (Jer. xxvL 18) ; ".Tyre has hem 
sought for but cannot be found" (Ezek. zxvL 
21) ; " no stone remains to mark the site of 
Capernaum" (Matt.xL23) ; ''Bethel is come to 
nought" (Amos v. 5); Samaria iff " as an hei^ 
of the field, as plantings of a vineyard " 
(Micah L 6). But Bashan and Moab were to 
be otherwise dealt with ; their cities were to 
be desolate but not destroyed, and such is, 
in fact, their condition. 

We have not attempted to do more than 
glance at some few passages in this deeply- 
interesting volume. The chapters relating 
to the western and southern parts of Pales- 
tine contain much that is new, and are rich 
in Bible illustration. It is impossible to 
estimate too highly the importance of re- 
searches like these at a time when such 
strenuous efforts are made to cast discredit 
on the early historical Scriptures. It is in 
vain for men to reason about the improbable 
character of a narrative, when that nar- 
rative, so far as it can be tested, proves to 
be literally exact, and when some of the 
statements which seemed least credible, are 
shown to be true in every particular. The 
testimony borne to the minutely literal 
fulfilment of numerous predictions, varied 



112 



TEE TWELVE TELBES. 



fTlia SoafticMd Kstion» 



in their character, extending over a whole 
country, and reaching forward through many 
centuries, is equally unanswerable ; and we 
think that the candid inquirer must rise 
from a perusal of these pages sharing the 



"unalterable conviction" of the author, 
" That the eye of the omniscient (Jod alone 
could have foreseen a doom so terrible as 
that which has fallen upon Moab and 
Bashan." 



THE TWELVE TRIBES. 



BY THE EBV. ANDREW A. BONAE. 



BAN. 



Pbom time to time, during the long sojourn 
in Egypt, the blessings which Jacob pro- 
nounced on his deathbed would be spoken 
of, sung of at the brick-kiln, and then on the 
parched soil of the desert, taught to their 
children, and kept in memory as pledges 
of future good. Who can tell how often 
the bondmen encouraged each other under 
the, blows of the taskmaster, with the 
prophecy that Shiloh should yet arise, 
and Judah yet be the mighty lion P But 
to teach them, when they had reached 
Canaan and its happy seats, not to rest 
aa if they had found all that the soul 
could win, the patriarch Jacob, while in 
spirit in the midst of these future scenes, 
is heard breathing out his longing desire 
for more than his words have described. 
Pausing after his glowing delineation of 
Judah's lot, and his stirring sketch of the 
prowess of Dan, he is led by the inspiring 
Spirit to exclaim (Gen. xlix. 18) — 

" / fcave waited for thy salvoition, Jehovah^** 

as if he had said, " All that development 
of greatness and power in Israel is not 
enough. Oh that the solvation of Israel were 
come i" It was the first of a long succes- 
sion of similar bursts of desire which used 
to find utterance when gleams of the glorious 
Saviour touched the chords of the believing 
heart. In the days of David we hear the 
worshipper cry, " My soul fainteth for thy 
salvation;^' "Mine eyes fail for f% ealva' 
tion ;" " I have hoped for thy salvation, O 
Lord ;" " I have longed for thy salvation, O 
Lord" (Ps. cxix. 81, 123, 166, 174). Isaiah 
cries, ** Say to Zion, Behold th/y salvaiion 
' cometh " (bdi. 11), as if Zion were impatient 
with long expecting. Old Simeon exclaims 
at last, " Mine eyes have seen thy salvation " 



(Luke ii. 30), when at Christ's first coming 
he held " The Child bom to us " in his arms. 
And the whole Church shall soon raise the 
joyous cry, at his second coming, " Lo, this 
is our God ; we have waited for Him, and He 
wiU save us" (Isa. xxv. 9). 

" I know that my Redeemer livea, 

He liyes, and on the earth shall stand ; 
And though to worms my flesh He gives^ 
My dnst lies numbered in his hand. 

" In this reanimated day 

I surely shall behold Him near ; 
Shall see Him in the latter day 
In all his migesty appear. 

** I feel what then shall raise me up— 
The Eternal Spirit lives in me. 
This is my oonfidence of hope 
That Grod I face to face shall see. 

" Mine own, and not another's eyes. 
The King shall in his beanty view. 
I shall from Him receive the prise, 
The starry crown to victors due." 

C. WfiSLET. 

But we have somewhat anticipated. Let 
us go farther back than to Jacob's blessing ;. 
let us go back to the birth-time of Dan, as 
recorded in Gen. xxx. 1 — 6. 

Man's heart has been called a microcosm^ 
and a family is a miniature world. What 
we find in Jacob's house exhibits very cor- 
rectly the state of the world at large. All 
things in Jacob's house seem out of order : 
envy, discontent, murmuring abound on one 
side, pride and the vauntings of rivalry 
prevail on the other. Rachel is against 
Leah, and Leah is against BacheL Jacob 
cannot rectify the disorder; but at length 
Bachel hints that she has hit upon a plan 
which may adjust matters. She suggests 
that her handmaid Bilhah may have chil- 
dren by Jacob, and she will adopt her 
handmaid's children. It is a plan such as 



Tb« Scattered Kttioo,! 
Mar h 1866. J 



TEE TWELVE TBIBES. 



113 



only the ansatisfaotory relations of polygamy 
would have admitted; bnt Kachel prayed 
over it (she says, " Chd hath heard we," v. 6), 
and the Lord made nse of it. A son was 
bom to Bilhah accordingly; and while Bachel 
adopted the child, and held him up as her 
own, she exclaimed, " Ood hath judged me, and 
hath given me a son;" and so his name was 
called " Dan," judging. 

Now this term, "judge " (which in Hebrew 
maybe expressed by two verbs indiscrimin- 
ately, p or tDDtr), is one that includes much. 
It is, indeed, properly the expression for 
managing and ruling; putting in order 
things that were all confusion, or that 
threatened to cause distress. And so God 
is " the widow's Judge'* (Ps. Ixviii. 5) when 
He manages her affairs for her in her help- 
lessness; and He comes to "judge the 
earth," as Gideon, Samson, Samuel judged 
and ruled Israel. It was this rectifying and 
adjusting of affairs in Jacob's house that 
Bachel referred to when she uttered the 
exulting words, "God haih judged mef 
The storm of passion is quieted ; the boasts 
and vaunts of rivals are stilled; order 
begins to reign in the tents of Israel, as well 
as in BacheFs distracted heart. In bitter- 
ness of soul and rash rebelliousness of feeling, 
she had said to Jacob, " Give me children, 
or else I die ;" the Lord had heard her, too, 
but He had also heard her bemoaning the 
sin, and crying to Him to overrule all. And 
the Lord did overrule, for " He judged." 
Even as He shall do in reply to the prayers 
of his elect, who cry day and night to Him, 
"Avenge me of mine adversary" (Luke 
xviiL 7). Men have, like Bachel, strange 
plans of their own for putting right a dis- 
ordered world; but the Lord will over- 
rule all. 

In after days, Jacob foretold regarding 
Dan, with a reference to his name and the 
circumstance of his birth — 
** Dan sJuill judge his people as one of the tribes of 

Israel:* 
He shall have his turn in judging Israel. 
And as he at his birth brought about a 
temporary cessation of strife and envy, 
so, when he shall have become a tribe, ho 
shall be found performing a similar service. 
All this came to pass when Samson was 
raised up from this tribe at a critical period of 
the nation's history, to be to the whole land 



a deliverer and ruler. Not only did Samson 
for twenty years clear Israel's troubled sky, 
but he left his impress on the nation, who 
saw in him what might their Grod was able 
to ^communicate, so that truly one could 
chase a thousand. He caused the nations 
round, also, to know the same, and to stand 
in awe. 

But again, when he shall judge Israel, he 
shall do it in a peculiar manner. 

"Ban shall he a serpent by thewayf an adder inthe 
paih. 
That hiteth the horse-heels, so that the rider 
faXleth backward:* 

In marching through the desert, Dan 
brought up the rear of the camp, andmay often 
have driven back the retreating foe. But the 
special allusion here is to Samson again; 
for like the serpent and the adder, see him 
suddenly, abruptly, and by most startling 
strokes, assailing the Philistines from time 
to time. Yet more, Jacob may refer to the 
Danites, in characteristic suddenness and 
force, comiug down upon the city Laish. 
These at any rate are outstanding facts 
regarding this tribe, related by the sacred 
historian in a way that may load us to sup. 
pose that, on other occasions besides, Dan 
exhibited a similar peculiarity of tempera- 
ment and character. But further, let us 
note, Dan, in all these deeds, was adjusting 
the bsilance, or "judging ;" for even the 
affair of Laish was suggested by the tribe 
finding itself over-crowded, and by some- 
thing of BacheVs desire to equal their rivals in 
prowess and possessions. 

It may be because of the singularity of 
the description, " A serpent — an adder," that 
there arose a whisper among the Jews and 
the early Christians, that Antichrist should 
spring from the tribe of Dan — ^Antichrist : 
that serpent, that adder, and yet mighty 
ruler. Some of the fathers thought their 
opinion confirmed by the fSact that Dan set up 
the graven image of Micah (Judg. xviii. 31), 
and also by the omission of the name of Dan 
in Bev. viL But for that omission sufficient 
reasons of another kind can be given ; and 
when we turn to Moses* blessing, in Deut. 
xxxii. 22, there is no hint of evil having its 
peculiar source in Dan. Moses omits Simeon, 
but he mentions and blesses Dan — 

'' Dan is Uke a lion's whelp, that is wont to leap 
from Bashan:* 



114 



SONNETS. 



rTh» fl utt ere d JflOm^ 
L Maf 1, 1886. 



He is never to be like Judah— a full- 
grown lion and lioness ; he is to be ^'ajonng 
lion/' making efforts at great deeds; and 
specially like the young lion in his daring 
le^s. It was in conformity with this trait 
in his character that he sent out his warriors 
from the south, where his lot seemed fixed, 
to the far north, leaping at once from the 
one end to the other end of the land. While 
adjusting affairs in his own tribe, he does 
imlooked-for things on the foe—coming on 
Laish all suddenly and irresistibly. Shall not 
the Jvdge of the earth do the same ? Shall 
He not come all suddenly, as the leap of a 
lion's whelp, upon an unthinking world, 
when they are saying, " Peace and safety " P 

There is a most interesting variety in the 
Lord's people ; the Lord's tribes have each 
a characteristic of their own. Cephas is not 
ApoUos, nor ia either of them a PauL There 
is variety in their gifts, and graces in their 
lot and in the results of their assigned work. 
Often the Lord uses a man for some one 
great and important purpose, and then the 
man disappears from view. Micaiah an- 
nounces Ahab's doom ; Daniel's three com- 
panions pass unscathed through the fhmace ; 
Joseph of Arimathea takes down the body 
of Jesus from the cross; and no more is 
heard of these men of Gt>d. So the tribe of 
Dan performs two great exploits, or rather 
comes twice into bold prominence, and then 
disappears. In 1 Chronicles, while the other 
tribes have a place and mention in the cata- 
logues of geneeXogj, Dan has none at alL 



So alao Dan has one fomons city, Joppa, but 
only this one that can be spok^i of as re- 
nowned. This is the Lord's way, judging as 
He sees best, managing and ruling acoot^ding 
to his will among the inhabitants of the ead^. 
One other &ct about Dan. The architect 
of tiie Temple of Solomon was the son of a 
T^rrian ; but his mother was of ttie tribe of 
Dan (2 Chron. ii. 14); "a woman of the 
daughters of Dan«" who had married aGentile 
proselyte, but was soon left a widow. How, 
th^i, is this woman said to be ''of l^e tribe 
of Nojpktalit** in 1 Elings vii. 14 P Because, 
she being bom in that part of Dan which is 
in the north, and probably in the town called 
Dan, or Laish, had passed over to the adjoin- 
ing tribe of Naphtali; and probably while 
residing there had met with the man of Tyre. 
In her widowhood, the Lord comforted her by 
giving her son singular talents, and sending 
him to stand before kings, and, better still, 
to direct the building of the house of the 
Lord. Was not the "Lord judging Hie 
widow/' managing her case kindly and well ? 
And was He not teaching us that CJentiles 
were to come to the light of the Lord, and 
build his true temple along with Israel P 
Yes, Dcm (true to his name and early his- 
tory) suggests the right adjustment of the 
jealousy and envy, the boastings and the 
rivalry of Israd and the Gentiles ; for as in 
purchasing the site for it, a Oentile, Oman, 
had his part to act: so Jew and Gentile 
both are thus represented in building tbe 
Lord's house. 



SONNETS. 

« Who hath despised the day of small things f '— Zboh. iv. 10. 



ISEAEL loved, not lost, who shall despise P 
Qrace, there, is like the ripple of the deep. 
Bat wifch returning tide the wave will leap 
The jafcting rocks — each barrier it defies ; 
And with like grandeur, low in their own eyes. 
The tribes shall on Monnt Zion hail their King : 
The offering of a contrite heart shall bring 
That sacrifice which God will not despise. 
" By whom shall He arise," who now ** is small" P 
Hark! " £v my SpirU" ''not by might nor 

power ; 
Oh, hail the droppings of the srmuner shower — 
One here and there obeys the gospel call : 
To Palestine restored, and throogh the fvumace 

passed, 
They, oft aiid long o'ercome, shall overcome at 

last. 



ZiON, what glory shall on thee arise ! 

Hail the light iswii Tig firom yon parted cloud ! 

To David's son " Hosanna" sing aloud ; 

Far o'er thy spiral hills the message flies. 

That in Jehovah's sight thou grace hast 

found; 
And long an empty, now a fruitful vine. 
Among the nations thou art far renown'd ; 
The gloiy of all lands is Palestine. 
How beiMiteoufl on the mountains are the feet 
Of Him who long since purchased thy release — 
The Lord our Righteousness, the Prince of Peace, 
In whom we also are with thee complete ; 
AU as Abraham's children, and joint heirs of 

grace. 
Having one faith, one hope, shall rest in Christ's 

embrace. C. E. A. 






PAST. 



115 



PAST. 



BY THB BDITOB. 



TnBBE is reason to fear that many will not 
read these lines. And why? Because 
people are so engrossed with the present 
that they have neither a mind nor the neces- 
sary time to look back, and to reflect on 
what has taken place in former ages. Much 
is indeed demanded of as who live in these 
days of steam and electricity. A great 
many stirring and striking events are pass- 
ing before our own eyes ; we live fast, and 
are preparing for new evolutions, perhaps 
momentous revolutions, and we cannot afford 
to sit down quietly and reflect calmly. "We 
are pushed forward, and in the material as 
well as in the spiritual world the cry is con- 
tinnaDy ringing in our ears, " Qo on« go on !" 
Who, then, wOl listen to us and give us a 
patient hearing, when we venture to invite 
him to consider with us the past ? 

But then our very title page promises not 
only to deal with the present and the future, 
but also with the past of Thb Scatterei) 
Nation ; and, as honest men, we are bound 
to redeem our promise, and we might almost 
say that our readers who took the magazine 
are,like ourselves, under an obligation to give 
their attention to the past of Israel To be 
quite frank with our friends, they are better 
off than us. We must write, they are free to 
read or not to read, as they please. 

To those who have been so patient as to 
follow me hitherto, I would now say that the 
past is not only very instructive and impor- 
tant on its own account, but must be tho- 
roughly known if we are rightlyto judge of the 
Xnresent aspect of the times ; and again, the 
past is so prophetic in its nature that it is a 
foreshadowing andan earnest of days to come. 
It holds true of the history of every nation, 
but more especially of the history of Israel, 
that the present must be explained through 
the past which prepared it, and that you can 
more or less foretell what the future will be 
if you have accurately read and judged of its 
beginnings and developments. But then 
Israel's past history has been written by the 
Spirit of Gk)d Himself and with Israel God 
has entered into a covenant as He has not 
done with any other nation. These, then, 



are two elements which greatly enhance the 
importance of a knowledge of the past ; for 
we know that we have a true and accurate 
account of what has taken place, and we may 
rest assured that whatsoever changes may 
take place with the people. He who has chosen 
them is faithful and ever the same, and His 
gifts and calling are without repentance. 

It may be that this mode of reasoning 
commends itself to the understanding of the 
reader, but it would still be unsatisfactory, 
at least to my mind, if it did not rest on a 
more safe and solid basis, even on the im- 
moveable rock of the Word of God. All our 
spiritual conceptions and statements ought 
to rest entirely on the Word, and on the 
Word exclusively. Systems and specula- 
tions are very good in their way, but they 
are of man's making, and they have aU the 
nicety, and regularity, and lifelessness of 
works of art. The Word of God is not sys- 
tematic, and frequently moves in extremes ; 
but it has all the fulness, freshness, and 
sparkling life of God's creation. This holds 
especially true with regard to Israel. " To 
the law and the testimony " must ever be our 
watchword, if we are to do justice to the 
Jew, and to understand God's purposes with 
ihskt people. We have, alas, speculated and 
reasoned so much, instead of searching and 
believing all Scripture says regarding them, 
that it becomes high time to return to the 
Word of Gk)d with the whole man — ^with our 
hands as well as with our hearts, and to ask, 
What readest thou P 

Many may think that this is a trite 
matter, an oflen-repeated truth ; but it does 
not follow from this that it needf be said no 
more. Many truths have been frequently 
stated, but never yet been fully acted upon ; 
and so it is even in these our own days, 
when many speak a great deal dbotU the 
Word, without ever permitting the Word to 
speah Uself- They put their systems, and 
speculations, and feelings, right or wrong, 
into the Word, but you never hear what tJie 
Word says. It is man speaking of the Word, 
but not the Word speaking to man. The 
difierence is immense ; and I ask the reader 



116 



PAST. 



L U»7 1, 1868. 



earnestly and prayerfully to think about it, 
for it might explain why many are so easily 
shaken in their faith, moved to and fro, and 
are yielding to error of every kind. 

"With these few hints, I must content 
myself, for the subject here alluded to would 
require a volume if justice is to be done to it, 
and would certainly raise an outcry against 
the writer oven by many of whom it might 
not be expected. I return to the statement 
that, in speaking of the past, I follow the 
example given by God Himself in his own 
Word. For who can deny that the Apostle 
Paul describes in Eomans ix. Israel's j?a^, 
in Bomans x. Israel's present, and in Eomans 
xL Israel's /w^Mre ^ It is my earnest desire 
to walk in his footsteps, or rather to sit at 
his feet, and to learn from him the mind of 
the Spirit regarding the past of Paul's and 
my brethren; to hide myself behind him, 
and to let him speak, for then I know that 
Qod Himself is opening up to us his 
dealings with that nation in days bygone. 

The beginning of the ninth chapter forms 
a striking contrast with the end of the 
eighth, just as the end of the ninth with the 
beginning of the tenth; and again, the 
beginning of the eleventh with the last sen- 
tences of the tenth. It is everywhere the 
same manifestation of unflinching truthful- 
ness, combined with tender compassion. The 
glorious work of the Spirit, and the precious 
privileges of the disciple of the Messiah, are 
described with glowing, life-breathing, and 
life-imparting words, in the eighth chapter. 
The shout of triumph is heard, " If Qod be 
for us, who canbe against us ?" And again, 
'* Who is he that condemneth P" and at last 
the richest and most eloquent hymn ever 
uttered is introduced in these high-stringed 
notes, " Who shall separate us fix)m the love 
of Christ?" This love is the comfort, the 
delight, the greatest happiness of the Apostle 
of the Grentiles ; and his joy would be com- 
plete if he were not of the stock of Israel, of 
the tribe of Benjamin, an Hebrew of the 
Hebrews. The more he rejoices in the love 
of Christ, the more his heart is saddened at 
the rejection of that wonderful love by his 
brethren after the flesh. He cannot detract 
from the glory of Christ's love, ho cannot 
think lightly of the sin and guilt of his 
people, and yet ho cannot bear to speak 
harshly of them; his whole soul feels, 



trembles for them, and, in accents of 
deepest grief, and pain, and sorrow, he 
exclaims, "I say the truth in Christ, I 
lie not, my conscience also bearing me 
witness in the Holy Ghost, that I have 
great heaviness and continual sorrow in my 
heart." The truth of God I must declare 
unto you, but I am not for that your enemy. 
Far from it ; ** for I could wish that myself 
were accursed from Christ for my brethren, 
[who cast me out, but from whom I never 
separated myself, and of whom I even now 
feel not ashamed, though I dare not speak 
lightly of their rebellion against their 
glorious King], my kinsmen according to 
the flesh." 

Mark the last sentences of the nmth 
chapter. Truth requires him to state, " The 
Gentiles, which followed not afler righteous- 
ness, have attained to righteousness, even 
the righteousness which is of faith. But 
Israel, which followed after the law of right- 
eousness, hath not attained to the law of 
righteousness." Yea, they had even stumbled 
at that precious stone God had laid as a 
comer-stone in Zion— a painftil confession, 
no doubt Truth, however, may not be 
tampered with ; but the loving heart of Paul 
immediately adds, "Brethren, my heart's 
desire and prayer to Gkxi for Israel is, that 
they might be saved." And not only this ; 
anxious to say everything that justice per- 
mits and love prompts him to do, he adds, 
" For I bear them record that they have a 
zeal of God, but not according to know- 
ledge." True, " not according to knowledge," 
but still "a zeal of God." 

Again, read the description of Israel 
and the Gentiles in their relation to the 
God of the fathers in the latter part of the 
tenth chapter. As to the Gentiles, " I was 
made manifest unto them that asked not 
afler me ;" but to Israel He saith, " All day- 
long I have stretched forth my hands unto a 
disobedient and gainsaying people." Agahi 
the same painful contrast, again a testi* 
mony must be raised against Israel's rebel- 
lion; but then the heartrending question 
is uttered, "I say, then. Hath God cast 
away his people P" And with all the energy 
of a loving soul, Paul emphatically exclaims, 
" God forbid !" And not satisfied with the 
general denial, he points to his own example, 
and once more repeats the positive decla- 



TlM SwtUred Natioo, I 
IdUj 1, 1866.. J 



PAST. 



117 



ration, " God hath not cast awaj his people, 
which he foreknew." 

Is there a nobler specimen on record of 
speaking truth in love than these words of 
Panl P You Jews who regard your brothers 
who believe in Jesus as apostates, and treat 
them as your enemies, look at Paul. Does 
he not declare himself to be an Israelite of 
the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Ben- 
jamin? Before he knew Christ, his zeal 
was of God, but without knowledge, and 
his work was to persecute and to bring 
the believers in Christ bound unto Jeru- 
salem. When he had been overcome by 
the love of Christ, he could not but acknow- 
ledge the Jews to be "enemies for the 
gospel sake ;** but he never abandoned the 
hope of Israel — ^he never lost sight of, 
nay, his whole soul dwelt with rapture 
on that other side of the truth : B£L0V£D 
POB THE Fathers* sakes. You Chris- 
tians which know Paul as the Apostle of 
the Gentiles, as the Israelite who has boldly 
proclaimed the richness of the gospel among 
the nations, and energetically defended the 
liberty of those that were afar off, hear how 
he speaks of, deals with, and prays for the 
Jews, of whom he never felt ashamed, from 
whom he never separated himself, and whose 
God-given privileges he energetically main- 
tained. To be imbued with his spirit, to be 
of the same mind with Paul, to wrestle with 
God for Israel, and to plead with Israel for 
the King of the Jews — if the Church of 
Christ were alive to her duty, and followed 
the example of Paul — try it earnestly and 
prayerfully, and obtain the answer in the 
blessing God vouchsafes unto you. 

Oh for the fiery zeal and the burning love 
of Paul ! As an honest man, he appeals to 
Christ, the King of Truth ; as a conscien- 
tious man, he points to the testimony that 
conscience gives him in the Holy Ghost, 
who searches the hearts and tries the reins. 
His brethren might suppose that he delights 
in telling them hard things ; they might 
suspect him of having become indifferent 
to their woe because of the unjust and cruel 
treatment he had experienced at their hands ; 
they might imagine that he takes his revenge 
on them, and praises the Grentiles while he 



testifies against his nation. He that said at 
Rome, "Not that I had ought to accuse 
my nation of" (Acts xxviii. 19), writes to the 
Christians at Bome, " I have great heaviness 
and continual sorrow in my heart." It 
weighs on his mind as a heavy load, a burden 
he cannot easily cast off, and the sorrow it 
causes him is not a passing but a continual 
one, just as a man would feel whose whole 
soul is filled with one object, that follows 
him whithersoever he goeth. 

If that be not sufficient to mark the 
intensity of Paul*s love, listen then to the 
boldest declaration ever uttered, "I could 
wish that myself were accursed [or ana- 
thema] for my brethren, my kinsmen accord- 
ing to the flesh." The Jews esteem Moses 
very highly, and justly so ; they acknowledge 
his meekness, and they look on him as a 
pattern of love to the people. It is so ; and 
hence, when Israel had rebelled against God, 
and made themselves a golden calf, Moses, 
with great truthfulness, returned unto the 
Lord, and said, " Oh, this people have sinned 
a great sin, and have made them gods of 
gold. Yet now, if Thou wilt forgive their 
sin—; and if not, blot me, I pray Thee, out 
of thy book which Thou hast written " (Ex. 
xxxii. 31, 32). These words of Moses clearly 
show that he loved his people with his whole 
soul, and would not desire to live to see their 
destruction. Paul was wronged, ill-treated, 
and maligned by those whom he persists in 
calling his brethren; they were not with 
him united by the bonds of the Spirit, still 
he remembers that they are his kinsmen, be 
it only according to the flesh ; and for them 
he desires even to be an anathmna, set apart 
to destruction, become something accursed ; 
separated from Christ, the centre of his joy 
the author of his salvation, the very life of 
his life. He is ready to suffer the utmost 
misery for the sake of his brethren; he 
considers himself as nothing, and his happi- 
ness as a matter of no moment, in view of 
the salvation of his brethren. You admire 
Moses, what do you think of the magnanimity 
of Paul? "Was there ever a nobler Jew, 
because a true disciple of Christ, and had 
Israel ever a warmer fiiend than Paul, the 
Apostle of Jesus P 



118 INTELLECTUAL Sf SOCIAL PB0GBE88 OF THE JEWS, 



rriMBeattoM ITalioB, 
L May 1, 1860. 



INTELLECTUAL AITD SOOIAiL PBOGRESS OF THE JEWS. 



** The Israelite Indeed," the American perio> 
dioal alluded to in our last nnmber (p. 98), 
relates a nnmber of interesting partionlars, 
illnstratiye of recent Jewish progress in different 
countries. Philip Eoralek, a Bohemian Jew, has 
been appointed Professor of Mathematics in the 
University of Paris, and tutor of the Imperial 
Prince. The chair of Oriental langnages, vacant 
by the dismissal of M. Rinnan, has boen filled by 
the appointment of another Jew, Mr. Munk. 
The Jewish banker, Berle, married a relative of 
the French Emperor, and was made a Count, 
and his Majesty witnessed the marriage cere- 
mony in the synagogue. The "Alliance Uni- 
verselle Israelite," presided over by the cele- 
brated lawyer, Cremieux, ex-minister of Justice 
in 1848, numbers ah-oady three thousand mem- 
bers in all parts of the world. Two great 
synagogues are now in the course of erection at 
Paris, at the cost of four millions offranoSy half 
of which is defrayed by the government. Turn- 
ing to England, the facts are mentioned that 
there are now six members of Parliament of the 
Jewish persuasion, that a Jew recently occupied 
the position of Lord Mayor of London, and that 
during last year, at the marriage of a daughter 
of the Bothschilds, dukes, bishops, princes, and 
ministers were among the guests at the Jew's 
table. Much more might be said to show the 
rapid social advancement of the Jews in this 
country. In Denmark, the degrading oath. 
More Judaico, has been recently abolished, in 
consequence of the patriotism and self-sacrifice 
exhibited by the Jewish population during the 
late war. Until recently the Jews were not 
permitted to settle down permanently in many 
of the Swiss Cantons ; but the Federal Council 
has now instructed the cantonal governments to 
pass laws allowing their free settlement. 

In some parts of Germany, Jews are still 
Buffering under disabilities ; still much has been 
recently done for their removal. Wurtemburg 
has promulgated a new Jew-law, granting them 
all rights and privileges, equally with other 
inhabitants of this littlo kingdom. Frankfort- 
on-the-Maine has abolished all Jewish disabilities 
with one clean sweep, and a Society has been 
formed hereby Dr. Gteiger, a celebrated writer, 
for the promotion of the general interests of 
Jews and Judaism. The city of Hamburg has 
made a step forward by the abolition of the so- 
called Mosaic laws of marriage and inheritance, 
the general laws concerning domestic affairs, 
and succession being made applicable to the 
Jews. Saxony, where no Jew was permitted to 
live except in Dresden and Leipsig, and even 
there tinder oppresaiana of a degrading character. 



has recently shown almost a miracle, by the 
i^ypointment of a Jew, Dr. Julina Fuirst (weU 
known as the author of the great Hebrew and 
Chaldaic Concordance and Dictionary^, as JPro- 
f8$9or Ordinariut in the University of Leipzig. 
In Bavaria the course of liberality pursued 
towards the Jews by the late king, is continued 
by his successor, and congregations are springing 
up in places where, but a few years ago, no Jew 
was permitted to live. The condition of the 
Jews in Hanover is not so cheering as in other 
States, for they are specially excluded from the 
House of Representatives ; in Prussia, too, their 
disabilities have not been removed ,- still there 
are a number of Professor's chairs filled by Jews, 
and almost all the political papers are in their 
hands. The present Jewish congregation at 
Berlin numbers nearly 19,000 persons, and they 
have lately built a magnificent temple which, it 
is ssdd, has not its equal in the world. It may 
be mentioned, in passing, that there are 2000 
Christian Jews in Berlin ; but the greater part 
of them are but nominally so, like their Gentile 
neighbours. In Austria, although many oppres- 
sive laws are still unrepealed, they have fallen 
into disuse, and a number of Jews have been 
elected and admitted into the Diet. Neverthe- 
less the Eomish " Church JoumjJ,*'"of Vienna, 
writes unchecked, in the bitterest terms against 
the Jews and Judaism. In Hungary and Poland 
the progress of the Jews is hindered by a party 
called Chasidim, who will not hear of any advance 
in religious matters. 

Turning now to the United States, it appears 
that in that great country the number of Jews 
is wonderfully iucreasing. Congregations spring 
up, so to say, over night ; but they are mostly 
like sheep without a shepherd. Few of them 
have preachers j they like better the institute of 
TTfuamim — that is, men who sing and (diant in 
the synagogue from some opera. These people 
leave the synagogue admiring and discussing the 
pieoe$ they have heard to-day ; and, indeed, this 
is all many carry home from the house of God. 
One congregation, worshipping in East Twelfth. 
Street, has, however, established a seminary for 
training young Israelites for the ministry. The 
same congregation are also about to erect a new 
temple at the cost of a quarter of a milli<Hi 
dollars. The ** Independent Order of B'nai 
B'rith" (Sons of the Covenant), is increasing 
steadily ; it contains sixty-eight lodges, spread 
over all the States of the Union, numbering over 
6000 members, and has a capital fund of 
$800,000 (see page 24). This organization seems 
destbied to exercise a powerful infiuenoe upon 
the condition of the Jews in Amerioa. 



A JEWISH inSSIONAET AND EBLIGIOUS LIBERTY. 



Eveiy one is shocked at the barbarities 
committed at Barletta. People will not be- 
lieve that Bome remains imchanged, and that 
the harlot on the seven hiUs, stained with the 
blood of the children of God, would murder 
them now as much as she did during many past 
centuries, if she had but the power to do it. 



Few are i>erhap8 aware that the man whose 
name has been on many lips— the Bev. Theodore 
Meyer — is a Jewish missionary of the Free 
Church of Scotland at Savona. There, as eveiy- 
where else, the Jewish mission has proved also a 
blessing in imparting light to the Gentile Chris- 
tians. Mr. Meyer is a converted Jew, a native 



The Sottttend ITatioiin 
M«7 1,1866. J 



INTELLIQEmrCE, 



119 



of Mwddenbnrg, idiere he was, till the jear 
1846, a teacher and preacher. In that year he 
iras baptized at Berhn by Dr. Sdtwartz, the 
Editor of this periodical ; and since that time he 
has tired worthy of the h^ calling of a Ghris- 
tiazL We now sabjoin a oommnnioation sent by 
Mr. Cl^^cnm to the "Daily Eeview," which 
we know will be read with interest, and enlist 
the sympathy and prayers of many on behalf of 
OTir IwoAer, his family, and his work in Italy. 
Mr. Meyer had risited Barietta in Jnly, 1864, 
and held a nnmeronsly attended eyangelical 
meeting. He was again there when the out- 
break took place, and he had a narrow escape 
of his life. Nothing daunted, he returned 
again to encourage the terrified evangelicals, 
and vindicate liberty of worship. This noble act 
met with entire success, and entitles Mr. Meyer 
to the gratitude of all Mends of the cause of 
religious liberty and truth. Mr. Meyer writes : — 

"Having just returned from Barietta, I 
hasten to give yon some notice of the present 
state of tlutt city, which has made for itself so 
sad a reputation. Order, after being restored, 
had not again been disturbed ; the authorities 
were anxiously prosecuting the work of dis- 
covering and imprisoning the guilty parties. 
The judicial inquiry will bring to light whether 
religious fanaticism alone was the cause of the 
riots, or if there were also political motives and 
ends. However that may be, no one can see the 
people who, day after day, are carried away to 
the prisons of Trani, without feeling indignation 
against their instigf^rs and seducers, and com- 
passion towards these misg^ded creatures. 

" The principal object of my visit was to 
comfort and encourage my brethren in the faith, 
and to vindicate anew our right to freedom of 
worship. On my arrival at Barietta, I found 
the evangelicals so discouraged and terrified 
that they scarcely dared to go out of their 
houses; while the departure of the evangelist, 
which was by no means his voluntary act, seemed 
to ensure a complete victory to the enemies of 
Kberty. These were, therefore, disconcerted by 
my arrivaL Two deputations, and not of the 
lower class of people, waited on the sub-prefect 



to request my expulsion ; and sudi was the ex- 
citement produced by my presence, that the sub- 
prefect considered additional troops necessary, 
and the prefect of Bad, whom he consulted by 
telegpram, ordered him to send me awi^. AU 
this the sub-prefect told me himself. He did 
not, however, dare, nor did he wish, to execute 
the order thus received; but I was toot con- 
tented only with being allowed to remain at 
Barietta, as long as I pleased, but I insisted also 
on the right granted by the statute to my co- 
religionists of meeting peaceably and unarmed 
*to woBship Gtod according to our conscience.' 
This right the sub-prefect persisted in refusing 
to us. For more than an hour I disputed and 
discussed with him ; all the arguments I adduced 
were frmtless. But while we were still discuss- 
ing the matter, a Government despatch arrived 
Item Florence, which seemed to have a magical 
effect upon hnn. Having deciphered it, all his 
difficulties and objections disappeared in a mo- 
ment, and permission was given to hold the 
meeting. 

"It took place on .the evening of Sunday, 
without the least approach to disturbance. This 
meeting was certainly the most extraordinary I 
ever conducted. The place of worship was a 
coffee-house, the counter serving as a pulpit. 
The congregation numbered about eighty, a 
great number being obliged to leave for want of 
room. There was not one eye without tears. 
The impression made was precisely what I had 
expected. The evangelists felt themselves com- 
forted and encouraged ; the friends of liberty 
rejoiced that the sacred principles of religious 
freedom had been again vindicated, while all 
the enemies of light and liberty might see that 
their machinations had proved vain and useless, 
that all they could do was to disturb public 
tranquillity for a moment, and destroy the hap- 
piness and peace of numerous families ; but that 
agunst a Gk^yemment such as ours, firm in its 
determination to preserve liberty and rights, 
they could do nothing; and that, therefore, a 
temporary victory is the certain precursor of a 
terrible defeat. — I am, etc., 

"Thiodoeb Meter." 
Aneona, 29th March, 1866. 



INTELLIGENCE. 



THE JEWS ON THE CONTIIVBNT. 

In connection with the article on the pre- 
ceding page, which speaks of the inteUeotnal and 
■ocial progress of the Jews, we ccdleot the foUow- 
ing items of recent intelligenoe from the "Archives 
Isra^tes," of April 15 :— 

In the Swe^sh Legislature, MM. Bibbing 
«Bd Silgenstolpe have jvet proposed that all 
persons proliMsing any fbrm of the Christian 
religion, and also Jews, should be admitted to 
all civil ftmotions and employments ; and this 
motion, it is expected, will be passed. 

In Switzerfanid the Articles 41 and 48 of the 
Federal Constitution relative to the native Jews 
have now been definitively adopted. The fiallow- 
ing is the substance of them :— 

1. Ko Swiss is to be denied permission to 



remain in any canton if he possesses the proper 
papers — viz., a certificate of residence, one of 
good conduct, and an attestation that he has a 
claim to the honours emd rights of a citizen. 

2. No inhabitant is to be subjected to a 
municipal tax on the part of the canton which 
accords him the right to residence, nor to any 
other special charge on account of such resi- 
dence. 

3. He is to ex^joy all the ri^ts of a citizen in 
the canton in which he takes up his abode, 
exoept the right of voting. He is particularly 
assured the right of exercising a profession, and 
of acquiring and disposing of real property. 

4. No heavier imposts are to be borne by him 
than by other citizens of the same canton. 

5. He cannot be ejected from the canton 



120 



INTELLIGENCE. 



rihe Sefttterad Nation, 
L Maj 1, 1866. 



where lie resides, unless he has rendered himself 
amenable to the criminal laws. 

While the emancipation of the Jews thus 
adyanoes in some countries, there is another and 
darker side to the picture, that of 

PKMECUTION. 

In the Diet of Gallida a deputy has proposed 
a motion providing for the "maintenance and 
vigorous execution of the laws which exclude 
the Jews from the acquisition of real property, 
and even from farming such property." 

In Bohemia the persecuting spirit appears in 
another and g^ver form. Between Yeram and 
Botzikau live about 2000 nailers and smiths, who 
have been reduced to extreme distress, partly in 
consequence of a large number of nails, etc., niade 
by machinery havingbeen thrown upon the market, 
and partly on account of their habits of drinking 
and gambling. The rage of these unhappy beings, 
seeldng a diversion, presently began to expend 
itself upon those who, compared with themselves, 
were in pretty good circumstances; and the 
Jewish tradesmen, being among the number, 
were intended to be the first victims. The 
Austrian Grovemment has found it necessary to 
interfere energetically, by sending a considerable 
military force to that district ; and thus an affair 
of Jewish persecution has become associated, 
rightly or wrongly, with the preparations for the 
threatened conflict between Prussia and Austria. 

The Vienna " Presse," in its correspondence 
from Bucharest, mentions alarming rumours 
of riotous movements against the Jews in 
that town. Anonymous threatening letters 
have been addressed to the chief Jewish 
bankers; and amongst others, M. Manoach 
Hillel, the Rothschild of Wallachia, has received 
an intimation that, unless before a given time 
he placed 3000 ducats (about £1600) in a certain 
spot in the forest of Banias, he would be killed 
like a dog. M. Hillel took no notice of this 
letter, and did not even condescend to hand it to 
the police ; but as the rumours of an intended 
mafisacre of the Jews increased, and even the 
day was named, many of his co-religionists be- 
came greatly alarmed, and some sought refuge 
with their Christian friends. Nothing of the 
kind has, however, yet happened, and Good 
Friday passed without any disturbance. Such 
is the account of the Austrian journal. 

If we wish to see absolute power exercised 
with all its primitive energy, we must visit the 
Kussian empire. A communication from Wilna 
relates the following trait of the Governor, 
General Kaufmann, too well known for his san- 
guinary caprices. It appears that he had 
bought fit to terminate the formalities relative 
to the recruiting for the Bussian army some 
days sooner than ordinaiy, and in consequence 
the Jewish conscription lists would require to be 
made up on a Saturday. The Jewish ofiELcials 
employed in the matter declared that they were 
not permitted to prepare the writings on a 
Saturday, and that they had never before been 
subjected to such a breach of their reh'gioua 
usages. Kaufmann was not a man to be stopped 
by such a trifle ; he simply threw the twelve 
administrators into prison till they consented. 
But as they were not intimidated by their con- 
finement, he had recourse to the following 



measure : He ordered the names of all the 
parents and relatives of the administrators, of 
the required age, to be set down as oonsoriptSy 
and placed them in custody until the adminis- 
trators had consented to do on the Saturday the 
work he required. This was the only measure 
that could induce them to act against their 
consdenoes. 

Jerusalem : PRESEirr Ck)NDiTiON of the Work, r 
Improvements in the City. 

In the " Jewish Intelligence '* of the London 
Society for Promoting Christianity among the 
Jews, the Rev. W. Bailey thus sums up the woric 
at Jerusalem during the past year : — 

" There have been more baptisms than in any- 
previous year, intercourse with the Jews has 
increased, the attendance at the schools has been 
larger, the hospital more than ever sought afler 
and valued. The book shops give proof of a 
larger sale and distribution of Holy Scriptures, 
and the Inquirers' Home has had many in it who 
have heard of Christ as the Saviour of sinners* 
and alone the * Way, the Truth, and the Life.* 
The House of Industry also has had many- 
inmates, and the Jewesses Institution has iif^ 
creased its numbers in every department." 

The condition of the work at Jerusalem ap- 
pears encouraging when compared with the state 
of things twenty-seven years ago. Then only- 
two or three could be gathered together for 
worship in a room ; now the missionaries have a 
church with a congregation of upwards of 800, 
six Protestant schools containing upwards of 
220 children, and other valuable institutions. 

The same Society publishes some selections 
from the journal of the Rev. B. B. Frankel, 
showing that the work in the Holy City is owned 
and blessed of Grod. We extract the foUowing : — 

" December 24 and 25. — I administered the 
rite of baptism to a Jewish family, consisting of 
three adults and three children. About five 
years ago they heard the truth at Constanti- 
nople, but soon after removed to Tnlcha, where 
they were comfortably settled and doing well. 
An old proselyte from Jerusalem visited the 
place, and finding no school for the Jews, ho 
wrote to Scotland, and Mr. Newman was sent 
and a school opened. Their eldest boy (now 
about twenty) remained three years in the 
school, where he heard the truth and communi- 
cated the same to his parents. For three years 
they visited the missionary, and this exposed 
them to persecution. Mr. Kewman being aboat 
to leave, and as there was no other Ptxitestant in 
the place, they sent their son to Jerusalem early- 
last year, and after some months they followed. 
The young man has been an inmate of the * House 
of Industry ' since his arrival ; his consistent 
walk, as well as his diligence in the learning of 
a trade, has been quite exemplary. The family 
being fully instructed, and considered by tbe 
Committee and the brethren generally fit ibr 
baptism, I administered that solemn rite to 
them. 

"26.— Visited the Karaite synagogue. We 
found the place well stocked with the Society's 
Bibles and Pentateuchs. The rabbi of the 
Karaites received us kindly, and showed no 
opposition to the gospel. 



Mftj 1, 1866. J 



INTELLIGENCE, 



121 



"28.— I invited all the proselytes to tea; 
nearly one Jkmndred were present. 

"31.— Before aasembling at the Bishop's for 
reading and prayer, abont thirty converts met at 
my house to offer our united thanksgiving for 
the mercies of the past year, and to implore Grod's 
blessing for the New Year. Some of the new 
converts prayed for the first time in public, and 
their fervent devotion cheered our hearts, and we 
found it a season of re&eshing from the presence 
of the Lord. 

" Janitary 13.— Amongst the families visited 
with Mr. Biewitz, I would mention two. In one 
we met several Chasidim, besides many women 

and children. Rabbi threw his arms round 

my neck, beseeching me in the name of Gk>d to 
tell them whether I truly believed that Jesus, 
the crucified one, was the Messiah ! I solemnly 
told them that as sure as the God of Israel was 
the true Jehovah, and as sure as there was an 
eternity and a day of judgment, so true is it that 
Jesus is the Messiah, and his the only name by 
which we must be saved. This made a deep 
impression on all present. The second was the 
house of one of the mosi learned and respected 
rabbis in the Holy City. Several Jews were pre- 
sent, and it was indeed a blessed opportunity, 
the aged rabbi sitting like a little child with the 
Bible in his hand, turning attentively to every 
passage I quoted ; nor was he at a loss to give 
chapter and verse of portions he quoted from the 
New Testament. He seemed much impressed 
with what he heard ; not an objection was raised 
by any present, they seemed to feel that the 
truth was on our side." 

A correspondent of "The Israelite Indeed" 
describes the recent improvements in and around 
Jerusalem. If you approach the dty from the 
west side, your eyes will meet some handsome 
country seats and the Protestant Orphan Asylum. 
But you will be more surprised at the " Bussian 
Town," the appearance of which will convince 
you that the Bussians have plenty of money to 
devote to the purpose of keeping alive their reli- 
gions system beyond the borders of their vast 
empire. It is a great range of buildings, includ- 
ing church, parsonage, consulate, hospital, and 
pilgrims* quarters, the appearance of which con- 
trasts strikingly with the ruinous houses and 
mosques of the Turks. Looking to the right you 
will see several more country seats, and a little 
nearer to the city some fine coffee-houses ; on the 
west sido of the valley of Hinnom are the houses 
built for poor Jews, and the windmill for their 
use. Then comes a row of fine g^ardens upon 
Buoh spots as, not long ago, wore barren and^ 
comfortless to look upon. From this we may* 
jadge how fruitful the soil round about Jeru- 
salem must have been when people worked on it 
with energy and pleasure. In the city itself, the 
palace of the English Bishop, that of the Latin 
Patriarch, the church, the Austrian hospital, and 
other buildings recently erected, are conspicuous 
objects. 

EXPLORATIONS IN PALBmNB. 

In continuation of the narrative of those 
deeply interesting explorations, the Hon. Secre- 
tary has printed the following : — 

Sib, — I have received a fifth report from Capt. 
C. W. Wilson, Boyal Engineers, in charge of the 



first expedition of the Association, dated Nablus 
(Shechem), March 17th, 1866, of which the follow- 
ing is the substance : — 

TopooBAPHT. — The positions of Nazareth, 
Zerin, Legjun, Beisan, Jenin, and Nablus, have 
been fixed astronomically, and a one-inch sketch 
made of the eastern portion of the Plain of 
Esdraelon and Valley of Jezreel down to Beisan ; 
a reconnaissance sketch of the road from Jenin 
to Nablus; sketches of Beisan and Sebustiyeh 
on a scale of six inches to one mile ; a chained 
survey of the summit of Gterizim on the l-500th 
scale ; and a sketch of Ebal and Gerizim, with 
the valley between, which is now in progress. 
A base line has been chained for this, so that the 
distance between the two mountains will be 
obtained with the greatest accuracy. 

Abchjsoloot, Excavations, Etc. — ^At Zerin 
(Jezreel) some small excavations were made 
near the large square building in the village, but 
without result. In and around the village are 
more than 800 cisterns or subterranean granaries 
for com ; a number of these were visited at 
various points, in the hope that some remains of 
the old town might be found in them, but neither 
there nor in the large accumulation of rubbish 
round 'the village could any foundations or 
remains be seen of sufiicient importance to 
justify the commencement of excavations on a 
large scale. The examination of the mound is 
quite practicable, but would require much time 
and money. Lejjun, Taanuk, and other places 
around, were visited, and notes made on their 
ruins. At Beisan, a plan was made of tho 
Theatre; two rock-hewn tombs and several 
sarcophagi were found. Whilst there a visit was 
made to Sukkat : the name seems to be applied 
to the district as well as to a small Tell, on 
which are some inconsiderable ruins ; there is no 
very marked feature, such as would answer to 
the expression, "Valley of Succoth"; the dis- 
trict is rich and well watered, and was, when 
visited, occupied by over 200 tents of Sukr 
Bedouin, who are now at war with the Adouan. 
The river being unfordable, the fighting was con- 
fined to an exchange of Arab abuse and a few 
long shots across the river ; some four or five 
men have been killed. Excavations were carried 
on simultaneously at Sebustiyeh and Gerizim ; at 
the former some excavations were mado at the 
Church of St. John and two of the temples. A 
plan was made of the church, and of the grotto, 
which seems to be of masonry of a much older 
date than the chxirch. There are six loculi in 
two tiers of three each, and small pigeon-holes 
are left at the ends for visitors to look in ; the 
loculi are wholly of masonry. The northern 
side and N.W. tower are of older date than the 
Crusades; possibly early Saracenic; in tho 
latter there is a peculiarly arched passage. Tho 
church is on the site of an old city gate, from 
which the " street of columns " started and ran 
round the hill eastwards. The old city was 
easily traced ; plans were made of the temples, 
they are covered with rubbish from ten to 
twelve feet deep, to remove which with Arab 
labour would take some three or four months. 
On Gerizim the foundations of Justinian's 
Church within tho castle were opened out; in 
many places but one or two courses of stones 
are left ; the church is octagonal, on eastern sido 



122 



INTELLIGENCE. 



rXhe 8eattM«d Natioo* 



an apse, on fire sidfis small chapels, on <»ie a 
door, the ei^th side too much destrojed to make 
oat, probably a sixth chapel ; there was an inner 
octagon, and the buildings without the chapels 
must hare been a miniatore " dome of the rock.** 
A few Boman coins were foond. The sonthem 
portion of the crest has been excavated in several 
places, bat no trace of anj large foondations 
foond. In an endosore about four feet from the 
Holy Book of the Samaritans a great number of 
hmnan remains were dng up, bat nothing to tell 
their age or nationality, and the place was 
immediately filled in and covered ap again ; the 
Amran says they are the bodies of priests 
anointed with consecrated oil, but may more 
probably have been bodies purposely boried there 
to defile the temple, or mdely thrown in and 
covered np in time of war. An excavation was 
made at the ''twelve stones," which appear to 
form a portion of a massive fomidation a£ 
mihewn stone. Hr. De Saolcy is qaite right 
about the name of Lozah being applied to the 
ruins near the place where the Bamaritans oanq> 
for the Passover ; they are not of any great 
extent. By far the most important rraoains are 
on the soutiiem slope of the peak, where a por- 
tion of the city wall can still be seen, and the 
divisions of many of the houses. Whatever its 
name or date, there was certainly at one time a 
large town surrounding the platform on which 
the Wely and ca«tle now stand. 

Photogbaphs had been taken as foUows : — 

View of Foimtain and two views of Town of 
Nazareth. 

Clifi* behind Maronite Convent. 

Yiew of Zerain, with Mount GHlboa. 

Two general views of ruins at Beisan. 

Old Boman bridge and Theatre, Beisan. 

Hbxee views of Church of St. John, Hebus- 
tiyeh. 

Qeneral view and Street of the Columns, 
Sebustiyeh. 

Buins of Mount Gerizim, from south. 

Sacred Bock of the Samaritans. 

Interior of Castle, with Ebal in the distance 

The twelve stones and west wall of Castle. 

Yiew of ruins of Mount EbaL 

Supposed scene of assembly of twdve tribes 
under Joshua. 

Gbolo^t. — The only peculiarity noticed was 
the construction of Jebel Duhy (Little Hermon), 
which is composed of a conglomerate of tnip 
fragments, flints, and portions of hard limestone, 
the highest point where the Wely stands is 
entirely of basalt, as is also an isolated conical- 
shaped hill. Tel Ajal, lying between Sndur and 
Nein, and these appear to have been the centres 
of eruption for the basalt which covers the 
country as far as Beisan. 

It was proposed to leave Nablus on the 19th, 
unless prevented by the rainy weather, as 
Captain Wilson was anxious to get plans of tiiose 
mosques in the town which have been Christian 
churches. Some trouble had been experienced 
frx>m incivility and attempts to rob on the part 
of the people. The governor of the city had, 
however, .been very civil and given every 
assistance. On leaving Nablus it was intended 
to go to Tubas, and thence, if matters could be 
arxunged with the Bedouin, by Wady Ferrah to 
Jisr Damieh, with a view to check Lynch's 



astronomical observations, and sketch a portion 
of the Jordan, at the same time fixing the posi- 
tion of Wady Zerka ; then return by Yaun to 
Awertah, where tradition places the tombs of 
Eleazar, Phinehas, and other priests; from 
Awertah to Seilun and Bethel, thence by Tiboeh 
to Kefr Saba, and probably to Ceearea and 
Athlit. Wages of excavators are high, from 2b. 
to 2s. 6d. per day, and it takes at least five man 
to do the work of an English navvy. . . . — I am, 
sir, yours, etc., 

Sydenham. Geobge Geove, Hon. Sec 

THE WOKK Of A JEWESS IN THE BAST OF LONDON. 

*' It is better to go to the house of mourning, 
than to go to the house of feasting," says the 
great Preacher (Eodes. vii. 2) ; and altliou^ this 
may seem a strange saying, daily experienee 
confirms its veracity. 

I spent two hours one morning in the 
labyrinth of small streets, courts, ayod alleyB, 
crowding the vicinity of Whitechapel and Coni- 
merdal Bead. It is one of the dirtiest localities 
in London, yet its aspect has something of a 
salutary influence on ^e soul, which must feel 
constrained to sympathize with the variegated 
and unbounded miseiy that meets the eye in 
every direction. Many of the hihabitantiS of thia 
quarter are descendants of Abraham. This can 
easily be perceived, not only by the strijdng type 
of Jewish physiognomy, but also by the many 
Hebrew placards exhilnted in the various shop- 
windows annonnning the sale of io>^ Kosher 
Meat,* and Hebrew prayer-books. I was in- 
formed by the clergyman of the district that 
there are 6000 Jewish inhabitants in this quarter. 
Mrs. . . . . , the Bible-woman (a converted 
Jewess), who has laboured in this quarter for 
some years past, conducted me to about a doBec 
of these Jewish hahitaticms. She knows the 
people, and they know her. ** Here is the Bible- 
woman," the children shout as she passes them ; 
but Mrs. . . . heedless of tbeic cry, ascends the 
wooden staircase, and we are ushco^ into the 
room of an old man, a tailor. "Do you ever 
think about going back to Palestine P" I asked 
him ; but the word Palestine seemed beyond his 

comprehension, and Mrs explained that 

Palestine meant ts^htn*!* Jerusalem. *' Certainly," 
he replied. " And do you think this return near 
at handP" "Yes, very near." "What leads 
you to that opinion F" " The prophecies ; I be- 
lieve the prophets, I do." This poor tailor is a 
native of the duchy of Posen, like many mora of 
his co-religionists in this quarter. He speaks 
German, imd reads the Bible in the Hebrew- 
German. "Gk>od morning, and come again," 
were the parting words of the ^poor man when 
Mrs. . . . left the room. 

In other places we merely exchanged saluta- 
tions, as the people either had no time or no in- 
clination to receive our visits. Passiog along, 
Mrs. . . . pointing to a house, saidi, " Here the 
people openly insulted and persecuted me.*' But 
the love of this daughter of Abraham is stronger 
than death, and triumphs over all the malioe 
and indifference that she encounters. 

On our way we visited a ragged school. At 

* Kosher Meat means meat from cattle slaugh- 
tered by and for Jews expressly. 



The BMttand Nutkn,! 
MmjhVBm. J 



INTELLIGJBNGE. 



123 



mj reqaest the childTen — manj of whom are 
Jewish — wmog a hymn. Their goodwill snpplies 
the defioienoy of mnsioal art. They seem de- 
lighted with the einging. To mj qnestioii, who 
amongst them loved the Lord Jesus, the answer 
was collectiTe. I embraoed one of them, telling 
them that thej were all my little brothers and 
sisters; and my thus addressing them did not 
make them laugh, as I might have expected. 

We then visited another son of Abraham, a 
slipper-maker. In order to listen to Mrs. .... he 

creases from his work, and in vain does Mrs 

entreat him not to disturb himself; his reply is 
to the same effect as the passage in Dent. viiL 3, 
which oar Lord repeats in Matt. iv. 4, that 
** man liveth not by bread alone." His wife, who 
is also present, seems deeply interested in our 
conversation. The man showed me a Bible 
(Hebrew) which he purchased by weekly pay- 
ments of a penny. In order not to appear too 
strange, I told the families I visited that I was 
the son of a great friend of the Jews, who for 
the past forty years has directed his love and 
enei^ to the recovery of the lost sheep of the 
house of Israel. Several Jewish families appear 
to me to be favourably inclined towards the 
gospel. I am agreeably surprised to see the 

good repute in which Mrs is held by the 

Jews ; even those who are unwilling to receive 
her visits speak to her with a degree of respect, 
evidently the result of her Christian character. 

E. P. 



America. — We read, in the " Christian In- 
telligencer," that theBev. S. Kristeller,a Christian 
Israelite, is labouring among the Jewish popula- 
tion of New York with many tokens of success. 
He is in the employ of the American Society for 
Ameliorating the Condition of the Jews. 

Thb Joubnxt of Sis Moses Montefiobb to 
the Holy Land, in charge of the bcdanoe of the 
Jewish Palestine Belief Fund, was noticed in 
our number for March (p. 70). He arrived safely 
at Jerusalem after some delay on the road, caused 
by the illness of Dr. Hodgkin, one of the party, 
who succumbed to an attack of dysentery at 
Jaffiei. Dr. Hodgkin was a highly-respected 
member of the Society of Friends, whose life 
had been devoted to scientific and philanthropic 
objects. 

CoNSTAiTTiNOFLB. — ^Tho " Israelit," quoted by 
the " Jewish Chronicle," mentions one of the 
indirect results of missionary effort among the 
Jewish population : — " On Jan. 2, a new Isiuelit- 
ish school was inaugurated in the capital of 
Turkey. The princqMd object of this school is 
to counteract the efforts of the missionaries who 
here cany on their intrigues in a most impudent 
manner. Corresponding with its name, * Or 
Torah' (Light of the Law), the school will en- 
deavour to import to the pupils entrusted to it a 
thorough knowledge of the essence of our reli- 
gion as the best means sncCessftLlly to cope with 
infidelity and proselytism." 

The Jews ot Daqhestan.^— We translate the 
foUowing from the " Israelit" : — " We have 
already, in previous numbers of this periodical, 
•fwftiJA communications to our readers concerning 
the Jewish inhabitants of Daghestan, an Asiatic 



province along the coast of the Caspian Sea. In 
tills province reside about 10,000 Jewish families, 
whidi are descended fk>m the ten tribes carried 
into captivity by Salmanessar, and which are 
said to have settled there about the year 720 
B.C., consequently about 2585 years back. The 
intelligence concerning them we received from 
Herr Joseph Tsharin, of Minsk, who lived three 
years in Daghestan, investigating the customs 
and practices of our brethren there, remarkable 
in many respects. At the head of the commu- 
nities stand rabbis from the fiunily of Babbi 
E^ah Misraohi, which immigrated fi^rn Babylon 
about seven generations ago. This day we had 
the pleasure of seeing Herr Tsharin in our house. 
He had been at Paris, there to solicit from the 
Universal Israelitish Alliance the means for a 
scientific exploration of those regions as yet un- 
known to us, and of their Jewish population. 
Herr Tsharin attained his object, and a series of 
questions to be answered has been handed to 
him, put together by Professor Munk, of Paris. 
— Jewith Chronicle. [The questions referred 
to relate to the language, religion, and cus- 
toms of the people. In a subsequent commu- 
nication to the " Israelit," Herr Tsharin states 
that, on his late visit to Daghestan, hearing 
that English missionaries intended to go there, 
he made this known to his brethren in such a 
manner as to arouse the bitterest feelings against 
the " seducers," who are likely, he considers, 
to be roughly handled.] 

Ihhiqration op the Jews to Palestine. — 
An Israelite of Bavaria thus writes of the resto- 
ration of the chosen people : — " The regathering 
of the Jews is now beginning to take place. Not 
only many single families immigrate to Pales- 
tine, but there have been formed a number of 
societies in abnost every land of this continent 
to prepare an immigration on a large scale, pro- 
vided with all possible means — money, imple- 
ments, and tools of every kind — to commence 
the cultivation of the long-desolated land at 
once and with the utmost vigour. There are 
men of considerable wealth among them, and 
not one without some means, enough at least to 
defray the expenses of the journey and to pur- 
chase a plot of ground. I am happy to state 
that I am one of the leading members of a 
society forming here in Bavaria, which numbers 
oyer 900 heads of families, besides a number of 
young people who would not form an alliance 
with the other sex until settled in the Holy 
Land upon the soil of their rightful heritage. 

The Gentiles hereabouts, that is, the petty 

German Protestant kingdoms and principalities, 
are even more astir about Palestine than the 
Jews. — Awterican Advent Herald, 

The " Hamagid," a Hebrew i>aper, published 
at Lyck, in Eastern Prussia, relates that sixty 
Jewish families from the State of Maine have 
determined to form a colony near Jaffa, in 
Palestine. 

New Translation op the Old Testament 
INTO French. — The "Archives Isra^tes" has 
an article on this project, which it declares to 
be excellent in its conception, but incapable of 
being carried out, and mentions that numerous 
defections have already taken place among the 
Boman Catholic members of the society. It 



124 



INTELLIOENCE. 



L M.y 1. 18" 



.1866. 



appears that some of the Bomi^li prelates have 
denonnoed the scheme; the Bishop of Mont- 
anban having characterized it as indecent, while 
H. D'Alzon, yicar-g^neral of the Bishop of 
Nimes, exclaims against the andacity of persons 
who wonld consent to translate the Bible in con- 
cert with those perfldioue Jews who are under 
the ban of the Chnrch. The Ultramontane 
jonmal, the "Monde/' has also expressed its 
indignation at the applause which the speech of 
M. Astmc, the chief rabbi, receiye(l fW>m a 
Catholic audience, and especiallj- from Catholic 
priests. These declarations have already pro- 
duced their effect, and the *' Archiyes" belieyes 
that the Catholic element, numerically so im- 
portant in France, will soon disappear altogether 
from the new society. There are reasons, in- 
deed, why Catholicism as such, could not 
seriously enter upon a revision of the sacred 
writings. That Protestants and Jews might 
unite together for such a purpose is easily to be 
understood; Protestantism owes its origin to 
free inquiry, and Judaism has in it essential 
dogmas and unvarying traditions, nothing an- 
tagonistic to it ; but Catholicism is constituted 
as an absolute monarchy, which alone is qualified 
to bind and loosen. Hence any concessions that 
might be obtained on particular subjects would 
be null unless ratified by the See of Borne. This 
aeems to be a stumbling-block in the way of any 
project of the kind. 



NEW HEBREW TEANSLATION OP THE 
NEW TESTAMENT. 

Professor Delitzsch, of Erlangen, has ad- 
dressed the following letter to the Editor :— 

Dear Sir, — A good Hebrew translation of 
the New Testament is ono of the most fanda- 
mental requisites for Christian missionary work 
among the Jews. We thankfully recognize what 
the London Society has done in this respect. 
But ** their accepted translation, which they 
now like a standard text provide with accents, 
is nevertheless very imperfect, and the under- 
taking of this accentuation has induced me to 
attempt a new translation, which as long ago as 
1838 I declared to be indispensably necessary. 

The London Society itself will not refuse its 
support to this undertaking, if its execution 
meets their approval. It is not done in a spirit 
of opposition to the Society, but in pursuance 
of the great object for which we are all striving 
together in the Lord. You, however, are the 
first in Great Britain, who, without having 
seen a specimen of the work, proffered mo 
assistance in completing it. I know how to 
estimate such confidence, and I am ready on my 
part to return it. I request you and your friends 
to point out two or three chapters of the New 
Testament, which you desire to see translated, 
and I will send you the translation, hoping that 
you have the type so as to be able to communicate 
it to the readers of " The Scattered Nation " 
as a specimen of the new translation, and to 
determine whether the work is worthy of your 
support or not. — I remain, yours very truly, 
Feanxis Delitzsch. 
Erlang^y March 23, 1866. 

We have entered into a private correspon- 



dence with our excellent friend, and shall 
oommunioate the result to our readers. The 
importance of a good Hebrew translation of the 
New Testament is so great, and Dr. Delitzsch so 
competent to judge of the merits of the attempts 
hitherto made, that we have thought it right to 
publish his letter. 



JEWS* HOME. 

The young men go on steadfastly, and, we 
trust, are improving in knowledge and grace. 
Hitherto the Lord has helped us, and we have 
obtained all we needed. Many thanks to the 
friends that have assisted me in this work of love, 
which has no other aim than to show some kind- 
ness to those who are strangers among Gentile 
Christians, and have been cast off by their own 
nation. 

Within the last few days a fourth young man 
has been accepted. * He is a son and a brother 
of rabbis, renowned among the Jews, and 
possesses himself a great ^owledge of rab- 
binical literature. But he has also a knowledge, 
which is infinitely superior, for he knows Him 
whom to know is life eternal. 

Our expenses increase as the number of the 
inmates of the Home become greater, but we 
doubt not that the love and help wo stand in 
need of will keep pace with our wants. 

Every donation, even the smallest, is wel- 
come ; and I shall be happy to send collecting- 
cards to friends who intend to help mo in that 
way. 

It is the Lord's cause. He will prosper it and 
bless them that do the work heartily as unto the 
Lord. C. ScHWAETZ. 

4, St, Leonard $ Oardeni^ Haddington. 



HEBEEW-OHEISTLiN UNION. 

By the blessing of our God the meetings 
of Hebrew-Christians at 36, Newnham Street, 
Edgware Bead, have been continued for nearl j 
twelve months. They have proved to be plea- 
sant and profitable to those who regularly at- 
tended them, and we may safely say that they 
have been characterized by great frankness, 
every one stating his views as he thought 
proper, and when difference of opinion pre> 
vailed, brotherly love was fWly and at all times 
maintained. 

The organ of the Jews who reject Jesus, has 
of late controverted many passages which are 
usually applied to Him as the Messiah. We 
have thought it right carefully to consider the 
objections of our brethren after the flesh, partly 
in order to see whether their objections aro 
founded on truth, partly to be able to g^ve a 
clear reason of the hope that is within us. We 
have, in consequence thereof, lately discoursed on 
Genesis xiv., AhrdhanC$ relation to Melchisedee. 
We hope shortly to lay before the readers of 
this magazine the result of this investigation. 

We commend these gatherings to the prayers 
of our readers. C. Schwartz. 

The meetings for May will be held (D.V.) on 
Wednesday the 9th and Wednesday the 2drd. 
All Jewish Christians are most cordially invited. 



i 



The 8ea*.tpred Nalioo,! 
June 1» 186tf. J 



HEBEEW'CHEISTIAN ALLIANCE. 



125 



HEBREW-CHRISTIAN ALLIANCE. 

BY THE EDITOB. 



Many meetings are held in London in the 
month of May, which are long before made 
known to the Christian public, every effort 
being used to secure a large attendance ;' and 
we wish them all Grod-speed, inasmuch as they 
promote the glory of Christ. On the 23d of 
May a meeting was held in the plain school- 
room of Trinity Chapel, John Street, Edg- 
ware Boad, which had not before been 
advertised, was altogether of a private 
diaracter; and yet we believe that our 
readers will agree with us, after they have 
learnt its import, when we say, that such a 
meeting has not taken place since the 
Apostolic age. 

There exists a Jewish and an Evangeh- 
oal Alliance, and both of them do a great 
and a good work in their sphere ; but the 
need has been felt of yet another institution 
of somewhat similar chai'acter. It was 
thought desirable also to establish a Bond of 
Union between those Heh'ews wlu) have found 
fcace and joy m Jesus Christ In conse- 
quence thereof, several brethren issued a 
circular inviting Hebrew Christians belong- 
ing to different denominations — clergy- 
men, laymen, physicians, tradesmen — to 
meet together on Wednesday, the 23rd, for 
prayer and consultation, in order to con- 
sider together whether a Hebrew- Christian 
Alliance could and should be formed, to 
define its object, and to fix as far as possible 
its organization and nu^agenient. 

Eighty brethren met on the day ap- 
pointed, and the Eev. A.M. Meyer moved, and 
Dr. Ginsburg seconded, that Dr. Schwartz 
take the chair, which was accordingly done. 
He addressed the assembled brethren in the 
language of their fathers : D5»^i> d^j^ " Peace 
be with you " ; and then again D»«irr D»3')"a 

VOL. I.— NO. VI. 



mn» DU^i " Blessed are they that come in 
the name of the Lord," as he knew they 
had assembled in the name of the God of 
their fathers. After the singing of the 
100th Psalm, the reading of Isaiah Ixii., and 
prayer, the Chairman pointed out the object 
of the meeting, which he described to be : a 
profession of our /ai7fe before our Jevn8h,& 
maintaining of the Iwpe of Israel before 
our Gentile Christian, brethren, and a 
strengthening of love among ourselves, 
Hebreio Christians, It would be made 
manifest that we have not abandoned the 
faith professed by Moses and the Prophets. 
It is highly important to declare to our 
Christian brethren that we have not for- 
saken the hope of Israel, nor are in any 
way ashamed of our Jewish origin. But 
then it is good that we meet together as 
Hebrews and Christians, and build up each 
other in our holy faith. We who have 
assembled here this morning belong to 
many different countries, and have been 
bom in the most opposite parts of Europe, 
and we are a true specimen of The 
Scattered Nation. But we have now been 
gathered by and in Christ. What is seen 
in us, as the first-fruits, will certainly bo 
seen in our whole nation, when He who 
scattered Israel will gather it; all Israel 
shall bow before Him, and delight in the 
majesty of Him who is their glory. 

The Eev. A.M.Meyer introduced the sub- 
ject of the desirability of a Hebrew-Christian 
Alliance, which, if ever established, ought 
to be allied to the Most High. Sympathj is 
a sweet savour, and the converted Jew stands 
greatly in need of it. It is no small matter 
to be separated from those who gave to us 
birth; with whom wo spent the early days 

7 



126 



UEBBEW'OHBISTIAN ALLIANCE. 



fThe Scattered KaiioBy 
L June 1,1806. 



of life; with whom we are united by the 
tenderost ties. Christianity does not weaken, 
but rather strengthens our aflfections, our 
need of love ; and when a converted Jew is 
cast off by the Jews, and frequently coldly 
treated by Gentile Christians, he greatly 
feels the need of sympathizing brethren. 
Let us not sacrifice our identUy. When we 
profess Christ, we do not cease tobe Jews ; 
Paul, after his conversion, did not cease to 
be a Jew ; not only Saul was, but even Paul 
remamed, a Hebrew of the Hebrews. We 
cannot and will not forget the land of our 
fathers, and it is our desire to cherish 
feelings of patriotism ; for to this day we 
sing the song of our noble ancestors : " If 
I forget ihcQ, O Jerusalem, let my right 
hand forget her cunning." As Hebrews, 
aa Christians, wo feel tied together; and, 
as Hebrew Christians, we desire to be allied 
more dosely to one another. 

Dr. Ginsburg very forcibly pointed out 
the necessity of being very careful in de- 
scribing Jewish manners and habits, and not 
charging on the nation what was only of a 
temporaiy and a local kind. Correct infor- 
mation on all that concerns Jews, so little 
known and understood, would prove to be 
a great benefit, even to the Christian Church. 
Ho related the following little anecdote, 
which illustrated this very clearly. A good 
Christian woman was in raptures on what 
she read in her Bible about the Israelites, 
One day she said to her lodger, " I wish I 
could see an Israelite?" "Do 30U really 
desire it?" "Oh, yes, with my whole 
heart," she replied. "Well," said he, "I 
am an Israelite." " You a Jew," the woman 
cried ; " an Israelite ? Impossible !" 

Several brethren dwelt upon the impor- 
tance of such meetings cs that of this morn- 
ing, and the necessity of being very careful 
in the admission of members, for tho eyes 
of Christians and of Jews would bo on the 
Alliance ; and, if any one should go astray, 



not only the individual, but all the members, 
would be found fault with. Tho late period 
of the month at which the meeting took 
place, obliges us to defer particulars till our 
next number ; in this hasty notice we can 
simply state that it was unanimously re- 
solved that a 

Hbbrew-Cheibtian Alliance be pobmed: 
its ohjed being to promote brotJiedy love and 
mutual edificaium among Hebrew Ohristiasts, 
A fervent prayer for a blessing on tho 
Alliance, and a hearty thanksgiving on be- 
half of the released Abyssinian captives, was 
offered up by the Bev. W. L. EosenthaL 
We all felt the presence of the Lord in our 
midst, and we fully believe that the Alliance 
will prove to be a planting of God and not 
merely the work of man. . 

Many important topics were afterwards 
fully discussed ; the regulation for member^ 
ship was settled, a committee was appointed, 
and tho Eev. A. M, Meyer invited tho 
brethren to hold their next meeting in 
the school -room of his chapel, All-SaintF. 
Dalston. 

A lecture by Dr. Margoliouth, On Convert 
sions among Israel in England since the Be^ 
foi-mation, was greatly enjoyed, and will b© 
published in compliance with the request or 
the meeting. 

A spirit of frankness and cordiality pre- 
vailed during the whole day, and we felt that 
we were invited as Jews, understanding and 
sympathizing with one another fally. The 
proceedings altogether were of a very grati- 
fying character. But we realized, above alL 
our union in Christ, and rejoiced in Him 
who has washed us in his blood, and has 
brought us in to the fold as the Good Shop- 
heixl who came to the lost sheep of Israel. 

Pray with us and for us. Remember tho 
Hebrew-Christian Alhance before the throne 
of grace. It is one of the signs of the times, 
and, with God's help, will prove to be a 
blessing to tho Church and to Israel. 



June 1, 186G. J 



ISRAEL m HISTORY. 



127 



ISRAEL IN HISTORY.— II. 

BT PROFESSOR P. GASSEL, OF BERLIN. 



"Tab Lord is righteous," is Israel's cry in 
Lameatations i. 18, "for I have rebelled 
against his commandment." "Now I know 
that the Lord is greater than all gods,'* 
says Jethro, " for in the thing wherein they 
dealt proudly He was above them" (Ex. 
xviii. 11). 

Israel is a prophet of judgment. When 
he had taken prisoner the heathen king, 
.Adonibezek, whoso custom had been to mu- 
tilate his prisoners, Israel treated him as he 
had treated others, and so was it with Israel 
himself. Ahab and Jezebel, who slew the 
prophets, perished ignominiously, and their 
blood was licked by dogs. Before Christ's 
coming, and afterwards, Israel experienoed 
what he did to others. 

The Jews destroyed the temple of the 
body of their best (or greatest) friend, an 
awful miracle which sin wrought, and their 
temple of stone and gold was razed to the 
ground. On the hill of Golgotha they shed 
blood, and the Mount Moriah, which their 
father's holy footsteps had trodden, becasie a 
desolation. As they had shed blood, so were 
they for centuries slain like sheep of the 
slaughter, both in the East and in the West, 
both by Christians and Mohammedans. The 
prophecy of Moses in Deut. xxviii. 66, was 
fulfilled in a hundred places, " Thou shalt 
fear day and night, and shall have none 
assurance of thy life." A Jewish author in 
Spain makes a Christian servant say that 
he had been told by his masters that since 
Jews had put the Saviour to death it was 
no crime to murder a Jew. 

They struck the innocent one, and fear- 
fully has the rod of retribution been laid on 
their own backs. A Jewish poet of the 
middle ages mourns^ 

" We are beaten with rods. 
The wounds bleed." 
Even Queen Christina of Sweden allowed 
her attendants wantonly to beat her Jewish 
physician as if he were a fox. In Frankfort in 
the eighteenth century, Spener strongly re- 
probated &om the pulpit the system of beat- 
ing aud mocking Jews so that they could not 
pass through the streets without insult. 



Fools fiill of iniquity had struck the Lord 
in the face, and how has this been visited 
upon them P In the middle ages it was cus- 
tomary at Toulouse to give a Jew a violent 
blow on the face in the name of the commu- 
nity, so much so that death often ensued ; 
and this was especially done at the seasons 
of Christmas, Good Friday, and the Feast 
of the Assumption. 

They demanded the liberation of Barab- 
bas, and they who in their paschal hymns 
so beautifully styled themselves the sons of 
freedom, became the general slaves of the 
empire. They made Christ bear his cross 
on his weary way, and for a long long time 
whilst longing and waiting from morning 
till evening, and from evening till morning, 
have they borne the ignominious cross as a 
mark on their hats and on their garments. 
In the middle ages they were forced to have 
the letter T on their clothes to distinguish 
them. It served as a memorial to represent 
the truncated cross, and had reference to 
the words of the prophet Ezekiel, " Go ye 
through the streets of Jerusalem and 
set a mark upon their foreheads." It is 
asserted that in the^ East they have been 
branded in the face and nec^ like horses, 
which, however, has been also done to Chris- 
tians by Moslem princes. 

Hokem Biamsilla compelled them to 
wear the image of the golden calf on their 
breasts. 

It was the most degrading punishment 
when Israel elevated Christ on the cross, the 
most exalted of their high priest?, and from 
that moment how degraded has 1 srael been, 
for he degraded himself when he defiled his 
priest and prophet. Jews in the middle 
ages were considered unworthy of being 
hanged on the same gallows with Christians. 
In Weisthiimcr they were ranked with vile 
women and hangmen. In a Bavarian tax- 
register of 1458, they are classed under 
** things for sale " between trout and veal. 

Were not they the people who murmured 
against Jesus because that He ate with 
publicane and sinners; and for 1500 years 
they had to pay a poll tax and form an im- 



128 



ISRAJSL IN HISTOEY. 



[ 



The Scattered Xatioo, 
June 1, 1806. 



portant article in tlie revenue of the state. 
This tax was only removed in 1813 in 
Saxony, and originated in the principle of 
the Swabian law that the Emperor, like 
every sovereign prince before him, was the 
successor of the Emperor Titus, and con- 
sequently the master of their life and death, 
and this claim they could only redeem by pay- 
ing every third penny they had. In a pro- 
clamation of Albrecht Achelles of Branden- 
burg, it is said these words occur : " Be it 
known throughout the empire in the event 
of a king of the Komans being chosen — that 
ho may either burn all the Jews according 
to ancient custom or show them mercy in 
allowing them to purchase their lives by 
paying the one third of all they possess." 

Tliey stoned Stephen and Paul, and in 
the course of time every one of these stones 
fiiid iJietr way back upon their own heads. 

In Begieres on Palm Sunday, the custom 
was for Christians to have a stone-throwing 
at the Jews. The bishop gave his blessing 
to the poor in these words : " Throw stones 
and manfully revenge Christ's shame ;" and 
with the blessing of their spiritual pastor, 
and the permission of their prince, we can 
imagine it would not be done by halves. The 
earliest apologists of the Christian church, 
in days when the crown of martyrdom still 
waited on the confessors of Jesus, defended 
their flocks against several strange accusa- 
tions brought by heathens both against them 
and the Jews. All these have now fallen 
back upon the Jews, and been continually 
repeated ever since. 

The many complaints that when Chris- 
tians were persecuted, it was not for things 
they had done, but for the name they bore, 
and that the occasional misdeeds of a few 
were visited upon all, over which the Fathers 
(Justin, Tertullian, etc.) mourn so much, arc 
constantly -recurrin g facts in the history of tho 
Jews. " One Israelite is surety for another," 
has become a proverb. The community 
suffered for the crime of an individual. 
There is an unexceptionable witness to bo 
found in the English author, Dickens, who 
in his last tale makes a piou3 Jew speak 
thus : " In Christian countries Jews are 
not treated like other people, for they say, 
this is a bad Greek, but there are good 
Greeks. Such a one is a bad Turk, but good 
ones can be found. When tl^ey talk of Jews 



it is not so. They find out the bad amongst 
us easily enough — in every nation is it not 
easy to discover the bad ? — but people take 
the worst amongst us as specimens of the best, 
and accept the vilest amongst us to repre- 
sent the noblest, and say, Jews are all alike." 

Tertullian and Origen defended the 
early Christians from another reproach — 
that of being deficient in patriotism, and not 
to be depended upon as citizens. 

This accusation has been engraved on 
the hearts of Jews by all parties, with 
sword and with pen. When the Arabs took 
possession of Spain, tho blame was laid on 
them. Yet they were even killed because 
they did not surrender the Spanish for- 
tresses after the flight of the Goths. In the 
year 184*9 many of the inhabitants of 
Kornom were slain in the Hungarian revo- 
lution because one Jew, whoso sympathies 
were Austrian, supported the besiegers, 
whilst at the same time every Jewish com- 
munity was taxed by Prince Windishgratz, 
where a single Jew was found who sympa- 
thized with Kossuth. 

In France they were looked upon as the 
special agents of Napoleon, and in 1847 it 
was recorded by Poussenel that RothschUd 
owed all his wealth to the defeat of the 
French at the battle of Waterloo. 

The accusation brought against tho 
Christians by the Jews, of drinking blood at 
their meetings, was a horrible misrepre- 
sentation of the Lord's Supper. Justin 
Martyr appealed to the Jew Typho to bear 
witness that it was not true ; and how has 
this accusation recoiled upon the Jews ? of 
whom thousands have lost their lives, in 
consequence of their being supposed to 
drink blood, though there was not a shadow 
of foundation for it, in their sacrifices. Only 
recently their blood was shed on this account 
in the East. The horrors of Damascus in 
1840 resounded throughout Europe. In 
1851 the same accusation terrified them 
in Constantinople ; that very shed blood 
which is remembered in the Lord's Supper 
had fallen on the heads of his people. 

The Jews, vilified Christ and his dis- 
ciples, and gave them names of reproach, 
and their own honourable name of Jew, 
which had won such glory in the heroic 
time of the Maccabees, the possession of 
which was the apostle's boast, and which 



The Soattered Nation,"] 
Jane 1, 1866. J 



ISRAEL IN EISTOBY. 



129 



is borne by the Liou of Judah, has become a 
term of opprobrimn. They who bear it are 
ashamed of it as of a word of reproach. A 
French writer, wishing to describe with 
moral bitterness the extent to which cor- 
ruption, love of money, and dishonesty pre- 
Tailed in the time of Lonis Phillippe, en- 
titled his book, ** Jews, the Kings of the 
Time." 

Bothschild has been called king of the 
Jews, and as the Jew of the kings ;* but 
the crown of thorns which has encircled this 
name throughout history with burning 
shame and reproach for young and old in 
the schools, and in life, in books, and news- 
papers, has not yet lost its power to pierce. 

An idea prevalent in former times has 
latterly been revived — that Judas, who be- 
trayed his Master, was a type of the Jewish 
people in their history ; but this is utterly 
erroneous, for Judas only typifies the 
treachery of those who, professing to be 
disciples, betray th'eir Master, from fear of 
man or self-m^de wisdom. 

The Jewish priests and elders who gave 
money to set aside the Saviour who came 
to them, gave money to lose love, offered 
money to betray the True One, have im- 
l>rinted the judgment that befell them on 
the history of their nation. Israel had soon 
nothing to trust in but money. Money be- 
came his breastplate, his sword, his refuge. 
It saved the people from death j but did not 
' ennoble their life. For money, Israel sold 
Him who brought the noblest freedom ; and 
by money he purchased a tolerated servi- 

* It may not be out of place here to mention 
the German saying referred to in the text — the 
Jews used to have one king ; now the kings have 
one Jew. — ^Ed. 



tude. Money was his protection and his 
bitterest enemy. He was trodden under 
foot if he had it not— envied and hated if 
possessed of it. Henry III. of England 
pulled out the teeth of Jews in York till 
they gave up all their wealth, and his suc- 
cessors banished them the kingdom. They 
were drained of all they had, and then 
punished for having nothing. Usurv was 
their exclusive privilege, and they were made 
to suficr for exacting it. 

Money is their power and their enemy. 
Such it has been, and such it is at the present 
time. All the treasures they possess are of 
no value if the synagogues they build there- 
with are not attended by them. A simple 
prophet's house, like the chamber of Elisha, 
is better than a splendid sepulchre of a 
prophet. 

It is reported that in the year 1547 Dr. 
Paul von Eitzen saw in the church at Ham- 
burg a tall old man, whose humble bearing 
and sadness touched all beholders. On 
being questioned, he acknowledged himself 
to be the overliving Jew, whom Christ 
had commanded to wander till the last day. 
People have not failed to draw from this the 
conclusion that the wandering Jew is a typt^ 
of his nation ; but the one-sidedness of this 
view is apparent. Israel is no aged wan- 
derer in the world's history, but an ever- 
youthftd prophet of the judgment and the 
grace of Grod who appeared in his midst— 
the handkerchief on which remained the 
impress of our Lord's features; but this 
handkerchief was a banner of glory and 
holiness. Israel's history is the impression 
of the scars of judgment— a history of the 
cross, without victory or glory, to this 
day. 



130 



TEE FEAST OF PENTECOST 



L June 1, 186tf. 



'^THB FEAST OF PENTECOST/^— 11. 

BY THE BEV. DE. MAEGOUODTH. 



Most elaborate, and minute, in detail are 
the laws and regulations, the customs and 
manners in connection with that festival, as 
given by post-biblical writers. We dare not 
attempt, with our circumscribed and limited 
space, to furnish even a condensed epitome 
of the writings of the Eabbinical fathers on 
the subject. We shall therefore hasten to 
give a brief account of the customs, oere- 
monies, laws, and regulations observed by 
the great bulk of The Scattbked Nation 
now-a-day, in connection with the Feast of 
Pentecost. 

The festival is commemorated in all the 
synagogues throughout the world on the 
sixth and seventh days of the third month, 
in the ecclesiastical year, called Siwan ; which 
MLs this year on the twentieth and twenty- 
first days of— according to our modem no- 
menclature — the month of May. The space 
which intervenes between the Feast of 
Passover and that of Pentecost, is seven 
weeks ; hence the name ni^yaw Weeks* The 
three days which precede the festival are 
distinguished by the appellation of ♦»♦ na^ 
Pi^ain the three da/ys of the set boundary, i.e., 
in commemoration of the threo days set 
apart for the sanctification of the people, 
previous to their receiving the law, during 
which they were debarred, by a circum- 
scribed boundary, from approaching the 
mount.* 

On the eve of the festival, the private 
dwellings, as well as the synagogues, are 
adorned with goodly boughs of evergreens, 
and with all sorts of fragrant flowers. 
The liturgical service is so framed as to 
make the giving of the law to Israel the 
chief subject of commemoration. But in 
addition to the prayers and praises given in 
the *V)mo Machzor for that festival, there are 
other recitations to be performed in the 
course of the two nights and days on which 
the Feast of Weeks is now celebrated by The 
Scattered Nation. The whole of the first 
night of the festival must be devoted to 

• Exod. xix. 10-23. 



various readings. There is an especial 
ritual for that night, technically termed 
JTuraw Vh ppn the order of the night of ike 
Feast of Weeks, The readings consist of tho 
first three and last three verses of every 
Book in the Old Testament ; some Books, 
however must be recited in all their in- 
tegrity. The first and the last section of 
every Talmudical Treatise must be perused.* 
The opening and conclusion of the mystical 
Cabbalistio Book, Yet»irah;^[ certain passages 
from the mysterious work Zohar ; J the 613 
precepts, which tho Rabbins have inge- 
niously discovered in the Pentateuch, § and 
the Book of Canticles. No zealous Israelite, 
in modem days, indulges in a moment's 
slumber that night. Yariogs devices are 
resorted to as preventives from drowsiness. 
The whiinsical reason given for the imposed 
wakefiilness is the tradition that the Israel- 
ites slept 80 &st and so long on the night 
previous to the giving of the law, that the 
Almighty Himself had to rouse the sleepers. 
To expiate the heinous sin of over-sleeping 

* Considering that the Talmud coneiBts of about 
fifty treatises, this is no small item in the reading 
performance. 

t Written early in the second century of the 
Christian era, by Babbi Akiba Ben-Josef^. It 
was written in opposition to the dofpna of the 
Qnofltios ; the theme being that the creation, in all 
its manifold developments, was the work of one 
God. However, there is no work which admits 
more clearly a plurality in the unity of the Godhead 
than does the book Yetzirah, 

X A work originally of small dimensions, com* 
posed in the second century, by Babbi Shimoon Ben- 
YochaS, treating Messianically certain passages in 
tho Pentateuch. The original work was greatly 
enlarged in later years by other hands than of the 
author just named. In its enlarged condition it 
professes to be a commentary on the Pentateuch — 
a most unjustifiable misnomer. An obscuration of 
the Pentateuch would be its proper description. 
The intelligent critic finds no difficulty in distin- 
guishing between the fragments of the original and 
the immense interpolations. The former contain 
gems of Christian truths. 

§ See a categorical list of those precepts in 
"The Fundamental Principles of Modem Judaism 
Investigated." By the Writer. 



The Softtt^red Nation,! 
JuM 1, 186(t. J 



THE FEAST OF PENTECOST. 



131 



one*s self, where the honour of the law is 
concerned^ every Israelite is bound to sacri- 
fice the anniversary of that night of rest to 
reading and prayer. 

Amongst the heterogeneous compositions 
which are recited in the synagogue in the 
course of this festival, there is one which 
deserves an especial reference, on account of 
its lights and shades. It is a Chaldeo poem, 
entitled, from ifcs first word, nio'Tp« Akda- 
moth. The author, at least of part of it, 
was the celebrated Rabbi Majrir Ben-Isaac, 
who was bom a.d. 1034. The poem in 
question is as much remarkable for gleams 
of exquisite beauty, as well as for the 
thick darkness of superstitious credulity. 
Aa a specimen of the former, I give the 
following four lines : — 

.wTtmnD poo hVj rr*» \*ob» p-oi 

.«nntt^aD ♦D bi ♦»♦ ^Vk "tn 

The following is almost a literatim et 
verbatim translation of the original : — 

" Gould we with ink tbe ooean fill, 

And were the heavens of parchment made» 
Were every stalk on earth a qnill. 

And every man a scribe by trade — 
To write <^e love of God above 

Would drain the ooean dry ; 
Nor oonld the scroll contain the whole. 

Though stretch'd from sky to sky."* 

As a specimen of the superstitious cre- 
dulity which characterizes that poem, I give 
the legend respecting Leviathan and Behe- 
moth, which has been thus versified in the 
following eleven lines : — 

.«nnna nyora n^o mwpi 
.MTTa-cn Tv^*)rQ, mi rvb anjTD 

• Grose, inhis "OUo," of March 6th, 1779, gives 
the English lines as tho prodaction of the brain of an 
idiot, then alive, at Cirencester. The &ct is, that the 
translation of tbe original must have been known 
in this country long ere the idiot idea had been 
conceived. Godfrey Chaucer has a stanza strikingly 
similar, in figure of speech, to the above in his 
ongallant "Balade wamynge men to beware of 
deceitful women." The inquisitive reader will find 
the question of the authorship of the above lines 
ventilated, by the writer, in ''The Notes and 
Qaeries," vol. viii pp. 180, G48. 



iKTrtTtm |pn» y^ poonfct 

:Hnno'j:i"» Tonan ♦an >'?)> pnoo 

:Mnvo pocnQK pnnDp pr:ii 

inn^vi ^ ino3 n»mK*ia'ai mo ion 

For convenience* sake, I give David Levi's 
translation, authorized by the late Chief 
Rabbi of England ; " He will certainly 
bestow on us the portion which Ho had 
promised us of old. The sporting of Levia- 
than with the ox of the high mountains,* 
when they shall approach each other and 
engage in battle. With his horn he thrusts 
at the mightiest beast, but the Leviathan 
will leap towards him with his fins and great 
strength. His Creator will then approach 
him with his great sword, and will prepare 
him for an entertainment (or a banquet) for 
the righteous, who will be seated at a table 
formed of jasper and carbuncle, with a river 
of balm flowing before them; when they 
will delight themselves and be satiated with 
the bowls of wine prepared at tho creation, 
and reserved in the wine-press."t 

Ere I proceed to point out the Christian 
view of that solemn anniversary, let me 
reproduce here, in an English translation, 
the sentiments of one of tho greatest Jewish 
authorities on the subject, Eabbi Isaac 
Arama— one of the noble Hebrews, who had 
to quit Spain, A..D. 1492 — in his great work on 
the Pentateuch, entitled prr^ mp^ Akaidafh 
Titzchak, After giving a graphic and pathetic 

* This afiudos to nioMl. Bee Job xl. 15. 

t The superstition and the credulity whidi the 
legrend involves and implies, have been ably analysed 
and exposed by tbe late lamented Dr. M'Caul in No. 
XVII. of hia learned work, " The Old Paths." But a 
word of vindication is due in behalf of Rabbi Mayir 
Ben- Isaac. The x>oem called n^o*TpH> as it stands in 
the y^trm, may be divided into two parts. The fiitt 
part consists of a double acrostic of the Hebrew al- 
phabet. The second part consists of an acrostic of 
the Hebrew words, of which the following is a literal 
translation: "SJayir, the son of Rabbi Isaac, may 
he grow in the law and good works, Amen, And be 
stronfir and prevail" On carefully and oritioally 
examining the two parts, the writer is convinced 
that they are the productions of two different men. 
The second part is from the pen of an eulogist of 
Rabbi Majrir. The panegyrist was considerably 
inferior to his hero in word and in thought. Some 
uncritical compiler joined both productions together 
into one, and no one has dared, hitherto, to put them 
asunder. The Leviathan story belongs to the seccmd 
part, for whidi the author of the first quotation 
should not be held responsible. 



132 



THE FEAST OF PENTECOST, 



tThe Scattered Nstion. 
Jane 1, 1866. 



deBcription of Israers exodus from Egypt, 
proceeds thus :— 

" But what was the motive and purpose 
which caused so wonderful an interposition 
of Providence in favour of the children of 
Israel P Had they not adopted the impious 
and barbarous customs of their oppressors P 
Were they not steeped in idolatrous obser- 
vances, and devoted to the worship of wood 
and stone like their Egyptian rulers P So 
that each man served his idol and performed 
the abominable rites which Egyptian idolatry 
imposed, as ourBabbins rightly remark in the 
Talmud .— * These [the Hebrews] were idola- 
ters as well as those [the Egyptians]. Why, 
then, was so great a difference made between 
them P And how came Israel to be favoured 
by divine grace with so great, signal, and 
notorious a deliverance from, and victory 
over, their foes P' To all these questions wo 
reply, the object was to bring Israel to 
Mount Sinu. The motive and purpose was 
to bestow upon them the law, the giving of 
which we celebrate on the Feast of Weeks. 
It was on account of the events which took 
place on this sixth day of the third month 
after their departure from Egypt that the 
liord vouchsafed miraculously to deliver and 
preserve them. For on that day the Israel- 
ites stood on Mount Sinai, and there heard 
the Ten Commandments propounded by the 
voice of the Almighty, as Holy Writ relates, 
' Moses spake, and God answered him by a 
voice,* [Exod. xix. 19], which plainly inti- 
mates that, as Moses did speak in the hearing 
of all the children of Israel, the voice of the 
Lord was equally heard by alL On this day 
the covenant was sealed between Grod and 
His people ; He gave and they received the 
law. After the Decalogue had on this day 
been promulgated to them, Moses ascended 
the mount, where he remained forty days, 
and obtained from the Lord the rest of the 
> law and the covenant.* 

** When we meditate on the character of 
the events of which this day is the com- 
memoration, and on the hallowed character 
of the day itself, it will be clear to us that 
the Feast of Weeks should be at the head of 
all the other festivals of the year. Moreover, 

• The balk of The Scatterkd Nation believe 
that the oral law — t.e., all the traditions, etc., of the 
Jewish Fathers — as well as the Decalogue, was given 
^o Hoses on Mount Sinai in those forty days. 



there is no other day which reason so 
positively commands us to observe as it docs 
this festival. Has such a thing ever been 
done, or reported to have been done, among 
any of the nations of the earth P Hath Qod 
assayed to go and take Him a nation from 
the midst of another, by temptations, by 
signs, and by wonders P Moreover, this 
people so distinguished, who were once do- 
graded, despised, and in abject poverty — 
groaning under the galling yoke of slavery — 
became exalted by the will of Grod, who 
brought them out of the house of bondage, 
and pronounced them free— above all the 
nations of the earth which were then in 
being. So that there was not any nation or 
kingdom who was superior to them, either 
in might, or in power, or in wisdom and 
knowledge, or in the method of government 
which distinguish a wise and intelligent 
nation. Divine beneficence did not deem all 
this enough. Grod was pleased, furthermore, 
to grant, through His servant Moses, the 
spreading over His chosen people the illumi- 
nation of His law, even the hallowed law which 
we still obey, and the sacred spring of which 
is admitted by all nations, and owned at the 
extremest point of the earth, wheresoever 
people dwell who believe in the Lord Grod, 
the Creator of the universe. Though those 
nations be not of the seed of Israel, yet all 
their sages do homage to the hallowed 
source to which the law of Moses owes its 
origin. Believing in the existence of God, 
His unity and providence, they all bear record 
to the purity and perfection of the law 
which He made known to His people on 
Mount Sinai, and own that those behests 
made known to the Israelites on Mount 
Sinai were enjoined by the Lord, who mani- 
fested Himself visibly to His people, shedding 
the plenitude of His Spirit of prophecy on 
Moses; and that the injunctions He then 
prescribed were the most holy, pure, and 
perfect to which man can hearken. 

" Nehemiah, when recounting the many 
mercies which the Lord had conferred on 
His people, winds all up by saying, * Thou 
camest down also upon Mount Sinai, and 
spakest with them from heaven, and gavest 
them right judgments, and true laws, good 
statutes and commandments,' etc., etc. [Ne- 
hem. ix. 13, etc.] It was this law which 
elevated Israel above all the other nations of 



The Scftttered Nation, l 
jQBe 1, 1866. J 



THE FEAST OF PENTECOST. 



133 



the earth to be a holy people. Experience 
informs us that no other nations have so 
tenacionslj dung to their creed for thousands 
of years as the people of Israel do, and con- 
tinue in their obedience to the laws of God, 
neither disheartened nor wearied. Many 
were the slaughters and persecutions which 
they endured! Many have been the at- 
tempts made to destroy and extirpate them ! 
Verily, Israel is a stiff-necked people ; they 
still continue in their allegiance, steadfast 
and firm like walls of brass and pillars of 
iron, and enjoy their vitality and existence 
entirely by reason of the virtue of their 
creed, and of their holy law. 

" It is but in accordance with reason that 
becoming observance should be bestowed on 
the sacredness of the day on which this 
most important law was vouchs^ed. Pri- 
ority ought therefore to be given to the 
Peast of Weeks over all the other festivals. 
Though the Passover, the anniversary of our 
ever-memorable deliverance, is first as re- 
gards time, still, the events which it cele- 
brates were but the means to a particular 
end, even the bestowal of the sacred law 
upon the children of Israel. It was with a 
view to that consummation that the. Lord 
was pleased to grant His marvellous inter- 
position for their deliverance. As it accords 
with soimd reason to hold that the end is 
of greater value and importance than the 
methods resorted to to achieve that end, the 
reasonable conclusion is that priority is due 
to that feast which celebrates the end 
achieved, rather than to that which only 
commemorates the methods resorted to. 
We thus find that, when Grod first appeared 
unto Moses, and commissioned him to de- 
liver Israel, He told him to make known to 
them forthwith that they were to receive 
laws, statutes, and commandments from God 
on Mount Sinai, and that on this condition 
He would redeem them from the oppression 
of their taskmasters. Thus we read, * When 
thou hast brought forth the people out of 
Egypt, ye shall serve Qod upon this moun- 
tain' [Exod. iii. 12]. 

*• In order to keep rightly the sacredness 
of this day, the Lord commanded us to 
count fifty days from the morning of the 
Passover until the morning of the Feast of 
Pentecost. The fifty days He ordained with 
the view that Israel might purify their hearts 



and cleanse their thoughts from the leaven 
of Egyptian superstitions, and the impure 
habits of idolatry which they had contracted 
during their condition as slaves. So that their 
hearts and minds being rightly prepared 
and purified, they might in some measure 
be worthy of the sacred law which was 
about to be entrusted to them. Our Eabbins 
referred to this interval of mental purification 
in the following appropriate illustration: 
* Babbi Shimeon Ben-YouchiuL said, '* When 
Israel came out of Egypt, whom did they 
resemble? They resembled the son of a 
king, who had recovered from a bed of 
sickness, which he had kept for a long time. 
The king's servants say to their Lord, their 
king, 'Let thy son come and eat meat at 
thy table.' But he replies to them, 'My 
son has not yet regained his original strength 
and beauty; let him abide in seclusion for 
three months, and then he shall appear in 
public, and eat meat at my table.' Thus, 
likewise, when Israel came out of Egypt, 
the ministering angels approached Gt)d, and 
said, 'Lord of the universe, the time is 
come that Israel should receive the law.' 
But He, blessed be His name, replied to 
them, 'My children have not yet recovered 
from their servitude amongst the mortar 
and bricks. Let them rest a little while, 
and then I will give them the law.' " ' In 
this parable our Babbins explain to us the 
delay which intervened between the exodus 
from Egypt until the giving of the law to 
Israel— namely, that it was caused by the 
unhealthy condition of their souls, and by 
the necessity there was to purify their 
thoughts, and remove from their minds the 
defiling pollutions of Egyptian example and 
corruption. It is not for us to ask why 
God fixed on the exact space op fifty days, 

NEITHER MOEB NOB LESS P Such a questiou 

would betray but little wisdom on the part 
of the interrogator. Whenever any precise 
and determined time is appointed, there is 
no room left to ask, why so many days, and 
no more ? Such a question is not only use- 
less, but endless." 

Thus wrote one of the most eminent 
Jewish sages, one of the most elaborate 
Hebrew expounders of the mind of the 
mass of The Scattebed Nation, according 
to the glimmering light, by which the mind 
of that people is at present led. 

7» 



184 



THE JEWESSES IN JERUSALEM. 



riha Seattend TSfaOm, 
L JoM 1, 1866. 



THE JEWESSES IN JERUSALEM, 

AOT) BITOETS ON THBIB BBHAIP 3Y INGLISH OHBISTUNS. 

BY HBS. TlSnS, 
Author of ''Home in the Hoiy Ltnd." 

(C<mtMiMed fromjpag^ 68.) 



Thb previous sketdi will hav« shown that 
dwellers in Jenisalem, who loved the people 
of Israel, speedily had two greafc fkifcs made 
plain to them — namely, ihe poverty and the 
ignorance of the Jewesses. 

The qnestimi then aax)se, How ooold relief 
be best applied? Certainly not by mere 
almsgiving. Almsgiving has been one of 
the chief canses of the paapenam and 
degradation of the present Jewish popula- 
tion of Jerusalem. To give away so much 
as a single piastre as -alms to any Jew or 
Jewess who could be helped to ewm that 
piastreby any kind of honest work, is to sink 
l^iem lower still in hopeless miseiy. 

The very first step towards raising the 
people was therofbre to discourage alms- 
giving. ITot that there were many Jewish 
beggars at the time of which I speak — ^184i6 
— 1848. The Jews are not given to begging 
in any country ; and in those days ^ere were 
not many Jewish beggars in Jerusalem. But 
both Jews and Jewesses were beginning to 
imderstand that English Ohrisiaans took a 
pleasure in relieving their distress, and in em- 
ploying them in preferenee toArabs, whether 
Moslem or Oriental Christians. Neither 
the Moslems and Oriental Christians stood 
in need of relief, for each community had 
its convaits, or other charities, to give help 
to those in distress. In the Jewish quarter 
of the city alone was to be found a hopeless, 
pauperiaed commimity, with insufficient 
fdnds for charitable relief, and none to give 
employment to those who could work. 

To help a few of those who knew trades 
was comparatively easy. TaOors, shoe- 
makers, carpenters, glaziers, whitewashers, 
bookbinders— all were to be fotmd in the 
Jewish quarter; and some of them occa- 
sionally 9btained a job of work in the small 
English community. How small the propor- 
tion of work obtainable was to the numbers 
of starving Workmen, may be guessed from 
the fact, that it was three years since a 



mattress-maker whom I employed had had 
a mattress to 3aiake. 

Another case was that of a baker, 
who had five young dlnldren to support. 
Her only oustomers were one European 
family. Some heip was given in this oaae 
by buying a oertam number of brown loaves 
for we^dy distribution to a few blind, hah, 
and sick, who could do nothing for tibem- 
selves. An 'advanoe of money to the baker, 
just after harvest, was a great help in the 
purchase of wheat, and ensured a supply of 
loavea at a cheaper rate during ihe rest of 
the year. 

All household stores can be purchased 
in Jerusalem at great advantage, if th^ are 
bought in the proper season. Ofl, just after 
the olives have been gathered and pressed ; 
wine, after the vintage -^ fuel, in the bright 
summer days, when the peasantry faring it 
into -the market; and all fruits and otiier 
produce, after their respective ingathonngs. 
In the year 1846, wheat cost only five and 
six piastres per measure during harvest; 
but in the winter season Idie price was 
raised to sixteen piastres in the market. !bi 
later years, I have known wheat, wkioh 
might have been bought at twelve or thirteen 
piasla'es a measure at harvest time, oost 
thirty and thirty-six piastres. Sometimes 
there is no wfa^eit to be got at all in tiie 
basaars in winter, especially if snowy weaidier 
keeps the peasantry fromooming to market. 

To return to our poor people. Another 
poor Jewess of my aoquaintanoe au|^orted 
herself and two diildren by washing for one 
European family. She was obliged to buy 
the water for this washing, as well as coals 
and soap. Out of the scanty profits left her 
she procured a measure of wheat weekly 
for bread, and about a pound of meat every 
Friday for the Sabbat meal— (the baker's 
femily above-mentioned never got any meat). 
She also paid three piastres (about fifd.) 
a week for her little boy's schooling. The 



The 8ofttter«d KfttioD,! 
Jane 1.1866. J 



TEE JEWESSES IN JERUSALEM. 



135 



child was three and a-half years old, and 
coidd* lAt prattle, yet he was kamiiig 
Hebrew! The poor mother had lost five 
out of seyen children* All of them had died 
through lack of proper food and whdesome 
air and water. Constant illness and great 
mortality are the inevitable reenlt of the 
crowded state of the Jewish quarter. I 
knew a £unily— and there were many similar 
instances — who were living in a small hooae^ 
together with sixteen other families. 

It was not long before we had applica- 
tions for employment from poor wom9n who 
understood no work but the very coarsest 
sewing. They were, if possible, poorer than 
the others, and they also had families to 
maintain. One of these poor, starving 
creatures, when she applied to me, had an 
in£»nt a fortnight old, which, for want of 
other nourishment, she was Ceding with 
oofiSde (without milk, of course). The only 
possible means of succouring this class was 
to purchase coarse stuff, that could not be 
spoiled in the making, to cut it out into 
shifts and drawers of the shape they ^em- 
selves wore, and could understand, and to 
give them a pattern whereby they might 
nuike up these garments at their own homes. 
From 4d. to 6d. each was the price paid for 
the making. The stuff was coarse, un- 
bleached calico, from Manchester, sold in 
the Jerusalem bazaars under the name of 
^'American," at about 5d. per yard. No- 
thing cheaper was to be had in those days. 
Some of the Ushkenez Jewesses could not 
sew, but could knit stockings, and were 
emplo3red in this way.' Cotton, grown in 
Samaria (Nabloos) was to be bought, unspun, 
in the bazaar. The Jewesses woxdd spin and 
twist it to the required thickness. Their 
knitting was not much better than the sew- 
ing of the others. 

A sort of out-door sewing-class was thus 
formed. The work was pretty quickly done; 
but it was very bad needle-work, and there 
was no prospect of improvement. The poor 
things scarcely knew how to hold their 
needle; they hemmed backwards, from left 
to right ; they could not sew a seam, or do 
stitching. The garments were almost tacked 
together, and were only fit for being given 
away to those whom sickness or age had 
made more helpless than the unfortunate 
workers themselves. And yet, to give even 



this unimproving kind of work involved a 
good deal of trouble, and the expenditure of 
time as well as money, while the number of 
those eager for employment was constantly 
on the increase. Oh that some one could 
be found who might have* time and inclina- 
tion to establish a sewing-school for Jewesses, 
where these poor creatures might be regu- 
larly trained to useful w(»rk! some one 
who could devote a certain number of hours 
daily to systematic teaching -— some one 
who should love their x)eopl6 well enough to 
bear with the childish ignorance of the 
Jewesses, and win them by kindness to 
steady efforts for self-help and improv^nent. 
Thus we spoke, as day after day brought 
fresh applicants for our poor little bit of 
employment. 

None but a Christian English lady would 
be likely to answer the requirements of the 
case ; and she must be a settled resident in 
Jerusalem, who, having time and means at 
her disposal, should, out of pure love to 
Israel, devote herself to raising the condition 
of Jewish mothers and daughters. What 
hope can there be for an^ people while their 
women are sunk in superstition, ignorance, 
and depressing idleness P 

The work would not be very dijQ&cult if 
begun on a small scale. Some of the 
Jewesses who now come for occasional em- 
ployment would thankfully attend a regular 
sewing-class during some hours each day. 
A good-sized, airy room must be engaged, 
dean matting laid down upon the stone 
floor, cushions ranged round three sides, so 
as to form a divan (the very making of these 
would be a bit of work for the pupik). This 
divan would accommodate the workers in 
their Oriental &shion, and the teacher could 
sit at a table in the middle of the room, 
cutting out, directing, and talking pleasantly 
with her scholars. How many useful things 
might she not tell them ! Beginning with 
the creation of the world, the fall of man, 
the flood, the history of Abraham and his 
people — things which they have never 
heard, and cannot read for themselves — the 
past history and future hopes of their nation. 
Then they would improve in their sewing ; 
higher classes must be formed ; the rate of 
pay must be graduated. European residents 
might be able to get work done at the 
Jewesses sewing-school — ^perhaps it might 



136 



THE JEWESSES IN JERUSALEM. 



L Jane 1, 1866. 



become self-supporting — perhaps a little 
bazaarmight be furnished with neatly-made 
European clothing, where travellers even 
might come and refit, where residents might 
buy what they require, instead of sending 
to England, and having to wait four or six 
months for their orders. And then surely 
Mends in England would help in so useful an 
undertaking ; they would send us materials 
— cotton-prints, muslins,* calicoes, needles, 
pins, and thread, all that is needful — ^for 
maMng useful clothing for the poor Jewesses 
and their children, or for the little European 
colony in Jerusalem. These and similar 
details had become the subject of our daily 
conversation, and a fervent hope arose that 
Grod would send some one to live in the 
Holy City who might take up this work and 
give it a fair trial. 

Our wishes were granted in a remarkable 
manner. An English lady. Miss Cooper, 
who had long wished to settle in Jerusalem, 
and work there for the Jews, arrived in 
Palestine in the spring of 1848. She 
wrote to us, as being old friends, to in- 
quire whether she Was likely to find useful 
employment if she came out to live in 
Jerusalem. She inquired as to the cli- 
mate of Jerusalem, and the manners of 
the place, whether an English lady like her- 
self might be able to live in tolerable safety 
and comfort in Jerusalem? 

We told her, in reply, that there was very 
much to be done in Jerusalem — ^that then 
^as now in 1866) the work of various kinds 
was far greater than the few on the spot 
could do. But we did not explain this point 
further, merely telling her to come and see, 
and choose for herself; there was plenty of 
work for her and for many more. As to 
climate, we could tell her that, with care, a 
European may preserve fair health in Jeru- 
salem. The climate is, in itself, good ; and as 
to comfort and safety, the English in those 
days ergoyed not only security but freedom 
in going about the city and the country. 

Miss Cooper arrived in Jerusalem in 
May, 1848, and found much to interest her. 
She spent the first few weeks in inquiry and 
observation as to what was going on in the 
city. Small of stature, and rather delicate 



in health, she scarcely looked fit for a life of 
self-denying toil. But she had great energy 
and activity, which carried her through 
difficulties which might have otherwise 
impeded her work. Miss Cooper, having a 
smaU private fortune, was able to act inde- 
pendently of others, and to choose for her- 
self the time and manner of her operations. 
Though she asked us many questions, we 
preferred to tell her nothing of our hope 
that she might prove the foundress of our 
long-wished-for sewing-school for Jewesses. 
"We felt that she would soon perceive that 
this was the thing needed, both as the means 
of raising the women, and as a means of 
opening up the Jewish quarts to friendly 
English Christians. 

After being about a fortnight in Jeru- 
salem, Miss Cooper came naturally into 
contact with some of the Jewesses who got 
employment among the English, and thus it 
was that a new and great work opened up 
before her. 

At last she came to see us one day, fall 
of happiness. " I have found out what my 
work in Jerusalem ought to be, and here 
(producing a little red memorandum book) 
I have made out my plan for proceeding. 
I have observed that nothing is being done 
for the Jewesses, and that little will or can 
be done to raise the condition of the Jews 
till they ore cared for. Here is my plan : 
it is for a Jewesses school of industry — a 
sewing and knitting-school." 

Miss Cooper then went on to read from 
her little book the details she had sketched 
out. How interested and delighted were we 
to find that they corresponded minutely 
with those we had planned, even to the 
number of days for work in each week, the 
hours of work, the number of classes, and 
the rate of wages. Miss Cooper was as much 
interested as we were when we told her the 
above story of our hopes and desires about 
the Jewesses sewing-school. She agreed 
that it was better to have thus left her to 
come to her own conclusion, and to make 
her own plans. She had decided as we 
hoped, and now there was nothing left but 
to help her as far as possible in founding her 
school of industry for Jewesses. 



(To he continued,) 



The 8c«tt*r«tl X»tioo,' 
June 1, 1866. 



THE TWELVE TRIBES, 



137 



THE TWELVE TRIBES. 



BT THS BBV. ANDREW A. BONAB. 



NAPHTALT. 

Some theologians doubt whether or not the 
expression often used among us, ** Wrestling 
with Ood in prayer," conveys a really Scrip- 
tural idea. It seems to imply that the 
person who wrestles believes that something 
Uke unwillingness in God to give the re- 
quest, or at least that his will needs to be 
wrought upon by great eflTorts of ours before 
He will consent to bestow the coveted gifts. 
Now, where the blessing is truly fitted to 
help and benefit us, there never is any un- 
willin^ess in Grod to give ; and where it is 
not so, no wrestling of ours, no efforts, no 
crying and tears, shall ever bring God to 
consent to bestow it. On this account, the 
expression needs to be explained ; but it is 
a mistake to say that it is altogether un- 
scriptural. In Col. ii. 1, Paul tells of his 
earnest prayers for the growth in grace of 
those of whom he speaks, and calls them 
"ayuM,"* conflict, and Col. iv. 12, Epa- 
phras is represented as ** iywwfjJ/ifroj," con- 
flicting like a wrestler in prayer to God in 
behalf of the Colossians. However, when 
we use it, let us clearly understand what we 
mean. We may use it surely since Paul 
did so. We use it not to imply that God is 
unwilling, or that if we insist in it suffi- 
ciently. He will yield to us even though He 
had purposed otherwise ; but to express the 
truth that there are many blessings which 
He gives only after much waiting on Him 
on our part. In short, iinportunUy inpi'aijer 
comes up to the true idea of vrreatling in 
prayer, when it is such wrestling as that of 
Paul and Epaphras. And if one asks, why 
does the Lord in some cases wish us to em- 
ploy importunity, and why does He not give 
the blessing till He has been urgently and 
repeatedly besought to do it P The answer 
is obvious. Such waiting on the Lord as is 
implied in importunity, is fitted to empty us 

• It may be rendered more generally "striving " 
or '* contesting," as in the public games ; bat Plato 
is in the habit of using the nonn, oyMvut, specially 
for gynmaatio exercise or wrestling. Either way, 
the violent exertion and effort is expressed. And 
see Col. i. 29. 



of self, and the longer it is continued may 
complete the discovery and deepen in us the 
conviction of our own worthlessness, and 
thus to fix our confidence altogether on tho 
Lord's own grace. We really wrestle against 
our own fancied worthiness. This is a most 
humbling position; altogether unlike the 
other sort of wrestling (usually so called) 
which would convey the idea that the per- 
son who so prays has something of his own, 
has strength, has grace, has earnestness, 
which all may conduce to his being heard at 
last. Many have cherished this delusion, 
whereas it is only when we have wrestled 
against, and been emptied of, any such idea, 
left convinced of utter unworthiness, and 
brought to expect to be heard simply on 
account of the Lord's own gracious heart, that 
we prevail. Jacob's case (Gen. xxxii. 25) 
illustrates the whole matter. There you 
find the angel wrestling with Jacob, letting 
him for a time put forth what strength he 
had, till at last, in order to convince him of 
his real inherent powerlessness and worm- 
like worthlessness, he touches him and 
puts his thigh out of joint. Upon this, as 
we learn from Hosea xii. 4, Jacob, reduced 
to weakness, and probably agonizing in 
pain, seems to have fallen on the Angel's 
neck, weeping and praying (for he had dis- 
covered his divine nature), and insisting 
that he should not go from him till he had 
blessed him. It was at this second stage 
that Jacob prevailed; for now the appeal 
was altogether to the grace and love of Him 
with whom hfe had to do. It was only now 
that Jacob had become a truly Scriptural 
wrestler, a wrestler like Paul and Epaphras 
in after times. 

We are come to the history of NapMali, 
whose name speaks of " wrestling** and this 
has led us to preface our inquiries by the 
above remarks. For there is some difference 
of opinion as to what Rachel's words signify 
in Gen. xxx. 7, 8: "BUhah hare Jacob a 
second son ; and Rachel said, With wrestMngs 
of God have I torestkd wUh my sister, and 
have prevailed. And she called his namo 
Naphtali" Hengestenberg and Delitsch 



138 



TEE .TWELVE TEIBE8. 



rXhe Soattared VulOotk, 
L Jane 1, 1866. 



mamtain her meaning to be, that she had 
wrestled for mercy in prayer, to get God to 
deal with her as He had dealt with Leah ; and 
old Onkelas in the Targum, makes her say, 
" The Lord has accepted my prayer when I 
did earnestly supplicate that I might have a 
child like my sister." • It is against her 
sister she has directed her prayer; that her 
boasting over her might be silenced; and 
this she calls, " Wredlmg loWb Qod against 
her sister" for our version, " great wrestlings " 
does not express the original And so we 
may understand NaphtalCs name as nearly 
equivalent to " one won by pra/yw." JEUch^ 
like the woman of Syrophcsnicia in after 
days, when apparently frowned upon, con- 
tinued still to try the hidden depths of God's 
mercy. She was persevering and rni^portU' 
note in prayer, calling upon Him on the 
ground of his infinite grace; while her 
sister Leah, satisfied with the past, made 
no such appeal to Jehovah. And thus it 
was that Eachel prevailed, and NaiphtaU was 
bom,* the fruit of prayer^— agonizing, wrest- 
ling, Epaphras-like prayer. 

It is a mistake to insist that there is 
necessanly something like unbelief in such 
wrestling prayer, for it does not at all imply 
trust in our own efforts, or distrust of God's 
good will. On the contrary, it is called forth 
by a fact regarding God's ways, which He 
has made known to us, and which the be- 
lieving soul acquiesces in — viz., that He has 
delight in our continued prayers, and would 
have us to be constant suitors at his gate, 
and that therefore He has arranged as to 
some of his gifts, not to give them at a first 
or second asking, but only after we have 
continued jperseveHngly to ask. " This kind 
goeth not out but by prayer and fasting " 
(Matt. xvii. 21). Jesus "was all night in 
prayer to (Jod " (Luke vi. 12) ; and l^en 
obtained that quiverful of apostles. Elijah 
prays on and on till the seventh time ere the 
rain-cloud appears. Bachel needed only to 
pray for Dan, but she must wresUe for Naph- 
tali ; and even then the full gain of her 
prayers did not appear. Ofttimes it is after 

* Leah speaks of Jehovah, and Bachel of Qod 
(Elohim). Probably Rachel felt as if the Lord's 
treatment of her stood in the way of her claiming 
the blessing from Him on any other groond than that 
He was aible to do this thing, able as Elohim, even 
if not engaged to do it as Jehovah, 



we are in our graves that the result of our 
prayers comes full into view. 

L But we proceed. The gift won by 
prayer may be expected to be somewhat 
notable. What, then, have we to say of 
Naphtali^s career as a tribe? We have 
dying Jacob's blessing on him, Gren. xlix. 21 — 

" Naphtali is a hind let loose : 
He gvveth goodly words j*' 
others read it — 

** N<^phtaU is a spreading terebinth ; 
JHe puitteth forth boughs of be<»uty.** 

Whatever be determined as to the exact 
rendering of the Hebrew words in this 
blessing, it is clear that Jacob predicts that 
Naphtali is to be remarkable for some kind 
of beauty. Preferring the common render- 
ing, we find that the grace and beauty of the 
hind, as it bounds along ** with airy step and 
glorious eye," is Naphtali's emblem. Now, 
this might well apply to the portion he 
inherited, for his lot fell in a region abound- 
ing in graceful and romantic scenery, where 
i^e " hind let loose," the gazelle in its beauty, 
might be seen at every step, literally and 
figuratively. In his tribe are "alluvial 
plains, long undulating ridges, and grace- 
fuUy-roimded hill-tops, dothed with ever- 
green, oak, and terebinth ; thickets, too, of 
aromatic shrubs, and lawns of verdant turf. 
There are glens, densely wooded, with 
streams murmuring among the rocks, and 
glaring with oleander flowers, away down in 
shady beds. The air is filled with melody — 
the song of birds, and the music of the 
forest, as the wind sweeps its chords" (Dr. 
Porter). And then as to the next clause — 

** He uttereth words of dcauV'— 
it has been suggested that they refer to the 
natural effect of such scenery iii stirring up 
the soul to speak gracefiilly, if they do not 
express generally the fact that Naphtali's 
happy lot, by its rich scenery and verdurous 
landscapes, may be said to have been ever 
calling forth the eulogies of passers by. If, 
however, we go ftirther, and inquire for the 
illustration of this blessing in the history 
and deeds of the tribe, there is nothing 
recorded bearing on this point except the 
memorable story of Barak and Debor^, the 
judge and the prophetess. Yet why should 
we not suppose an allusion to these illus- 
trious leaders of the tribe, even as in the 
case of Dan the allusion was so pointedly to 



Jane 1, 1860. J 



THE TWELVE TRIBES. 



139 



Samson? Barak goes forth with his ten 
thousand, like the hind let loose, and gains 
his high places (Psa. xviiL 33; Hab. iii. 
19) ; while Deborah pours forth " words of 
beauty" in her song. "The hind" was on 
its "high places" as the prophetess sings 
(Judges Y. 18), and may be said ever after to 
have stood there, in view of Israel. Indi- 
Tidual minds leaye their impress on a gene- 
ration, and on a region too. Barak and 
Deborah are the representatives of Naphtali. 
Nor should we forget that it was here 
Messiah first went forth, preaching the glad 
tidings, "giving goodly words." Some of 
his most "gracious words" were spoken 
here, and six at least of his apostles seem to 
haye been from this tribe. 

n. But BacheFs gift won by prayer is 
celebrated by Moses also in Deut. xxxiii. 23 — 
" Naphtali, satiafied withfavottr, cmd fuU of the 
hUssing of the Lord, 
Possess thou the sea and the south." 

" The thousand captaim,'' with their 37,000 
men, each carrying shield and spear, who 
joined persecuted David (1 Ohron. xiL 34), 
attest the blessing which had rested on the 
population of their region. And then as to 
the region itself, some understand the latter 
clause to mean that " Naphtali shall possess 
a lot which should combine the advantages 
of the healthy *sea-breeze with the grateM 
warmth of the south" (Keil). But, more 
definitely, we may remark that this tribe 
possessed at once some of the most delight- 
ful valleys of Anti-Lebanon (where " favour 
and fulness of blessing" rested beyond 
dispute), and at the same time the fertile 
slopes which close in the Sea of Gkililee. On 
the smdh of his portion a part of this sea lies ; 
so that when Jesus walked on its shores* 
the prophet in vision, and the evangelist in 
after days, ea^claimed — 

** The hmd of Na^htali, the way of the sea! 
The people that sat m darkness sa/w great Ught." 
. (laa. ix. 1, 2 J Matt iv. 16, 16.) 

In the plain of Grennesareth, which 
Josephus calls a very paradise for beauty 
and delight, and where was concentrated all 
that might set forth Naphtali as " satisfied 
with favour, and full of the blessing of the 
Lord," Messiah delighted to sound his 
jubilee-trumpet of deliverance, and utter his 
"goodly words" of light and life. His 
parables were spoken there, and many of his 



most gracious words, such as that everlast- 
ingly memorable invitation — 

'*Oememntome,aU ye that Idbov/r aaid are heavy ^ 
ladenf 
AndlwiU give you rest.** 

Betiisaida and Gapemaxmi were towns of 
Naphtali, in whose every street might be 
found some memorial of his mighty works, 
or some echo of his gracious words. 

Even at this time, the traveller climbs 
the range of hills in this tribe, called 
"Motmt Naphtali," and finds every height 
well wooded, and often fragrant with the 
myrtle and aromatic shrubs, with corn-fields 
at their base. Or he turns aside to the site 
of the old city of refuge, Kedesh-Naphtaii, 
now called Kedes, and finds its ruins beside 
a modem village on a knoll, which rises up 
from a green vale, with herbage-clad hills 
beyond, and rich olive-groves dose at hand. 
These are relics of the " favour and bless- 
ing" which the Lord once caused to rest 
hero^ when this tribe was Kke " the gazelle 
let loose," or " the spreading terebinth." It 
was when Israel turned to idols that the 
scene changed, and this tribe was the very 
first carried captive to Assyria (2 Bangs xv. 
29), its inhabitants swept away to the far-off 
region where now the Nestorioms are found 
keeping up traditions of the past. Perhaps it- 
is no stretch of fiEuurf to say that, just because 
this tribe was thus the first to sufier under 
the stroke of wrath, Messiah, when He came 
(in the wondrous love and grace that marked 
all his ways) selected their borders as the 
scene of his earliest public ministrations. 
Some of his first and sweetest calls rang 
through Naphtali's groves and glades, and 
were echoed by his mountains. But they 
"received Him not;" and thus they con- 
firmed their doom. 

m. Such, then, was Naphtali. Such 
were the after-fruits of Eachel's wrestlings. 
It is no vain thing to take hold on Grod's 
name and plead importunately. The firuit 
of such wrestling prayer is ^ both present 
and future blessing. Saints under the IS'ew 
Testament have learnt this secret, betaking 
themselves to such wrestlings of faith, when 
they would go forth " satisfied with fovour, 
and full of the blessing of the Lord," "like 
hinds let loose, giving goodly words." One 
man of prayer, when sent for by his%itter 
persecutors, in order to be conducted to a 



140 



LYBA EXPEGTANTIUM. 



rThe Boattared Katian, 
L Jane 1, 1868. 



prison, calmly replied, " I know not whither 
yon are sending mo, but my heart is as full' 
of comfort as it can hold ;" and another man 
of prayer, as he is about to close his eyes in 
death, cries aloud, " I am full of the conso- 
lations of Christ !** All this they possess 
through Jesus Messiah, accepted and>ested 
in as theirs. "Wo inherit more'than Naph- 
tah's portion, when we welcome Messiah, 
whose "goodly words" were uttered so 
often in Naphtali's cities — Chorazin, Beth- 
saida, and Capernaum. Nor, on the other 
hand, is it ever to be forgotten how these 
once famous cities were brought low — 
" brought down to hell." The Lord Jesus 
came to them with all his saving grace. He 



would have gathered him under his wing, 
and ** tJiey would not." What then P Be- 
jecting Messiah, a blight passed over them, 
a withering blight, and soon were they dis- 
possessed of their pleasant portion, and lost 
at once the temporal and the spiritual 
riches that were within their reach. And 
has not aU larad lost " the pleasant land " 
by the same unbelief? Why are ** few men 
Ufi " in your land, O Israel P Why are your 
"cities without inhabitants P" (Isa. vL 11, 
12 ; xxiv. 6). Yom' house is left unto you 
desolate, because you will not say, " Blessed 
is he that has come in the name of the 
Lord," for so Messiah has spoken (Matt. 
X3dii. 89). 



LYRA EXPEGTANTIUM.— No. UI. 

BY W. STONE, M.A. 

THE SPIRIT AMONG THE DRY BONES. 

" Our bones are scAktered at the gr«Te'f monfcb, at when one onfcteth and heweth wood open the earth. Bat mine 
eyes are nnto Thee, O God, the Lord : in Thee it mp trutt ; leare not mj soul deetitnte."— Psa. ozli. 7, 8. 

"And He said onto me. Son of man, oan these bones live? And I answered, O Lord God, Thoa knoweet."— 
Ezu. zxzvii. S. 



The battle-fiold was teeming, 

Not with the glow of life ; 
Nor helm nor halbert was gleaming, 
Whoro grew the foemen's bootless strife : 

Fierce blasts of HeaVn lighted 

Upon the far-fam'd field ; 
And swifb each phalanx was blighted, 
And obliged bj the Lord to yield. 

They fought against his seers, 

They fought against his Son ; 
Soon as in wrath their God appears, 
Soon ends the fray, the fight is done : 

Scattered and peelM, behold ! 

Their flesh consum'd away ; 
Their eye-balls dim, then glaz'd, and cold 
In death, along the vale they lay. 

Ob, mark those bones ! how dry, 

How bleach*d upon the ground I 
Through ages many, now gone by, 
By many a pilgrim found : — 

Can these arise and live ? 

Whence is the breath to come ? 
Whence the great Voice the word to giro. 
To raise and bear a Nation home ? 

Hark ! a wind is blowing 
Through yonder wide-spread vale ! 
And a mighty hand is showing 
Where Israel lies so wan and pale ! 



Spirit of God, shine forth. 

And look upon these slain ! 
Prom West and East, from South and North, 
Come, booathe! and bid them live again. 

Note ye not some token. 

From the deep womb of Time, 
How tho Lord his word hath spoken. 
Calling his own from every clime ? 

See ye not, first one bone. 

And then another shake ? 
Mystic convulsions, through each zone, 
Where Zion's sons their sojourn make ? 

Hope of the future, see ! 

The dawn of Life begun ; 
The vernal budding of the Tree, 
" Sign" of the flowerets fairly blown ; 

Sign of summer's coming. 

To crown the weary years. 
Love's ruddy beams far looming, 
To dry up tho winter of icara. 

Fail not, then, to beseech, 
Ye prophets, mov'd of Heav'n ! 

And pray for tho Spirit, and preach. 

Till pardon to Israel be giVn ! 
Till on their feet they stand, 
God's " army," great and strong. 

To carry Peace to every land. 

The Grospel's sweet, life-giving song ! 



The 8o«tt«r«d Nstion,"] 
ittoe 1, 1866. J 



THE MAY'MEETINGS. 



141 



THE MAY-MEETINGS. 

BY THB EDITOR. 



TiTE Church of Bomo glorifies the Virpjin 
Mary iii this month ; Protestant Christians 
in Great Britain come together to hear what 
Grod has done at home and abroad, and they 
magnify the name of Jesus. People may say 
whatever they like against the meetings at 
Exeter Hall, they cannot help acknowledging 
that they exercise a great influence on the 
minds of thousands and tens of thousands, 
and that the words uttered there prompt 
many to action even in the remotest comers 
of the kingdom. You may not altogether 
approve of all the moans by which a so-called 
successful meeting is got up ; you may take 
exception to a good deal of trash uttered 
on these occasions ; in short, you may dis- 
approve of one detail or another, but that 
does not alter in the least the real import of 
these meetings, nor does it deprive them of 
their value in the sight of God and man. 
For what is the real object of these many 
and multifarious gatherings ? 

To listen to what the servants of Christ 
have been permitted to sow and to reap in 
the various parts of the field where the great 
Lord of the vineyard has placed them, Christ 
has left to his Church the noble and ennobling 
legacy to preach the gospel to all nations. 
He has charged his disciples not only to 
believe in but also to testify of Him; and 
in obedience to his command, and by reliance 
on his promises, the Church is bound and 
called to execute the commission, and to raise 
the standard of the cross everywhere. It 
is not her task to conve^-t but to preach; nay, 
all she is called upon to do is to bring the 
gospel as a witness to the nations of the 
earth. If this simple truth were more in- 
sisted on, people would appreciate the work 
they are commanded to do more justly, they 
would not expect results Grod's Word does 
not entitle them to, and would therefore not 
so frequently feel disappointed with the- 
gathered-in fjruits. I shall presently try to * 
explain more fully what is intended by this 
remark, which is often little thought of by 
friends and foes of the kingdom of Christ. 

A threefold work, with all its innume- 
rable ramifications, is brought before the 
Church of Christ in these meetings, which, 
though called May-meetings, begin earlv 
in April and extend to the latter half 
of June. Yea, the work increases, these 
meetings will multiply ; and it wiU do 
so the more the Church of God becomes 
alive to her duty, and realizes the privi- 
lege of speaking and working, because she 
believes and delights in honouring Him 
who, for her sake, humbled Himself to the 
death on the cross. The Home, the Foreign, 
the Jewish work, all these claim the atten- 
tion and draw forth the sympathies of the 
Christian's heart. It is the same labour of 



love, though presented to us in different 
aspects, and the three branches are so inti- 
mately connected with one another, that 
none of them can prosper or suffer without 
affecting the position of the others. 

This is very clearly expressed in the 67th 
Psalm. The song begins with entreating the 
blessing of Jehovah on the persons of his 
people, to strengthen the faith of their own 
souls, and it proceeds to ask for the know- 
ledge of God in the land. Yea, it expects 
from the rovivinc of personal faith that 
thereby the knowledge of the Lord will bo 
promoted in the whole land; and it ex- 
presses the hope that God*s saving healtl\ 
will thus be made known among all nations. 
Heart reli^on stirs up the prayer for God*8 
manifestation in the homes of our land, and 
enlarges the heart of the child of G^ to ask 
for a revelation of Jehovah's glory even unto 
the ends of the earth. If religion is at a low 
ebb at home, it will not do much to promote 
Christ's kingdom abroad; but wnen the 
privileges of the gospel are fully enjoyed, 
and the preciousness of Jesus is thoroughly 
realized, then you cannot help testifying of 
them everywhere, and constrained by the 
love of Christ, do all in your power to mag- 
nify his name and to make others share the 
blessings which are the comfort and joy of 
your own heart. On the other hand, the 
triumphs of the Redeemer abroad enliven, 
quicken, revive the drooping spirit of tho 
Church at home, and thus she gets back 
what she has been giving, obtains a blessing 
where she tried to become one. Thus the 
Apostle Paul and Barnabas were set apart 
for their work, and when they came back 
and declared the conversion of the Oentiles, 
they caused great joy umto all the brethren 
(Acts XV. 3). 

Christianity is in its nature aggressive. 
It cannot stand still, it must pass onward 
or go back. This holds true of the indi- 
vidual Christian as well as of the whole 
Church. The very interest of self-preser- 
vation, the misery of a world lying in 
wickedness, and the honour of Him who 
is the Head of the body — all those com- 
bine together to urge the Church not to 
rest satisfied with what she has attained to, 
but continually to go forward, though like 
Israel of old, her way seems to lead into 
boisterous waves. It is a known fact, that 
those who continually remind us of the 
deplorable state of our home population, 
in order to deter us from realizing our obli- 
gation to a world lying in wickedness, are 
the least prone to give real help to those 
benighted masses perishing from want of 
knowledge, whilst they who send the glad 
tidings of peace to the blinded heathen 
and bigoted Mohammedans, are the very 



142 



THE MAY-MEETINGS. 



r Th« 8eattari>d Katioa, 
I June 1. lb()^. 



men who establish ragged schools, take 
up the poor fallen women, the homeless 
boys, relievo the factory girls, care for the 
souls and trials of all that labour and are 
heavy-laden. Jews and infidels, unworthy 
of the noble name of Christians, may mock 
and try to ridicule, still God is doing a 
great work, and but for the power of the 
gospel, this world would be a wilderness, 
and theso very enemies of Christ would 
lack the liberty and the knowledge they 
enjoy— the very weapons which they now 
employ to overthrow it. 

There is then an intimate connection be- 
tween Home and Heathen Missions. How do 
the latter stand in re^rd to the work of love 
among the Jews ? All that believe in God's 
Word know that the name of Jesus is the • 
onhj name given whereby we must be saved. 
Far be it from us to place Jews and Heathens 
on the same level. No ; He who is the light 
of the Gentiles, is tho olory of Israel. It is 
perfectly true that God has done for Israel 
what H!e has done for no other nation ; this 
is Israel's privilege. But then this very 
privilege increases Israel's responsrbility ; 
and if blessed above the nations, it is also 
more guilty than chey. The Jews are as little 
alive without Christ as the Heathen, for self- 
righteousness is as much soul-destroying as 
nnrightoousness. I may suppose that the 
readers of " The Scattered Nation " believe 
that Jews must be, and cayi be saved by the 
blood of Christ, must and have been converted 
by the power of the Spirit. Missions to fhe 
Heathens and the Jews are not only not 
antagonistic, but strengthen one another ; 
yea, they cannot succeed unless united, 
the right place being given to either of the 
two. 

Why? Because vou have no right to 
separate what God has so closely united. 
The enemies and the friends of missions 
are very frequently little satisfied with the 
results attained. The former, because they 
nnreasonably and unjustly look away from 
what has been attained, do not allow suffi- 
cient time for the growth of the seed sown, 
and as Dr. Mullins very pointedly expressed 
it, whilst our anthropological friends tell us 
that it took many ages to change a gorilla 
into a negro, they allow us scarcely a few 
years to change a negro into one of those 
white savarUs that describe so touchingly 
the kindheartedness and natural amiability 
of the savages. 

The latter (the friends) cherish expecta- 
tions which are not warranted by the Word 
of God. They fancy that in the present 
dispensation the nations are to be converted, 
and when they now hear that all the churches 
in India have no more than 50,000 communi- 
cants, and 150,000 Christians, they feel cast 
down and discouraged. Then aJl possible 



efforts are made to expla'm this unsatisfac- 
tory state, and we are comforted with what 
will take place after some years, when some 
more missionaries will be sent out, and some 
new Societies be started, and .... One 
speaker at the Bible Society's meeting went 
actually so far as to point out in a business 
way, how, beginning with one, who converts 
another, and these two converting four, etc, 
the whole world would be converted within 
thirty-four years !! 

Now all that is nothing but imagination 
and fancy. God's Word tells us plainly that 
our work among Jews and Heathen m the 
present dispensation is to be witnesses ; we 
are promised the fulness of tho Gentiles, but 
not tlie Tuitions of the Oentiks. We have a 
right to expect out of Iskael a remnani 
a>ccordlng to tlie election of grorce, and out of 
the Gentiles what Paul calls the fulness. 
The fulness is the filling up of the number 
occasioned by the falling out of Israel, The 
number of God's children is known to Him, 
and what is lacking by the resistance of 
the Jews to Christ, is made up by the in- 
gathering of a certain number of Gentiles. 
How great that number is, and of how many 
this fulness consist, no one can tell ; and for 
ought we know, this fulness may be gathered 
in to-day or in years. Then, when the ful- 
ness is brought into the fold, aXi IsraA shall 
be saved; and as their diminution was the 
richness of the Gentiles, their receiving 
shall be nothing less than life from the 
dead. Ere aU Israel can be saved, the 
fulness of the Gentiles must be gathered. 
All Israel must bo saved before tlw nations 
can be brought to the fold of Christ. 

What, then,^s the position of the Church 
in the present economy P She preaches the 
gospel to Jew and Heathen as a witness ; 
she gets from Isra>el the remnant according 
to the election of grace, and from the 
Heathen the fulness. When that is accom- 
plifihed, what then P All Israel will be saved, 
and the saved Israel is to be the missionary 
of the King of the Jews to the nations of 
the earth. Any attentive reader of Isa. xlix. 
1 — 13, and Bom. xi., can easily find there 
recorded the truths now stated; and the 
result thereof will be that we do our work 
energetically, because Gcd has commanded 
it; that we do not flatter ourselves with 
expectations we are not entitled to ; that we 
are thankful for being permitted to testify, 

' ' »ofc- 



!,its, and no more, and are look 
ing forward prayerfully and believingly for 
the ingathering of the whole harvest. 

We have had Passover, Pentecost, but 
the Feast of the Tabernacles is still to come, 
and that will come when the feet of the 
glorified Saviour shall stand on the Mount 
of Olives (Zech. xiv. 1 ct seq.) 



TlMSmttMrcd Nation,! 
June 1, lam. J 



THE GREAT TBIBULATION. 



143 



THE GREAT TRIBULATION. 

BY B. STENT, ESQ. 



It is frith much pleasnro I read your very 
interesting serial (writes Mr. Stent to the 
Editor). !ror many centuries a habit has 
prevailed of robbing Israel of their own 
promises by spiritualizing and applying 
them to our dispensation in such a way 
as leaves no room for their literal accom- 
plishment in relation to that people to whom 
they belong. Of Israel it is said in E.om. 
ix. 4, "To whom pertaineth the adoption 
(^ vlnBwioj or sonship), and the glory, and 
the covenants, and the giving of the law, 
and the service of Grod, a/nd the promiseeJ* 
It is quite a relief to turn from this whole- 
sale system of plunder to the pages of " Tm 
Scattered Nation," where it is sought to 
claim for Israel what really belongs to them 
by promise. 

It is a significant fact, as showing, I 
think, among other things, the approaching 
rise of that people into prominence in the 
earth, that public attention is occupied with 
the prospects of the seed of Abraham — that 
nation which has been so often, and is now 
scattered and peeled, whose land the rivers 
have spoiled (Isa. xviii. 2, 7). There is 
much in the aims of " The Scatte red Nation * ' 
to commend itself to the Church of God ; 
** for through Israel's fi^ salvation is come 
unto the Gentiles" (Rom. xi. 11); and we are 
told, " Rejoice ye Gentiles wWi his people 
(Israel) " (Rom. xv. 10). This latter seems 
to be a quotation from Deut. xxxii. 43, and 
is not yet accomplished, save in spirit, as 
here applied. That it is not yet fumlled is 
evident from the grounds on which the 
Gentiles are called upon to rejoice — ^viz., for 
He will avenge the blood of his servants, 
render vengeance to his adversaries, and be 
merciful to his land and to his people. It is 
obvious that Israel does not yet rejoice on 
these grounds, and therefore the Gentiles 
(o»^3 goyiyn, nations) cannot rejoice with 
them. It is interesting, as showing how the 
promises to Israel have, through ignorance 
of the purposes of God, been explained 
away, to notice that the announcement of 
the oirth of Jesus presents the blessings of 
his presence in their Jewish aspect, " And 
the Lord God shall give unto Him the 
throne of his &ther David, and Ho shall 
reign over the house of Jacob for ever " 
(compare Luke i. 33 with Micah iv. 7 ; Psa. 
cxxxii. 11). This I believe is the blessing 
that yet awaits that people who are now 
enemies of the gospel for our sakes, but as 
touching the election, beloved for the fathers* 
sakes (Rom. xi. 28). When Israel's Messiah 
comes to reign over the house of Jacob, He 
will not come alone : He will come attended 
with his body, the Church — that mystic Eve 



— ^which is the filling out or complement of 
Himself in resurrection; that body which 
is now being gathered out of all nations 
diiHna the period of his r^ection by Israel, 
But the time is coming when Israel will say 
of Him, " Lo this is our God, we have waited 
for Him " (Isa. xxv. 9) ; when they shall be- 
hold in Him whom the nation abhorreth 
(Isa. xli^. 7) their own true sin-otfering 
(Isa. liiL), ** and so all Israel shall be saved: 
as it is written. There shall come out of Sion 
the Deliverer ( pv6titvos), and shall turn away 
ungodliness from Jacob " (Rom. xi. 26) ♦ 

But while it is a happvtask to point that 
people, upon whom ♦oi> vo Lo Ammi, has for 
so many generations been written, to the 
time when they shall be called ti-?w ♦ii sons 
of the Hving (jod (Hos. i. 10), it is deeply 
important, and the responsibility of it rests 
in a pecuKar manner upon you, to show them 
from their own Scriptures what they as a 
nation have yet to pass through before they 
reach that blessing. The common notion 
both among Jews and Christians seems to 
be that the divine judgments on the Jewish 
nation have been iJl but exliausted, and that 
we are all advancing, though through trial, 
into the Millennium. But comparatively few 
appeal* to receive the testimony of Scripture 
as to " The Great Tribulation " that must 
first come. If the Word of God were 
searched, and its testimony submitted to, I 
judge it would be found thai the Jews in 
common with all who " profess to know God 
but in works deny Him" (Tit. i. 16), will 
first be visited with a terrible scourge, tho 
like of which has never been, or shall again 
be known. I refer to Antichrist. "That 
wicked," 6 &pofjios, or the lawless one, is yet 
to be revealed, even Him whose coming is 
after the working of Satan, with all power 
and signs, and lying wonders, and with all 
deceivableness of unrighteousness in them 
that perish, because they received not tho 
love of the truth that they might be saved. 
And for this cause Ood shall send thein 
strong dehmion that tliey slwuld believe a lie 
(2 Thess. iL 11). It is tho absence of this 
featuret in tho otherwise Scriptural testi- 
mony given in "The Scatteeed Nation," 
that has led me to draw your attention to 
it. The spirit of delusion and falsehood is 
spreading among "those that name the name 
of Christ"' (2 Tim. ii. 1^). The speculations 
of the wise in this world are accepted as de- 

* This appears like a quotation, with some raria- 
tion, from Isa. lix. 20, where the ^mVI deliverer is 
seen coming to Si(m (p*^)) and io those that turn* 
etc. (ott^). 
1 t Not yet spoken of but folly believed.— Ed. 



144 



THE ANNIVERSARIES. 



TTho Scattered Nation^ 
L June 1, 1866. 



monstrated trutb, even though they flatly 
contradict the Word of God. Science is 
exalted above God, and learning above 
revealed truth. Even God Himselfis made 
subject to his own laws impressed on matter, 
so that it is useless to pray to Him to avert 
or remove a. plague, seeing that plagues 
spring from natural causes, and can only 
be removed by natural means. This is the 
avowed language of men of science, " who 
profess and call themselves Christians." So 
that our two thousand years of civilization 
and Christian light only lead us back by 
another road to heathenism. 

Let us beware how we help on the delu- 
sions of the age by holding forth a partial 
and onesided tesUnwny. In result such testi- 
mony is as fatal as error. Had the Word 
of God been searched and studied in the 
love of the truth, instead of talked about 
and boasted of on platforms, it would long 
ago have been discovered that this age 
(aJwv) will close in apostasy. How cruel the 
mockery to talk of a steady advance into 
the ' Millennium in the presence of rifle 
corps, enormous armies, and iron-dads. No, , 
let the Jews be pointed with all earnestness 
and aflectiou to the Lamb of God whose 
"precious blood" (1 Peter i# 19) alone can 
shelter them from the wrath to come, but 
let them also be shown what will overtake 
them when first gathered back into their 
own land in impenitence and rejection of 
Jesus. Gentile Christians have boasted 
against the Jewish root, forgetting that it 
is not they who bear the root but the root 
them ; and in utter ignorance of the apostasy 
of this dispensation from the divine good- 
ness in which it was at first set up, and 
equally ignorant "of the purposes of God 
concerning Israel and the house of Jacob, 
will not allow that this dispensation, like the 
fonner, is to be cut off (Rom. xi.), but ima- 
gine it to be a development of Judaism, and 
that it will advance inpurity until it merges 
into the Millennium. The testimony of Scrip- 
ture is clear and abundant, if it be allowed 



to speak for itself, that there will be and can 
be no Millennium for the Jews or the GentOes 
until Israel is converted and forgiven, and 
Jesus, their Messiah, the Church's Life and 
Head, reigns over them in Mount Sion, and 
that, too, with his glorified body, the Church. 
It is a happy prospect that in Him shall all 
the seed of I srael be justified, and shall glory 
(Isa. xlv. 25), and that they shall yet say of 
" the man of sorrows," 'Opny mrr " Jehovah, 
our righteousness" (Jer.xxiii. 6). But before 
that day comes, before Jesus arises as the 
Sun of Righteousness upon Israel with heal- 
ing in his wings, they will come under the 
bruising hoof of Antichrist, and under the 
seven-fold power of Satanic delusion, for 
their last state is to be worse than t\iQ fi/rst 
Read Matt. xii. 43—45, "Wrath is come 
upon them to (rixos) the end" (1 Thesa. 
ii. 16). The tempest-tossed vessel of Je- 
hovah's love (Isa. liv. 11) has not yet 
reached its haven of "rest in the LopcL" 
Though not far from land, the fierce storms 
of Antichrist must yet sweep over it ere 
it anchors safe at rest in that land on 
which Jehovah's eyes are fixed from the be- 
ginning of the year even unto the end of the 
year (Deut. xi. 12). Wondrous blessing is 
mdeed in store for that people (Isa. Ix., Ixi., 
Ixii.), but their path to it as a people as well 
as that of the nations around them, lies 
through " The Great Tribulation," the time of 
Jacob s trouble, out of which he shall be deli- 
vered to weep no more, when He that scat- 
tered Israel shall gather him, and David, 
their king, shall reign over them in Mount 
Sion ( Jer. xxx. 7 ; Isa. xxiv. 23). I remark, 
in closing, that Jesus testifies there is an 
hour of temptation coming upon all the 
world to try them that dwell upon the earth. 
But there will be some (those who have the 
characteristics of the Church in Philadel- 
phia) who will be kept out (^#c) of it. The 
leading feature in that Church W£is the keep- 
ing of the Word of Christ's patience (Rev. iii.) 
80, Hakleyford Road, Kenninqtoit, 
15«/t 3fay, 1866. 



THE ANNIVERSARIES.— I. 



The first of the May-meetings, in which " The 
ScATTEEED Nation" is Specially interested, was 
that of 

THE LONDON SOCIETY FOE PKOMOTINQ CHEISTlANnT 
AMONGST THE JEWS, 

whose fifty-eighth anniversary took place at 
Exeter Hall on May 4, nnder tho presidency of 
the Earl of Shafbesbnry. The large room was 
crowded, and many clergymen were present. 

This Society was formed in 1s6q by a few 
friends of Israel, with the view "of making 
known to the Jew that blessed gospel which the 
J^ first made known to ns." The Society com- 
bines the various operations of a Bible Society, 



Missionary Society, Tract Society, and School 
Society, and it employs 36 ordained missionaries, 
19 nnordained missionary agents, 80 colporteurs, 
Scripture readers, schoolmasters and mistresses, 
etc., making together 185, nearly half of whom 
are believing Israelites. The work done includes 
tho translation of the New Testament into 
Hebrew, and the circulation of both Old and 
New widely among the Jews, also the circula- 
tion of tracts in various languages. When the 
Society was formed there were not 60 Christian 
Jews known in the United Kingdom. Since that 
time more than a hundred Jews have been 
ordained as clergymen of the Church of England. 
Up to the end of 1865, 608 Jewish adults and 679 



The PcRttered Notion/ 
Juotfi, IBUd. 



THE ANNIVEllSABIES. 



Uo 



children have been baptized in London. In the 
8ociety*B schools at home and abroad more than 
1000 children are annnally under instruction. 

The report, which was read by the Bev. C. 
J. Goodhart, opened with thanksgiving to God 
for the release of the captives in Abyssinia from 
their long imprisonment, and at a later period of 
the meeting farther expression was given to the 
sense of gratitude to the Most High for thus 
graciously answering the prayers of his people. 

The report will be published, we believe, in 
August. It contains many interesting details of 
the progress of the work in various parts of the 
world. We have space only for a few figures : — 

As regards funds, the committee report with 
thankfulness that the country associations have 
increased their subscriptions during the past 
year by about £1,350 ; the legacies, however, 
have been much less than usual, and thus the 
total income of the year has increased only 
between £300 and £400. The gross receipts 
were £34,992 Is. 6d., and the payments 
£38,858 lis. 9d., but the latter include a fifth 
quarters' payments to missionaries abroad. The 
committee find themselves frequently under the 
necessity of borrowing money, and urge upon 
their country friends to collect all monies as early 
in the year as possible, and to send them to 
London as soon as received, even when of com- 
paratively small amount. K this were gene- 
rally done, a considerable saving might be 
effected under the head of interest. 

The circulation of the Scriptures, etc., during 
the past year has been 4,748 Bibles, 3,189 Testa- 
ments, 13,828 portions of the Word of God, 
49,833 missionary tracts and books, and 52,558 
home tracts and appeals. 

At the Episcopal Jews' Chapel, Palestine 
Place, in 1865, 28 adults and 11 Jewish children 
were baptized, making the number of baptisms 
since the commencement — adults, 508; chil- 
dren, 579 ; total, 1087. 

The Rev. Dr. Ewald, Principal of the Society's 
Home Missions, states that. 28 adults and 7 chil- 
dren have been baptized in connection with the 
Mission. Tracts in various languages have been 
put in circulation, and the agents have visited 
the Jews in many of the largo towns throughout 
the kingdom. 

The Foreign Missions of the Society cover a 
wide space, and the report showed that the 
unobtrusive but persevering labours of the mis- 
sionaries are not without fruit. The prejudices 
of the Jews against Christianity are less strong 
than formerly, and a spirit of inquiry, which is 
full of hope for the future, manifests itself 
among them. 

We quote the concluding words of the 
Report : — 

" In these anxious times is the question out 
of place, * How long may we bo able to carry on 
this work ?* We have entered upon a year 
marked long ago in the anticipations of those 
who have loved or studied the prophetic Word. 
Exact calculation, indeed, cannot be encouraged, 
when our ignorance and liability to mistake are 
taken into account. But still we cannot be 
wrong in keeping our eyes wakeful and our 
hearts watching. Still more should we deter- 
mine to lose no opportunity, and to make the 
very most of remaining time. The Jews in 



Russia and other parts of the world are calling 
for information, and are ready to receive instruc- 
tion. If, with a willing heart and a praying 
spirit, you will increase our supplies, wo shall bo 
at no loss for fresh spheres of labour. For two 
years there has been a steady increase of con- 
tributions ; resolve, by the help of God, to main- 
tain it. Above all, support your committee and 
your missionaries in their arduous, but, as they 
trust they can say in the sight of God, earnest 
and honest labour of love, with your increasing 
intercessions and prayers ; so will you be in tho 
best attitude for the coming of the Lord, when 
Ho shall have mercy upon Zion and again choose 
Jerusalem, and then shall you rejoice with his 
chosen and be glad with his inheritance." 

The Chairman then addressed the meeting, 
repeating the call to thanksgiving for the release 
of the Abyssinian captives, congratulating Mrs. 
Stem on the happiness which, under God's 
blessing, she was about to experience, and this 
Society on the prospect of again having the ser- 
vices of these energetic and devoted men. He 
hoped nothing would be said that day in refer- 
ence to the Emperor of Abyssinia. A word 
incautiously spoken was, he believed, the cause 
of all the trouble which bofel the missionaries. 
Strange as it might appear— and it was a singu- 
lar proof of the spread of civilization — he 
believed tho remote Emperor of Abyssinia had 
as many agents in this country to give him infor- 
mation as the Emperor of Austria or the Empe- 
ror of Russia. He congratulated the Society on 
its position. How does it stand (he said) in the 
midst of g^wing heresy, as the depositary and 
the preacher of simple, unmixed, evangelical 
truth ! Thank Grod, no ritualist could find an 
easy berth in this Society, for it shows continu- 
ally that ritualism is a poor, mean, contemptible 
thing, which, when fully developed, could do 
nothing to restore the life of the Jewish Church. 
Nor would a Neologian be more at case amongst 
us, for we take our stand upon the plenary 
inspiration of Scripture — upon fulfilled and 
unfulfilled prophecy. 'l"he Neologiana, amazed 
and dumbfounded by the evidences of fulfilled 
prophecy, are driven to the subterfuge of assert- 
ing that the prophecies were written after the 
event. But we stand also on unfulfilled pro- 
phecies — God grant that they may speedily be 
fulfilled. In May, 1866, wo take our stand 
there ; and if in May, 1868, they shall have been 
fulfilled, will any Neologian then venture to say 
that they were uttered after the event ? 

Bishop Smith, of China, moved the first 
resolution, which acknowledged thankfully an 
increase in the income of the Society, but set 
forth the need of further efforts, so that fresh 
openings presenting themselves, especially in 
Russia, might be speedily entered. After dwell- 
ing upon the claims of the Jews upon Gentile 
believers, and referring to the important part 
which the Jewish nation are evidently destined 
to play hereafter in the spread of the gospel, 
the Bishop proceeded to give an account of an 
isolated Jewish colony in the interior of China. 
The colony had existed for a thousand years 
unknown to Europeans, until it was visited 
about a century ago by Jesuit missionaries, who 
published an account of it. In 1849 a great 
desire was expressed by this Society to obtain 



146 



THE AKtsflVEESARIES, 



rtfae Scftttend I?«t3<m, 
[ June 1, 1860. 



some information respecting this long-forgotten 
and isolated colony. Fnnds were furnished for 
the porpose by Miss Cooke, of Cheltenham, and a 
series of qnestions were drawn np by the late 
Eev. Dr. M'Canl. On his (Bishop Smith's) return 
to China, he circulated copies of these questions 
among the Protestant missionaries, hoping to 
obtain some ixfformation respecting this remote 
Jewish synagogue, which was said to exist at 
£ai-fung.foo. But no information could be 
obtained beyond the facts with which they were 
already acquainted, contained in a narrative 
published by Mr. Finn, British Consul at Jeru- 
salem. In 1850, with the aid of Dr. Medhurst, 
of Shanghai, he sent two native Christians to 
Elai-fung-foo, a distance of about 1000 miles 
north-west from Shanghai. After an arduous 
and dangerous journey of twenty-five days, they 
arrived at the city, and directed their steps to 
the eastern gate. There, in the midst of a 
heathen population, and close to a temple 
dedicated to the god of fire, were a few hundred 
Jewish families, sunk into the Ipwest depths of 
destitution, their religion scarcely more than a 
name, and yet sufficient to distinguish them 
from the heathen races around them. So de- 
graded was their condition, that not one among 
them could read the Hebrew writings. A weU- 
meaning consul had, some years before, sent 
them a letter asking for Hebrew MSS., and that 
letter nearly led to their destruction, for they 
wore accused of holding traitorous intercourse 
with foreigners ; hence, they were cautious about 
receivinglettersfromstrangers. Although in igno- 
rance of those facts, the precaution had happily 
been taken to send a letter written in Hebrew, 
and althoueh these poor Jews could not under- 
stand the writing, they knew it was in the same 
character as that of their sacred books, and at 
once it commanded their confidence as a friendly 
communication. The messengers retu rncd, bring- 
ing ^th them copies of several Chinese inscrip- 
tions on the walls of the synagogue, and some 
Hebrew MSS. As these Jews were understood to 
have other books in their possession, especially 
some copies of tho law, which wei*e preserved in 
a kind of ark, a second expedition was des- 
patched, and this time the messengers brought 
back six Hebrew rolls, which they had bought 
for a sum equivalent to £140. On examination, 
these proved to be six complete copies of tho 
Pentateuch. Five copies were sent to Londoa 
to be deposited in the Libraries of the Uni- 
versities and the British Museum, and one copy 
was retained in China. No direct result of a 
missionary character had attended this mission 
of inquiry, but the Society had the satisfaction 
of knowing that by the Bum paid for these 
MSS. it had contributed to preserve this rem- 
nant of the Jewish race from the extinction 
which threatened them, and that at the same 
time it had secured, in these ancient books, one 
addititmal argument in favour of the authenticity 
of the O d Testament Scriptures. The Bishop 
concluded his address by an interesting account 
of his visit to Jerusalem in 1H60, and bore 
testimony to the devoted labours of tho mis- 
sionaries stationed there He visited the Jewii^h 
Inquirers' Home, tho Jewesses' Institution, the 
Boys' School, and, above all, the Jewish congre- 
gation worshipping in Christ Church, built at the 



expense of the Society, upon Mount Zion* 
Jerusalem was indeed *' trodden down of the 
Gentiles." The Moslem bore rule, and the Jews 
were reduced to the utmost misery; life and 
property were very insecure. It was * a sad 
thought that those Christian communities from 
which the Jews and Arabs chiefly derived their 
notions of Christian doctrine and worship showed 
too plainly the inroads of a lifeless formalism. 
The rising tumult of the rival monkish proces- 
sions, the songs, the incense, the Mohammedan 
guard employed to keep the peace between 
opposing sects— such sights and sounds offend 
the eye and grate upon the ear of Eng^h 
Protestants; but in that Mission Church on 
Moimt Zion might be seen the simple forms of 
worship of tho Anglican Church, and tho pm^ 
gospel might bo heard faithfully proclaimed. 
The Bishop concluded by paying a warm tribnte 
to tho character and services of Bishop Qobat, 
whose acquaintance he made at Jerusalem, and 
who accompanied him during a portion of his 
journey ings in the Holy Land. 

Colonel Bowlandson, who seconded the reso- 
lution, dwelt upon the personal responsibility of 
Christians in respect to the Jews, and Uie 
operations of this Society He considered that 
the existence of the Society had much more to 
do with the national prosperity than was gene- 
rally supposed, for he believed that those who 
sought to do good to the Jew received a blessing 
from (Jod even in thi^ life. Froderick— he would 
not call him the Great, for no one deserved to bo 
called great who lifted his puny intellect against 
the revealed will of God — leamt some wisdowi 
in his old age, and ho said on one occasion, ** I 
have discovered that a man never touches a Jew 
without smarting for it." He believed that 
Frederick was right, and that the converse was 
equally true. As rr'ganled the results of tho 
Society's operations, they were not to expect 
great things until the veil should be removed 
from the heart of the Jewish people \ but if tho 
Society could point to one hundred Jews who 
had bfcomo clergymen of the Church* of Eng- 
land, that surely was an important result. 
And some of these were men whose services 
to the cause of truth wero likely to be most 
valuable. Recently, in a town in Sussex, a 
Unitarian circalated bills denying tho divinity 
of our Lord, and his professed followers re- 
mained silent; but presently a champion rose 
up in defence of the truth, and he was a oon- 
verted Jew. Colonel Bowlandson, in conclusion, 
spoke of tho importance of caution as to what 
books wo read in days when error assumes so 
many insidious forms, and he also referred to 
the power of prayer as evinced in the preserva- 
tion and ultimato release of the Abyssinian 
prisoners. . * 

Tho Rev. T. R. Birks moved the second 
resolutiou : " That in the present state of the 
nations of the world, by no means remote from 
that predicted by our Lord as one of distress and 
perplexity, and under the circumstances of a 
wiUe-spreiul impression that some great crisis is 
approaching, it becomes us to bo more than ever 
diliifont in pursuing the great object of oar 
Society, more especially considering the encou- 
ra'zinir aspoct of the work in our Missions gene- 
rally." Ml*. Birks addressed the meeting at 



The Scsttered ITaiioa,! 
Jane 1, 186». J 



INTELLIGENCE, 



147 



length, mstitntinp^ a contrast between the Be- 
form Bill now before Parliament, and the work 
in which the Societj is engaged. Ho was fol- 
lowed by 

The- Earl of Cavan, who, in seconding the 
resolnlion, referred to the aspect of the times in 
which we live. He quoted the prediction of onr 
lord in Lake xxi., and recommended the readin;^ 
of that chapter in connection with Romans xi., 
dwelling earnestly upon the responaibiiitj at- 
taching to all beliveraln Christ to live and work 
for Him. 

The Her. E. H. Bickersteth proposed the 
third resolation, which contained an expression 
of dcTont thaukfalness to (3od for the answer to 
many prayers in the release of the captires in 
Abyssinia, and prayer for their safe return to 
England, and also for the Lord's mercy and 
blessing upon the captives they leave bohind 
them. The resolution concluded by appointing 
the officers for the ensuing year. That was a 
great and searching command of the apostie, 
" Remember them that *are in bonds as bound 
with them ;" and yet ho thought that in the case 
of our brethren in Abyssinia our sympathies had 
in some measure come up to this standard. He 
could not doubt that God, who had thus deli- 
vered them in answer to the earnest prayers of 
his people, would bring them back to our shores 
in peace and safety, and although the aspect of 
affairs in Abyssinia appeared for the moment dis- 
oomnging, he trasted that the sufferings of the 
missionaries wonld turn out for the furtherance 
of the gospel. It was remarkable how often in 
the history of the Church the imprisonment of 
God's ambassadors had preceded the enlarge- 
tsxent of the message they bore. So it was in 
the case of Joseph and Samson, and Peter and 
PauL Doubtless the imprisonment of John 
Bunyan had something to do with the success of 
his immortal dream. When lately he (Mr. 
Bickersteth) visited Florence, there were few 
spots which interested him more than the prison 
where the Madiai wore confined, and he heard 
that Francesco Madiai had given a copy of the 
Scriptures to a friend at Elba, and that in con- 
sequence a great work had commenced in that 
island, and between 200 and 300 persons had 
been brought to the knowledge of the truth. 
He hod the privilege of meeting GUoranni 



Giannini, that humble-minded, but noble-hearted 
evangelist of Barletta, who for twelve y^urs had 
been a faiUiful loader in the cause of Christ, and 
afterwards he was an auditor of an animated 
debate in the Chamber of Deputies at Florence, 
on the subject of religious liberty, and the watch- 
word of that debate was, "Look at Bai*letta!" 
" If you would see what . priestly domination 
would effect, look at Barletta !" " If you would 
see how they would crush out liberty of con- 
science, look at Barletta!" So our enemies 
would find that they really could not do anything 
against the truth. Ho coald not doubt that God 
would in his own good time open the way for 
the gospel to be preached in Abyssinia, for the 
Lord Jesus Christ was not to be king of the 
world, Abyssinia excepted ; the glory of the Lord 
should cover the earth as the waters cover the 
sea. 

The Rev. W. Fremantle, in seconding the 
resolution, referred to a part of it which con- 
veyed the thanks of the Society " to those indi- 
viduals of the clergy" who had supported its 
claims. He was* sorry that it had been found 
necessary to insert that word " individuals." Ho 
wished they could have said the clergy at large 
— and that there was not a pulpit nor a parish 
in which there was not a Jewish sermon and a 
Jewish association. The laity and the ladies 
were sometimes in advance of the clergy in this 
matter, and wished to have a Society for this 
object when the clergy held back. This might 
arise in some measure from differences of opinion 
which unhappily prevailed, but the Society was 
not to be discouraged by such obstacles, nor to 
swerve from its own path. Ritualism had never 
preserved spirituality in the Jewish church, and 
it would never preserve spirituality in the Church 
of England. Mr. Fremantle concladed by urging 
upon his hearers the importance of personal 
religion, more earnest study of the Scriptures, 
and closer communion with God. 

The resolutions were all unanimously adopted. 

After a few remarks from the Chairman, the 
proceedings terminated. 

[The pressure on our space obliges us to 
defer till next month our account ,of the meet- 
ings of the British Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel among the Jews, and of the Ope- 
rative Jewish Converts' Institution.} 



INTELLIGENCE. 



The Abductton op the Boys Mortara and 
CoBEN has not yet been forgotten in France. 
The " Archives Israelites" states on the autho- 
rity of the Spanish ambassador, that among the 
grievances wliich the French Minister for Foreign 
Affairs has urged against the Holy *See, and 
which would runder it impossible for France to 
support the present rigime is the complaint that 
the Roman Government should persist in con- 
verting Jews by force, and kidnapping Jewish 
diildren. 

A CURIOUS VACT in relation to the Franchise 
Bill is pointed out by a correspondent of the 
*• Jewish Chronicle." The division on the second 
reading took place on a Friday night, or rather 
Saturday morning. " Had the six Hebrew mem- 



bers of the House of Commons absented them- 
selves, from religious scmples consequent upon 
infringing the Sabbath, the Government would 
have been in a minoriiy. Therefore patriotism 
was rendered paramount to every other feeling, 
and forms ono of the peculiar results arising 
from Jewish emancipation." However gratifying 
may be, in some respects, this new proof of the 
well-known patriotism of the Jews, we catmot 
but deeply regret to see it take a form in which 
the service of God is made subordinate to that 
of man. 

Sir Moses Montefiore has returned to 
London from his benevolent mission to the Holy 
Land. The balance of the Relief Fund raised 
in England and America is to be applied to the 



148 



JNTELLIQENCE. 



rXbe 8eatt<n'cd N»tioo, 
L June 1, 1866. 



erection of dwellings for the poor ontside the 
walls of Jerusalem. Sir Moses laid the first 
stone of these dwellings before his departure. 

New Yobk.— The " Progress" of New York 
enumerates twenty-seven Jewish congregations 
in New York, each of which has its separate 
Hynagogue. 

PERSECUTIOX ON THE CONTINENT. 

The spirit of intolerance is still rife in many 
parts of Europe, and God's ancient people con- 
tinue to be subjected to shameful persecutions. 

At Volo, in Turkey, an attempt, which re- 
minds us of the middle ages, haa been made to 
extort money from the Jews. They had nearly 
completed a new synagogue, when the (Governor 
of the place informed the elders that the building 
could not be proceeded with, as it was illegal, 
being close to the barracks. The Jews, astonished, 
asked why duo notice of the illegality of their 
undertaking was not given them before any ex- 
pense had been incurred, but no attention has 
yet been paid to the remonstrance, because, 
hints the " Jewish Chronicle," it was not accom- 
panied by a douceur. 

Although the excesses committed in Bohemia 
have been partially checked by the authorities, 
so far as outward violence is concerned, the 
popular hatred against the Jews is fomented 
by certain Austrian journals. In particular tho 
" Ecclesiastical Gazette " of Vienna, a Boman 
Catholic journal, and an old enemy of the Jews, 
is now publishing a " History of tho , Ghetto," 
related in its own way, in order to serve as a 
counterpart to the outrages in Bohemia. This 
mode of persecution, if less brutal than that of 
the misguided populace, is not less odious, and 
it shelters itself behind the imperfections of the 
Austrian law, which, by a recent decision of the 
Council of State, is declared to possess no means 
of protecting particular classes of citizens from 
attacks of this kiud. We learn also fix)m the 
" Archives Israelites " (to which we are indebted 
for the foregoing facts), that an evangelical 
pastor of the little town of Giins, named Schnel- 
ler, has earned for himself an unenviable noto- 
riety by attacking the Jews in one of his sermons. 

It was recently announced from Vienna, that 
the Chamber of Deputies in the Principalities 
had voted the admission of the Jews into the 
Municipal Guard. It seemed to be the first step 
to the enjoyment of that civil and religious 
liberty which had been so long withheld from 
them. Unhappily, the ** Patrie," of Paris, informs 
us that the news was false. The Chamber has, 
on the contrary, distinctly excluded the Jews 
from the Municipal Guard, on the ground that 
by the Diplomatic Convention of 1868, they are 
denied political rights. The "Patrie" shows 
that in other countries the service of the National 
Guard is considered as a charge imposed on all 
the inhabitants, including foreigners, whether 
possessing political rights or not, and that in 
fact the Jews have not been permitted to enjoy 
the most elementary of those purely civil rights 
which the Convention of 1858 was intended to 
secure to them. Happily this intolerant Cham- 
ber has been dissolved, and one of more liberal 
spirit elected, which, it is said, is likely to pro- 
pose the complete emancipation of the Jews. 
The temple at Bucharest is expected to be 



opened during the present month of June, and a 
Babbi of position and ability will be appointed, 
one who it is hoped may be able to lead and 
control his neglected co-religionists, ostabliali 
schools, and otherwise promote their moral and 
social advancement. The latest accounts, how- 
ever, state that a petition was being got up at 
Bucharest to the Government, praying that tho 
new synagogue might be turned into a church, 
and persons had been heard to declare loudly 
that if the Government did .not consent, tho 
synagogue would be razed to t^e ground. When 
such sentiments are Mttered, observes the " Ar- 
chives Isra^ites," it is not surprising that 
calumnious reports should be circulated respect- 
ing the Jews. They are accused of taking ad- 
vantage of the recent dearth to speculate in 
com, of jobbing in tho national loan, etc. Tho 
" Archives " adds that the principal Jews of 
Moldavia recently agreed to contribute to the 
extent of their means to the new national loan. 

Advices from Constantinople speak of de- 
plorable outrages committed by the Greeks 
against the Jews at Broussa, during the Easter 
festival. The consuls of England and France 
interfered to check tho violence of these fanatics, 
who 80 dishonour the name of Christian, and 
instigated the Pacha to arrest a considerable 
number of them. 

It is needless, however, to go so far as Turkey 
in search of scenes of violence. During the 
night of April 12, at Prosstnitz in Morayia. 
many private dwellings of Jews were attacked, 
and the windows broken. Even the Jewish 
hospital did not escape. 

The Diet of Gallicia adopted on March 20 
tho new criminal law, with restrictions directed 
against the Jews. 

The nobility of Courland recently decided, in 
spite of the generous remonstrances of the local 
press, not to accord to any but Christians the 
right of acquiring real property. The same 
resolution has been adopted by the council of 
the province of Livonia, but only by the narrow 
m^'ority of 115 against 90. It is to be regretted 
that these resolutions have been sanctioned by 
the Emperor of Bussia. 

But even intolerance may have its ludicrous 
side, and the following anecdote may relieve this 
long narrative of evil tidings. The principal 
medical man of Sommerein in Austria, is a Jew 
named Dr. Diamant. His fellow-citizens, true 
to the principles of their forefathers, cannot 
endure to have amongst them even the man t(» 
whom they confide their health and their lives, 
and their doctor is therefore compelled to live 
at a distance of two leagues from tho town. 
Every morning the carriage of the burgomaster 
goes to fetch Dr. Diamant, who passes tho whole 
day at Sommerein, but in the evening, no matter 
what the hour may be, he must depart. Every 
effort made by the Doctor to remove this incon- 
venience, from which his patients are the chief 
sufferers, has hitherto proved unavailing, and he 
has declared that he will resign if tho inha- 
bitants persist in enforcing their municipal 
privileges. " Have we not here," exclaims the 
"Archives Israelites," "a trait as thoroughly 
comic as it is sad P Here is a man with whom 
you trust your life, but that this man should 
live beside you — ^horror and blasphemy !" 



Joly S, 1808. J 



A BETB08PECT, 



U9 



A RETROSPECT. 



BT THB EDITOR. 



A CHILD six months old has not much to 
say, as it cannot have experienced anything 
worth relating. So it was in former years, 
bat in onr days of steam and electric power, 
even young chiMren are very wise, and fency 
they have a right to judge of everything. 
Whether this be true or not, it is certain 
that this periodical, published since January, 
has already a little history of its own, and 
the Editor thinks it right to tell the readers 
a few things, which he hopes will interest 
and prove acceptable to them. 

By far the greater number of periodicals 
are published in connection with a particular 
denomination, or society established for a 
special object All that belong to that de- 
nomination, all the members of that society, 
naturally feel interested in weekly papers or 
monthlies devoted to its prosperity, take 
them themselves, and do all in their power 
to promote their circulation. It is not so 
with this magazine. It is neither the organ 
of a denomination nor of a society, and is 
devoted to plead the cause of the Jew, very 
little cared for even by those of whom better 
things might be expected. Our prospects 
were not bright, and it seemed to be very 
questionable whether we should ever succeed 
in getting a hearing, or enlist so much sym- 
pathy as to have a reasonable hope of per- 
manency. 

Qod has given us favour in the eyes of 
some — comparatively speaking, of many ; 
and we thank those friends for the confidence 
they have placed in us, for the help they 
have given, for the kind words many have 
addressed to us. What we require most is 
to be made hnovm among the friends of 
Israel. It is Very diflScult in days of in- 
cessant writing, when every day new pub- 
lications are announced, and new periodicals 
are started, to get access even to those who, 
if they but knew of it, would be quite willing 
to receive you kindly. We, therefore, ask 
our friends to use their energies as our col- 
porteurs, and we firmly believe that if this 
plan were acted upon, that we should* get 
a hearing in many quarters from which 
prejudice or ignorance has hitherto ex- 
cluded us. 

VOL. I.— xo. vn. 



" The Scattered Nation" is destined to 
serve no denomination, and no party, and 
no society ; it is limited to no country, and re- 
lates, as far as we are at present able to do 
it, what is done everywhere by the Jews for 
their own improvement, and by the Chris- 
tians to lead them to the Messiah. We 
frankly admit that our Intelligence has not 
been so full and varied as we desired to make 
it ; but then the field is very extensive, and 
our space is very limited, and it is really 
true, all beginnings are difficult. It is a first 
experiment of the kind. We have to break 
new ground ; this is our right to exist, that 
we occupy ground not taken up by other 
periodicals ; but this also creates a difficulty, 
for we cannot follow the example set by pre- 
decessors. Gradually our Intelligence im- 
proves, the number of our correspondents 
increases, and we doubt not but the next six 
numbers will prove that we have not pro- . 
mised too much. 

The value of this periodical is not a little 
enhanced by its being permitted to state all 
that concerns the existence, growth, and 
operations of the Hebrew-Christian Alliance. 
The Alliance has but very recently been 
called into existence, and no doubt some 
time will elapse before it is fully established 
and can commence operations ; still it exists, 
and its very existence is one of the signs of 
the times. It may be very little taken notice 
of by those who despise the day of small 
things, but it is important in the eyes of all 
who discern spiritujJ things spiritually. Since 
the days of the apostles so many converted 
Jews have not been assembled together 
to consider how they can render testi- 
mony to their common faith before their 
brethren who reject Christ, and show the 
G^entile-Christian Church that there is still 
a remnant according to the election of grace. 
The position of the converted Jew, cast off 
by his former brethren, and looked at with 
distrust and indifference by the great ma- 
jority of those who bear the name of Chris- 
tian — ^the position, I say, of the Christian 
Jew is a very trying one. Many have to 
struggle very hard for their daily mainten- 
ance, and there is a danger that, being not 

8 



150 



ISRAEL IN HISTORY. 



I Jjdj S, 1816. 



Bufficientlj looked after and cared for, they 
begin in the spirit and end in the flesh. It 
may be that some travel about the country, 
insinuate themselves into the good graces ci 
Christians, on whom they easily impose 
and thus disgrace their profession and bring 
shame on the name of the converted Jews. 
The number of these imhappy men is, blessed 
be God, very small, but every one speaks of 
them, and charges on aU converted Jews, 
more or less, what is the guilt of but a few. 
Their number appears even greater than it 
really is, for they change their names in dif- 
ferent places, whereby their miserable deceit 
is carried on for a longer time than would 
otherwise be possible. We believe that the 
Hebrew-Ohristian Alliance will gradually 
devise means to put a stop to their iniquitous 
trade, and thus rescue Hebrew-Christians 
from the aspersions cast on their characters 
by Jews and Christians. 



All friends of Israel will sympathize with 
us, and they can show their sympathy also by 
strengthening this periodical, the magazine 
of the Alliance ; for the more widely its cir- 
culation extends, the more easy it will beoome 
to spread information and to raise the voice 
of warning. 

We have tried to give a number of im- 
portant articles supplied ua by the kind 
co-oporation of brethren highly esteemed 
and every way competent to write on the 
subjects they have chosen. We should 
feel obliged by any suggestions, and are 
quite willing to oonsi&er earnestly every 
hint given. We have full confidence in 
the kindness of our readers, and we tmst 
they have oonfidence in us, that it is our 
earnest desire to make this periodical as 
profitable and important as we may be 
enabled by Him on whose strength it has 
been hitherto carried on. 



ISRAEL IN HISTORY.— ni. 

BT FR0FBS80B P. OASSRL, OF BBBLIN. 



The Apostle Paul writes to the Bomans, 
** As concerning the*gospel, they are enemies 
for your sakes : but as touching the election, 
thoy are beloved for the fathers' sakes. For 
the gifts and calling of God are without 
repentance ;" as it is written in Lev. xxvi. 
44, ** and yet for all that,*' when the judg- 
ment has fallen upon them, saith Gk>d, " I 
will not cast them off, nor utterly forsake 
them." What words of Gk)dlike patience 
and love! and how completely have they 
been fulfilled! Could anything short of 
divine inspiration foretell, more than three 
thousand years before, what man can see 
and verify at this dayP Where can we 
find a people who, having endured unparal- 
leled judgments for fifteen hundred years, 
have not ftJlen to the condition of gipsies P 
Where are the Bomans, the rulers of the 
world, before the Germans existed P Where 
are the Turks and Moslems of Europe and 
Asia, though they conquered these coun- 
tries P Where is the Byzantine Empire, in 
spite of its having become ChristiaiiP In 
Israel the sptings of intellect have never 
ceased to flow, though judged, bereft of 



sceptre and crown, - separated by his own 
act from his own past history, and, finally, 
utterly overthrown in the struggle headed 
by Barcochba, that child of falsehood. TTig 
harp never lost its tone ; scientific labours 
never ceased; his literature united itself to 
that of every land; and at all times his 
writings on domestic law and civil rites, 
though often burnt and torn, kept pace with 
the literary productions of Christendom. 
Where can we find such a people who, 
having rejected their own real intellectual 
development, and being humbled, weakened, 
and despised from without, have yet taken 
part in the greatest public movements, not 
only amongst the purely European nationa, 
and even in the development of the Arabio- 
Spanish as of the Italian-Boman P 

The study of medicine and finance were 
carried on by them in courts and cabinets, 
where they were wished for and hated at 
the same time. No literary progress took 
place, at least in Europe, in which the Jews 
did not bear a part. Htumamsmui (Uie 
German word has no equivalent in English) 
manifested its whole strength and tendency 



he Soattereil Nation,! 
Jul72,18«6. J 



ISRAEL IN mSTOBT. 



161 



when it protected the Jewish books, which 
Eeachlin had learned to appreciate from. 
Jewish teacheirs, against the attacks of 
Catholic Greeks. The knowled^ of Hebrew 
taaght by these Jewish masters was the 
most important auxiliary in promoting the 
work of the Eeformation. When the Pala- 
tine Charles Loilis wished to n^iite all the 
different creeds, Spinoaa was the person he 
applied to. Mendelssohn's connection with 
literature and with Lessjng is well known. 
Bonterwek, q)eaking of him, said, "He ie 
better able to egress philosophical tnitha, 
both in writing aAd in oonyersation, than 
any other Gtermui author." WhenCromwdl 
was Protector, the Jews retnmed to England, 
believing him to be a Messiah. Bobespiene 
raUed his terrible voioe in their behalf; the 
French Abbe Gr^gorie and Count Mirabeaia 
were their advocates. The revolution of 
July made them French citizens ; the revo- 
lution of February began with two Jewish 
Ministers of State (Cremieux and Good- 
chaux). It is a remarkable* laot, showing 
the position they hold in the opinion of 
literary men, timt when the diplomaitic 
Emperor Louis Napoleon found himself 
obliged to deprive B^nan of his professor- 
ship, he satisfied the Liberal opposition by 
appointing in his place an old and half- 
blind Jew, the learned Solomon Mank; 
and, strangely enough, this dignity was not 
bestowed upon him because of his better 
acquaintance with Hebrew and the Talmud, 
•which was easy enough, but it was given 
him because he was a Jew, though he had pre- 
viously been rqjected on that very account. 

But the gifts and calling of Gt>d are 
without repentance, not in order that Israel's 
sons may be ministers and professors, but 
in order that He may eugrafb them into the 
old olive-tree, and thus all Israel be saved; 
and in this also is Israel the expression of 
the wisdom and of the accomplishment of 
prophecy. Wandering . and exile has not 
weakened, it has rather refreshed, the spirit 
of the people; scattering and division en- 
abled such families as were enfeebled to 
renew their strength, by admixture with 
stronger and more numerous ones. Some 
who went forth, like Benjamin of Tudela» to 
discover if the sceptre had wholly departed 
from Judah, found in their wandermgs that 
which satisfied all longings — ^they found the 



well of life springing up dear as silver in 
the gospel. 

Soionoe and Hteratore, Halacha and 
Cabbala^ were unable to hinder him who was 
called. From the Ta}mud thousands found 
their way like Solomon L^vi, afberwards 
Paul, Archbishop of Burgos, in Spain; 
others from the Cabbala, hke Paul Bicius, 
physician to Maximilian I. Nor could 
deahng m money act as a hindrance when 
the hour was come. Witness the humble and 
pious Gerson, a great Tahnudist, who lent 
a poor neighbour eight shillings on her New 
Testament, which she left with him as a 
pledge, and he lent his whole soul to the 
book — ^he read it, and was healed. Nay, 
this water of liib springs up even through 
modem refinement and philosophy ; beneath 
the stony Hegelian philosophy, this living 
spring welled up to many who are now 
fiutiifril citizens and servants of the Chris- 
tian Church. 3%Le question has often been 
asked, how can we account for the great 
nmsioal powers of the Jews P Israel, since 
his rejection of Christ, is one continued song 
of lamentation. Jeremiah sweeping the 
harp strings, BacheFs tears and voice ac- 
companying. A mourning people is a 
musical people. Linus's lament, even ac- 
cording to heathen tradition, is the be* 
ginning of the art of music. Israel's 
longing and lamentation are satisfied, not 
in an opera, not in the "Africaine," but 
racier as described in Mendelssohn's oratorio 
of " Paul," where the apostle sings in the 
last chorus, ''I am ready even to die at 
Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus." 

Bationalism and revolut]0n produce the 
decisive crisis now taking place amongst 
modem nations ; and wo must ascribe the 
present condition of Israel to rationalism, 
and not to revolution. The false tendency 
of so-called rationalism, is older than is 
usually supposed. There is a good ex- 
pression in Madame Be Stael's " Co- 
rinne," where she says — "There are but 
two classes of men, those who approve 
of enthusiasm and those who despise it. 
All other varieties are the result of the 
different effect society produces on different 
individuals." Bationalism is contempt for 
enthusiasm and disbelief in its reality. It 
professes Christianity without the pathos of 
faith. Ever since the time of the Thirty 



152 



THE FEAST OF PENTECOST. 



[ 



The Softttered Vtldoa 
Julja,1868. 



Years' War it existed in the State adminis- 
tration. Men no longer persecuted the Jews, 
but made use of them as speculators in 
finance. They allowed them to wear any 
clothes they chose, if they but regularly paid 
the taxes demanded of them as Jews. 

A clever State official in Hesse wrote, 
" That he had no complaint against the Jews, 
except that their women tempted the young 
Christian women by their luxury to empty 
their fathers' purses ; in other respects he 
held them to be men, and would gladly see 
them made useful ones." The Jews were 
persecuted in the Middle Ages, but we must 
remember in viewing the worst excesses 
of fanaticism and avarice, that it pro- 
ceeded from the universal belief in the 
superiority of Christianity, and that Jews 
were only looked upon as the persecutors of 
Christ. It was anger, caused by feeling, but 
it was for the gospel's sake, and was, in a 
certain sense, a dramatic teaching to the 
people whenever the Church pointed out to 
the Jews the fulfilment of judgment and of 
humiliation. But rationalism encourages 
hatred to the Jews whilst it professes to 
tolerate them, or whilst using expressions of 



toleration: for hatred is always without 
faith, and this cannot be said of anger and 
passion. Passion can be changed into real 
love, but rationalism is too proud to believe 
and too cold-hearted to love. To the 
rationalist prophecy is a rhetorical phantom 
of the brain. That the pivots on which the 
world turns are desire and fulfilment, not 
hunger and ravenous greed, is to him 
mere fanaticism. Bationalism cannot en- 
dure the Jews, and considers their conver- 
sion ridiculous. In a book addressed by 
the rationalists to the Jews, in the year 
1798, it is said, ** It woufd be folly to expect 
you to embrace another religion which has 
as many foults as your own." Yet even 
that spirit of the age did not prevent 
hundreds from becoming Christians; yea, 
from embracing the gospel with the faith of 
a Nathanael : but &om that time it became 
a reproach to be a proselyte, for rationalism 
not only cannot endure the Jews, but also 
considers proselytes, i.e., believers, to be a 
stumbling-blodt. In the Middle Ages men 
neither looked on converts with suspicion 
because they had been Jews, nor were they 
I ashamed to confess it. 



"THE FEAST OF PENTECOST.''— m. 



BY THE RBV. DR. MARGOLIOUTH. 



We — ^the remnant of The Scattered Na- 
tion — ^participators in the privileges of the 
New Covenant, cannot, and dare not, conceal 
firom our unbelieving brethren, that their 
professing to be followers of the Old Cove- 
nant, is based on a misapprehension and de- 
lusion. There is no Old Covenant any more. 
Israel broke its conditions, and Gk>d annulled 
it.* Do the children of Israel require proof, 
let them contemplate their condition as The 
Scattered Nation. The Old Covenant im- 
plied the possession of the promised land, 
the enjoyment of one central sanctuary, 
either in the form of tabernacle and temple, 
a Levitical and sacerdotal succession, a sac- 
rificial ritual ! Where— we ask with feelings 

• Jer. xrxL 81—34; Ezek. xxxvii. 26—28; Heb. 
nil 8, 12, 18, and ix. 16— IS. 



of wounded love and afiection — are those 
indispensable features of the Old Covenant P 
Let the very feast under review, the Feast 
of Pentecost, declare ! Is that feast observed 
according to the terms of the Old Covenant 
given by God, through his servant Moses,* 
or according to the arbitrary enactments of 
self-appointed masters and pastors ? Asa 
significant coincidence I may allude to the 
recorded fact that the Feast of Weeks was 
the last festival celebrated in the Temple 
before its destruction. Thus chronicles 
Josephus (Wars, Book vi. chap. v. 3): 
"Moreover, at that feast, which we call 
Pentecost, as the priests were going by 
night into the inner temple, as their custom 
was, to perform their sacred ministrations, 

* See Part V. p 108. 



The 8 o> tt wred 5«tioii,1 
Ji4j t, isev. J 



THE FEAST OF PENTECOST. 



153 



they said that, in the first place, they felt a 
quaking, and heard a great noise, and afler 
that they heard a sound as of a great multi- 
tude, saying, * Let us remove hence.' *' 

No, no, the mass of Tius Scattered 
Nation, whatever they may profess, are no 
followers of the Old Covenant ! Truth con- 
strains us to say, that the mass of The 
Scatteeed Nation are without any religion 
at all, and verify to the letter the prophet 
Hosea*s prediction,* 

" The Gontilee gladly hailed His word, 
The Jews refosM to own their Lord : 
And since that sad though distant hour 
They still reject Immanuers power ; 
Without a kiiSg, without a home, 
From clime to dime these wanderers roam ; 
Though persecuted, dwell alone, 
A marvel to the world !*' 

"We proceed, therefore, briefly to view 
the Feast of Pentecost in the light of the 
New Covenant; the light in which the 
majority of the Christian Churches — " The 
Grentiles who gladly hailed his Word," along 
with the "remnant weak and small** of 
The Scattered Nation— view that anniver- 
sary. We may probably be able to throw 
some light on certain points which seemed 
so obscure to Babbi Moses Ben-Mayir 
Arama. As has already been intimated,t 
the great event which the Christian Chur- 
ches celebrate this mouth, is the Pentecostal 
effusion of the Holy Spirit, the consummation 
of the divine scheme for the ingathering of 
the first-fruits, during this dispensation, for 
the kingdom of heaven. It might have been 
a perplexing problem to the children of the 
former dispensation, as it is at present to 
the non-Christian expositors amongst The 
Scattered Nation, " why God fixed on the 
exact space of fifty days, neither more nor 
less, between the offering of the Paschal 
Lamb and the Feast of Weeks,**^ but to us, 
to whom life and truth is brought to light 
by the gospel, the exact space of fifty days 
is one of the most cogent proofs that the 
only infallible key to unlock the typical and 
emblematical mysteries of the Old Testa- 
ment, is the New Testament. We recur to 
the passage in the latter which we have 
already quoted, " When the Day of Pente- 
cost was fully come, they were all with one 
accord in one place. And suddenly there 

• Hoeea iiL 4. t See Part V. p. 107. t See p, 107. 



came a sound from heaven as of a rushing 
mighty wind, and it filled the house where 
they were sitting. And there appeared 
unto them cloven tongues, like as of fire, 
and it sat upon each of them. And they 
were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and 
began to speak with other tongues, as the 
Spirit gave them utterance."* 

Ancient Jewish tradition speaks of an 
analogous phenomenon havfiig taken place 
at the giving of the law on Mount Sinai.t 
We do not endorse the tradition ; we simply 
mention it as one prolific in sugg^stiveness. 
However, to return to the great event com- 
memorated at this season in Christian 
Churches. It was fifly days after the sacri- 
fice of the Lamb of God for the sin of the 
world that the Pentecostal effusion of the 
promised Spirit had taken place, thus indi- 
cating the inauguration of the commence- 
ment of the great spiritual harvest. Hence 
the promulgation of the Gospel by the dis- 
ciples of the Redeemer began on that very 
day, as the second chapter of the Acts of 
the Apostles clearly states. As there was 
an analogy between the giving of the law to 
Israel and the time of the temporal harvest, 
so there is a striking analogy between the 
descent of the Holy Ghost and the spiritual 
harvest. Hence the parable of the Sower, 
the brightest link in the chain of parables 
which make up the thirteenth chapter of the 
Gospel according to St. Matthew. 

The commemoration of the Jewish Feast 
of Pentecost, as has been demonstrated, is 
now abolished; but the Christian Church 
may experience the gift of the Spirit, which 
was ushered in Fifty Days after Christ's 
atonement, any time. The Christian con- 
gregation or family, if they meet in prayer 
with one accord ; the Christian individual, 
if he asks for the gift with full purpose of 
heart, may experience the plenitude of spiri- 
tual fruition of the primeval Pentecostal 
effusion. 

We have a notable instance of this in 
the history of Cornelius, the first Gontile 
convert to the Christian religion, whose 
conversion is recorded in the tenth chapter 
of the Acts of the Apostles. A portion of 
that chapter is appointed, in the Liturgy of 

• Acts ii. 1—4. 

t A reference to mn >& Psa. xxix. 7 may snffioe 



154 



TEE FEAST OF PENTECOST, 



re Mattered NatioB» 
Joly 3, 1868. 



the Ghuroh of England, as the second lesson 
for the morning servioe of Whit*Simd*7. 
There we read (ver. 44), " While Peter yet 
spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on 
all them whicdi heard the word." 

As the n(Hi-ChriBtians of The ScjLttebei) 
I^ATiON look npon the Feast of Weeks, of the 
ritualistic dispensation, as transcendental; 
being, as it were, the cope-stone of that 
structure of which the Paschal Lamb was 
the Fonndatk>n, so do we, knmble believers 
in Jesus, who are also of Thb Bgatxesod 
Hation, consider the Pentecostal efiosion, 
that is, tlie descent of the Holy Spirit, as 
the crowning work of the inauguration of 
this dispensation. It is an event never to 
be forgotten, to be rem^nbered without 
ceasing — for it is an event which involves 
all our happiness. It is t^is Spirit who 
regenerates ihe hearts of believers, and 
makes efiBactnal in their souls the atone- 
ment and redemption made and secured 
by the sacriftce of *' Christ our Passover." 
It was this Spirit who enabled the handfial 
of apostles to engage in ^eadly conflict with 
hea^endom, and plant the banner of the 
cross in every province of the prince of 
darkness. It was this Spirit who controlled 
the thoughts and directed the pens of the 
evangelists, so tiiat generations yet unborn, 
in the distant ages yet to come, might be 
able to read, mark, kam, and inwardly 
digest the hallowed records of the words 
and deeds of the ever-blessed Redeemer. 
It is this Spirit who now makes those 
precious records intelligible, amd sheds on 
its pages a heavenly Hght, so that they 
bum and glow with "the truth as it is in 
Jesus," with the light of Him who is " tiie 
Wat, the Teuth, and the Lipe." It is this 



SjHrit who convinces men of sin, produces 
in them that "godly sorrow" which 
" workefch repentance," mid leads to the 
putting faith in the " once for all " sacrifice 
for sin. It is this Spirit who, step by step, 
wildidraws the affections ftom what is 
mundane and perishable, animates tiie soul 
with that " love divine, all love excelling," 
and sets before its view the treasures in 
heaven, the crown of life and crown of 
glory, which eye hath not seen nor ear 
heard. It is this Spirit who sanctifies the 
unclean and fallen sons and daughters of 
Adam's race, and makes them meet asso- 
ciates of them who " rest not day and night, 
saying. Holy, holy, holy. Lord Grod Almighty, 
which was, and is, and is to come." It is 
this Spirit who comforts the mourning, 
confirms the wavering, directs the doubting, 
sustains the dying. It is this Spirit which 
the Bedeemw promised to pour upon the 
house of David, when He shall come, and 
all His saints with Him, standing upon the 
Mount of OHves, manifesting Himself as the 
Lord Grod; when Thb Scaitebbd Natiok 
shall look upon Him whom they have 
' ]neroed, and mourn for Him as one motimeth 
for his only son, and shall be in bitterness 
for Him as one that is in bitterness for his 
first-bom.* There will be no difference of 
opiaion then touching the great anniver- 
sary of the P^itecostal efi^ision of the Holy 
Ghost! 

«* Oh, that soon Thou wouldst to Jacob 
Thine enlivening Spirit send ; 
Of their nnbelief and misery, 
Make, O Lord, a speedy end. 

LordMeasiahl 
Prince of Peace, o'er Israel reign." 

• Ze<*. m. 10. 



Jo]7S,18n. J 



THB JEWS OF 8FAm AKD PORTUGAL. 



155 



THE JEWS OP SPAIN AND POETUGAL.— IV. 

BY JAMBS FINK^ ESQ^ 
(Late H.B JC Coosnl st JcnMOem.) 



GHJJ?IZ& T. 

Is the year aj). 683 was assembled the 
fourth Council of Toledo, mpon the acoession 
to the throne by violent nsnrpation of a 
militaiy leader named Sisenand. 

The Council had for its president the 
before-mentioned Isidore of Seville, and tiie 
business in hand was fourfold* 

1. To confirm the usurping title. 

2. To complete the code of Gothic laws 
commeDoed long before by Euric, and named 
the " Puero Juzgo." 

3. To give sanction to a puUic liturgy 
fBpnanged by £iidore. 

' 4. To make regulations respecting Hie 
Jews. 

On the latter subject there were no less 
iiian ten Canons eniKsted, and it'seemis best 
to give them here iu full; they are every 
way remarkable. 

"LYIL — Concerning Jews, tdiis holy 
Council has resolved to compel no one here- 
after to receive our fSaith ; for * God hath 
mercy on whom He will have mercy, and 
whom He will He hardeneth.' And such 
persons are not saved without their own 
consent, but ouly willingly, iu order that the 
attribute of justice may be kept secure. For 
a& man by his own free wiU in yielding to 
the serpent did perish, so, when the grace 
of Grod doth call, each man is saved in be- 
lieviug, by tlie conversion of his own mind. 
Therefore they are not to be urged by con- 
straint, but persuaded through the free 
faculty of the will into conversion. 

''Eespectiug those alreculy forced into 
Christianily, as was done in the time of the 
moat religious Prince Sisebut, since it is 
evident that they have become partakers in 
the Divine Sacraments, have received the 
graoe of baptism, have been anointed with 
the chrism, and have received the body and 
blood of our Lord, it is rig^t that these 
should be obliged to retain the £uth which, 
although under compulsion and necessity, 
stiQ tiiey have trndertaken, lest the name of 
God be blasphemed, and the faith which 
they have assumed be accounted worthless 
uid despicable. 



So great is the cupidity of 
some, that through oovetousness, as the 
apostle saitii, 'they have erred from the 
&ith.' Many of both clergy and laity have» 
by accepting gifts from the Jews, bestowed 
their patronage at infidelity, and such are 
deservedly to be noted as belonging to 
Antichrist who act against Christ. 

" Whosoever, therefore, from h^iceforth, 
whether bishop, priest, or layman, shall 
afiford to them his sulBGrage for reward or 
fiftvaur, in disparagement of the Christian 
fiuth, let him become an alien from the 
Catholic Church and the kingdom of Grod, 
aa truly a pro&ne and sacrilegious person. 
For it is just that he should be severed from 
the body of Christ who makes himself a 
patron of Christ's enemies. 

"LIX. — ^Many who were formerly exalted ' 
to the Christian faith are now known, not 
only in blasphemy against Christ to perpe* 
trate Jewish rites, but hove even dared to 
practise the abomination of circumcision. 
Concerning such, by the counsel of our most 
pious and religious prince, Sisenand the 
King, this sacred Synod hath decreed that 
transgressors after this sort, being appre- 
hended by authority of the prelates, shall be 
recalled to the true worship according to 
Christian doctrine, so that those whom their 
own will cannot amend may be coerced by 
sacerdotal correction. Also such persons 
as they may have circumcised, if children of 
the above, shall be removed from association 
with the parents; and if slaves, shall, in 
compensation for the injury, be made free. 

"LX.— We decree that the sons and 
daughters of Jews are to be separated 
from tiie parents, lest they be likewise 
iuvolved iu their erne's : to be placed, either 
in monasteries, or with Christian men and 
women who fear God, that from their con- 
versation they may learn the worship of the 
true iaith ; and being thus instructed for the 
better, niay be improved both in morals and 
belief. 

"LXI. — ^Baptized Jews, if afterwards 
they shall renounce Christ, and so become 
amenable to any penalty, their believing 



156 



THE JEWS OF SPAIN AND POBTUQAL. 



phe 8efttt««djr«ttoii, 



Jq1j3,1868. 



children shall not be excluded from inherit- 
ing their property, for it is written, * The 
son shall not bear the iniquity of the father.* 

"LXII. — ^The company of the wicked 
doth frequently corrupt even the good ; how 
much more those who are inclined to wrong. 
Let there be therefore no further communion 
of Jews who have been transferred to the 
Christian faith, with such as adhere to their 
ancient rites, lest perchance by mingling 
with them they become subverted. 

"Whosoever, therefore, of the baptized 
shall not shun the society of the unbelievers, 
these latter shall be given to Christians [as 
serfs or slaves], and the former be delivered 
to public scourging. 

" LX TT I. — Jews having Christian wives 
are to be admonished by the bishop of their 
diocese, that if they desire to abide with them 
they must become Christians ; and if being so 
admonished they refuse to obey, they shall 
be separated. Since an unbeliever cannot 
remain in wedlock with her who has become 
a Christian, and the offspring of such per- 
sons are to follow the faith of their mother. 
Likewise those bom of unbelieving mothers 
and believing fathers are to follow the Chris- 
tian religion, not the Jewish superstition. 

** LXTV. — He cannot be true to man who 
is faithless towards God. Therefore Jews 
who were formerly Christians, but are now 
deniers of the faith in Christ, are not to be 
admitted in legal evidence, although they 
may declare themselves Christians; for if 
suspected touching faith in Christ, they are 
insecure for human testimony. No trust can 
be placed in the testimony of such as are 
trained in the belief of falsehood, nor is 
credit duo to those who reject the belief of 
truth. 

" LXV.— This Holy Council has decreed, 
by conmiand of the most excellent Lord and 
King Sisenand, that Jews and their descend- 
ants are not to be employed in public offices, 
because by such means a scandal would be 
given to Christians. Wherefore the pro- 
vincial magistrates, with the priests, are to 
obstruct all fraudulent creeping into such 
employments, and prevent their success. 
But if any magistrate shall tolerate such 
proceedings, he is to be excommunicated as 
for sacrilege, and he who shall obtain the 
office is to be publicly scourged. 

" LXVI. — By decree of the most glorious 



prince, this Council has resolved, that no 
Jews shall have Christian servants, nor 
purchase Christian slaves, neither hold such 
by gift from any person. For it is shameful 
that the members of Christ should serve 
the ministers of Antichrist. And if hence- 
forward any Jews shall dare to retain 
Christian slaves of either sex, these shall be 
released and restored to freedom.** 

Such despotic and cruel enactments re- 
quire no comment ; they were intended to 
be plain to every understanding, and they 
are so ; but in our times and drcumstances 
they call for indignant reprobation. The 
LVIIth Canon for its hypocrisy, being vio- 
lated by the LXth; the LXIVth for its 
permission of every atrocity against person 
and property to be committed by armed 
ruffians, provided both parties have been 
christened. The LXIlIrd is in direct con- 
tradiction to the pliunest words of 1 Cor. 
viL 10, 13, 14 ; and, we may ask, was the 
mother of Timothy thus divorced P And 
Canon LXVL was an infringement upon 
the rights of property, such as it was, by 
proclaiming emancipation to slaves on the 
mere condition of submitting to be baptized. 
The LXth, horrible as it is, may sdmost find 
its parallel in some modern instances at 
Bome within the last few years. 

Alas ! poor human nature, with its per- 
versities and contradictions, when even such 
men as Isidore could be induced to preside 
at such legislation as this. In many re- 
spects he is deservedly esteemed ; he seems 
to have been conversant with Scripture ; he 
was well versed in classic Latin literature, 
and has been eulogized for his delightful 
flow of eloquence, which enchanted by its 
suavity. 

There was another person at this period 
whose general disposition beams brightly 
out fix)m the dark bigotry of Gothic intole- 
rance, Mausona, Bishop of Merida, who is 
described as using so much benevolence 
and amenity of manners to Christians, Jews, 
and Pagans, that no language can suffi- 
ciently endear his memory (Paul the 
Deacon) ; but these two eminent men were 
not sufficient to stem the rigid barbarity of 
the Ecclesiastical Councils, participated in as 
it was by the nobles and the kings in Cortes 
assembled. 

There remained one step more to be 



Ihe8«fttter«d Nation,! 
JiiljS,1866. J 



80BB0W AND CONSOLATION, 



157 



taken, namely, to banish the Jews from 
their dominions ; and this was resolved on, 
five years afterwards (a.d. 638), at the Sixth 
Conncil of Toledo. Meanwhile, the aged 
Isidore had died. 

"Canon m.— The inflexible perfidy of 
the Jews comes at length to be subdued by 
piety and divine grace; for, by inspiration of 
the Most High Gt)d, our most excellent and 
Christian prince [Chintila], inflamed with 
ardour for the faith, together with the 
clergy of his kingdom, has determined on 
eradicating to the uttermost their prevari- 
cation and superstition, not suflering the 
residence of any one in the land who is not 
a Catholic. For which zeal we render 
thanks to the Almighty King of Heaven 
that He has created a soul so illustrious, 
and endued it with his wisdom. May He 
bestow upon him a long life in this world, 
and glory everlasting in the future.** 

"We do now, therefore, decree a cor- 



roboration of what has been heretofore in- 
stituted in general Synods concerning the 
Jews, seeing that all things necessary for 
their salvation that could have been enacted 
we know to have been done, and with cir- 
cumspection. All such edicts we now de- 
clare to be valid.** 

(And in a codicil to this Canon) " We do 
deliberately resolve that, whosoever in time 
to come shall obtain the royalty, he shall not 
ascend the throne before promising on oath 
never to allow the Jews to infringe upon 
this holy faith ; and that in no wise favour- 
ing their perfidiousness, neither seduced by 
negligence or cupidity," etc. 

By some means or other, of which we 
have no information, the Jews were not ex- 
pelled from Spain till more than 800 years 
after this decree and conciliar enactment 
The ignorance of the period, and the confu- 
sion of political af&irs, can alone be imagined 
to account for this want of information. 



(To he continued.) 



VOICES OF SORROW AND CONSOLATION. 



MURMURS OF A DESPISED ISRAELITE. 

What gentle whisper breathed upon my ear 
That tender name, that thrills my inmost sonl 
With feelings of delight ? A friend ! Alas ! 
'TwBS but the voice of fancy echoing 
Delusive sounds of joy unknown to me. 
No friend I have, whatever others boast 
Of friendship's rich, consoling, hallowed sweets, 
Hy heart is withered by the scorching blast 
Of hatred, scorn, reproach unmerited. 
No eye of pity meets my anxious gaze ; 
No tears of kind compassion flow with mine 
Of burning g^ef ; nor words of sympathy 
Console my troubled heart. None understand 
The sorrows of a Jew, whom Gentiles spurn. 
Is that disg^race to oWn myself a son 
Of blessed Abraham ? (On whom be peace !) 

Alas ! we're exiles, banished from our home. 
That fruitful land, where once our fathers dwelt 
In heartfelt gladness o'er their happy lot. 
We live, a scattered race, in distant climes. 
The objects of contempt and mockery, 
Despised, oppressed, and hated by the world. 
Say, who will raise us from our fallen state ? 
Who fill our hearts with hopes of future joy. 
Or break the shackles that hare kept us slaves 
In degradation to our Gentile foes ? 
When shall we see fulfilled our cherished dreams 
Of restoration to our Holy Land ? 
Must we still languish far from Zion's hill, 
And never see our own Jerusalem ? 



THE CHRISTIAN GENTILE'S REPLY. 

Peace, troubled son of Jacob's honoured race ! 
Cheer up ! cheer up ! A day of hope appears. 
The night is dark ; yet see the murky clouds 
Are faintly tinged with mercy's rising beams. 
The morning dawns ; the darkness disappears ; 
The bow of promise spans the lowering sky. 
Look up ! look up ! thy great Messiah comes ; 
He comes with power to set thy people free — 
To g^ve them once again their own loved land, 
And make them dwell in palaces of joy. 
Where peace and safety shall for ever reign. 
And hostile foot no more an entrance find. 

Now close the murmuring lip, hush every sigh, 
Forbear repining thoughts. Be gpratitude 
A rushing torrent, swelling through the soul. 
Till bursts the joyful cry, '* Hosannas sing 
To our Redeemer, King, Messiah, Lord, 
Our great Deliverer from Satan's thrall ; 
The Crucified, the Glorified, once spumed. 
Now thankfully acknowledged as our King." 

Come, sorrowing brother, share our sympathies. 
Our prayers, our love, our friendship, and our joys. 
Our hopes of immortality be thine, 
Our blood-stained mercy-seat thy throne of grace, 
Our heavenly home thy blest inheritance. 
Where sorrow's withering touch shall ne'er be felt; 
But souls redeemed in unison shall sing, 
" All honour, praise, and glory to the Lamb 
Once slain for sinners, now in splendour throned. 
Amid the worship of angelic hosts." 

South Africa. G. C. B. 

8» 



158 



THE TWELVE TBJOBES. 



fThe SoAtterMl Nation , 
L Jnlj 2, IM6. 



THE TWELVE TRIBES. 



BY THB BEY. AKDEEW A. BONAB. 



GAB. 



We have been taking up the history of the 
tribes in the order of their first fether's 
birth. Bat it is curious to observe in what 
great variety of order their names are given 
in other places, as if the Lord would show 
imparidal regard to each tribe, by putting 
one in the place of the other firom time to 
time. We have the following varieties, 
twenty-one in all : — 

The order of their birth {Qea, zziz., xn., and 



) 

Enmneration of Dan at Mamre (Gen. xxxr. 
28-26). 

finnmeratton of Dan on gcang down to ^gyj^ 
(Gen. zhrL 8-19). 

Ennmeratum of Dan in Jacob's bleeomg {Qen. 
xlix.) 

Enmneration of Dan when the heads of tribes 
are named (Num. L 5—15). 

Enumeration of Dan when the males above 
twenty years are named (Num. i 20 — 13). 

The order in which they pitched round the taber- 
nade (Kmn. iL) 

The order in which the princes offered (Nam. vii.) 

Tlie order in whaoh tiiy mardhed (Nnm. z.) 

The erder in which spies from each tribe were 
selected (Nam. ziii.) 

The order in wlnxsk they were nombered in the 
plains of Hoab (Num. zxvi.) 

The order in which the jirinoes who were to 
divide the land were appointed (Nnm. xzxiv.) 

The order in which they stood on Ebal and 
CMsim (Dent xxrii) 

The order in which they were blessed by Moses 
(Dent, zxdii.) 

The order in whidi the lot was cast for eadi 
^Josh. inL, ziv.) 

The order in wMch the lot fell for the Levitioal 
^ties oat of each (Josh. zzi. 4-^). 

The order in wMoh the names of these eities for 
each are gi^ren (Josh. xzL 9—89). 

The order in which the same are given in the 
Ist Book of Ohronides (1 Ohron. vL 55-61). 

The order in which their fatare portion in the 
Lord is given (Esek. zhiii. 2—28). 

The order in which the gates of the city that bees 
thssr names occur (Xiek. zlviii. 81—44). 

The order in which the twdve thousand sealed 
•ones from each tribe are given (Bev. vii) 

Somatimes Tsasons may be asgigned for 
&e special ordesta adopted; at other times 
WGecanBeenooe. In the new division of the 
land inEzekiel xlviuU Gkd (the tribe we now 
come to speak of) is placed in the fiur sooth 



of Palestine, reaching to Kadesh-bamea. In 
Bev. vii. 5, Osd stands third in order. 

The birth of the fiftther of this tribe is 
related in Qen, xxx. — 11. Leah seeing 
the snccess of her sister's plan, and fiseling 
herself neglected, adopts that very plan, 
and by her handmaid Zilpah gives Jacob 
another son. Her words, on hearing of the 
birth of this son, have been interpreted by 
some as simply meaning, ** Oood hich f* an 
exclamation of delight and satisfiEU^on ; bat 
the better interpretation, which both retains 
the Masoretic reading of the text, and 
accords with Jacob's reference to the name 
in xlix. 19, renders the words, ** A troop 
Cometh r* This is the sense given in the 
margin of our version. Leah probably in- 
tended to exult over her sister, ix. 8. You 
mast leave the field to me again ; for see ! 
here is "A troop commg to my help." Thas 
understood, Oad^s name tells of defeat re- 
pedred, of conquering when all seemed lost, 
of clouds breaking up and sunshine re- 
turning after rain. 

How often in i^ scenes of every day 
life may we hear ChuPs name. A &mily is 
threatened with disaster ; gloom overspreads 
every countenance; disease has assailed 
some beloved one, and deatii is hovering 
over the dwelling; but the Lord sends 
relieJE^ perhaps in the way of leading the 
family to adopt a remedy which some other 
has tried. It is blessed; and lo! "A troop 
cometh;** relief and recovery have come, and 
drive the enemy from the field. Or the 
family is poor, care and*dismal forebodmgs 
harass them ; ruin stalks on the threshold. 
But means of relief are suggested, and 
found successful; *'A troop oofneihr It 
may be in the shape of employment given, 
or money sent, or friends raised up. At 
any rate, the douds are dispersed, and one 
says to another, '* Oh that men would praiae 
the Lord for his goodness V* Nor is it less 
often thus in the fiuouly of Qod, God's 
diildren have dreaded their suhjeotioii to 
indwelling sin, for ooimption has lifted its 
head. But "A tro€ip eomdhf* and the 
despairing believer sings, "I thank God 



The BeftttMwd Ifatioii,! 
July 2, 1888. J 



THE TWELVE TBIBE8. 



159 



i^mmgh Jesus Chrisfc my Lord;" or it may 
be a host of outward evils assail — ^^tribn- 
lation, persecutioii, nakedness, distress, 
fomine, sword.'' But soon there is heard 
the cry, "A troop comethr Paul and all 
his fellow-believers singing — **I am per- 
suaded that neither death, nor life, nor 
angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor 
things present, nor things to come, nor 
height, nor depth, nor any other created 
thing, shall separate us from the love of God, 
which is in Jesus Christ our Lord ** (Rom. 
viii. 38, 39). Yes, even when Death, the last 
enemy, assails, this shall be the issue. With 
Leah's battle-cry he shall drive him from 
the field. 

But let us see what Jacob said of ms 
son Gad, in Gen. xlix. 19. He blesses him 
thus : — 

" Oady a troop shall overcome Mm : 
But he shall overa/me at the last" 

This may be rendered, preserving the alli- 
teration of the original, and rendering very 
literally: 

'* The troop-trCbey a troop shall troop vpon him ; hvi 
he shall troop vpon the heel" 

He shall be a tribe much engaged in con- 
flicts, and fitted for such war&re ; so that he 
shall be found "trooping upon the heel," 
putting to flight and pursuing his foe. As 
a tribe, his geographical situation exposed 
him to invasion from many quarters, such as 
Moab, AmTnon, and the sons of Ishmael; 
but for this war£ure he shall be fitted. 
Accordingly, we find not only Bani, a Gadite, 
one of David's mighty men (2 6am. xxiiL 
36), and even Levites, residing in it, '^ mighty 
men of valour" (1 Ohron. xiyL 31), but a 
great band, who are described as "men of 
might, men of the host fit for the bottle, 
that could handle shield and budder, whose 
fiiees were like the ilEusee of lions" (compare 
Dent. xxxiiL 20), and who " were as the roes 
upon the mountains in speed" (1 Ghron. 
zii8). And then, along with Beubenites and 
ManasBehxtes, they of God came, "with all 
nanner of instnmients of war for the battle" 
ipoL 37), forming a bsud of 120,000 men. We 
aappoae, too» thait the incident in 1 Ghron. 
T. 18 — 22, where ikej join with Benb^i and 
Maaaaeeh against the Hagorites, and Jetnr, 
aad Nephish, and l^fedab, is but one of a 
faondred amilar expeditions. Oat go the 



troops, an of them " sons of valour," with 
budder, sword, and bow, and dash upon the 
foe ; but for a time the Hagarites and thrar 
allies " troop upon them" bravely, till " they 
ory to God in the battle, and He is entreated 
of them; because tiiey put their trust in 
Him." Then God and his allies " tioop upon 
the heel" of the fleeing foe, taking 100,000 
captives, and inmiense booty. Nor is it un- 
worthy of notice, that in these instances 
Gad comes on the field to hdp others, as his 
father may be said to have done when Leah 
OTied, " A troop oometh." The same cha- 
racteristic will again appear in what is said 
of him in the blessing of Moses (Dent, 
xnriii. 20, 21). 

The Lord directed that G^ad should re- 
ceive a broad territory, the conquered 
kingdom of Sihon, where he might have 
ample room for development eastward, when 
his warlike propensities should impel him. 
To this, " blessed be he thai entreateth ChcT 
has reference; while Gad is described as 
a "lion" or "lioness, lying down," after 
tearing " the arm lifted up to defend the 
crown of the head." Then it is added : 
" And he looked out for himself the first frwit" 

for he got his settlement among the very 
first of the tribes, thus acquiring what might 
be called "the first fruit portion." Yet 
there was no selfishness in this settlement, 
and therefore " blessed be He that gave him 
that ample portion." 

"ibr, thotigh ensconced there ^ in a territory assigned 

him by the Lawgiver y 
He coflms {to join) the heads of the people; 
InfeUowship with Israel, 
To execuie the jiistice qf the Lord, and his iudg^ 

menis." 

The reference here is to the memorable fiaot 
that Gkid, along with Beuben and half-M»- 
nasflfth, passed over Jordan with the other 
tribes, and took part with them in aH their 
wars with the Ganaanites. In this. Gad 
seems to have taken the lead yery diarao- 
tecstioaUy; for is it not as at his father's 
birth, " A troop cometh" to aid in clearing 
ihe field and securing triumph f 

J^)hthah was of this tribe,a&din his own 
person o^rteinly it might be said again, "A 
troop cometh," when he so triumphantly 
drove oat the Ammonites, oyerooadng thwe 
who had overoome so long. Je|^ithah was a 
man of Gilead, and Gilead belonged to Qad, 



160 



THE LAW AND THE GOSPEL. 



CTh« Scattered VtOum, 
Jnly 2, 1868. 



To Gad, also, belonged several places asso- 
ciated with remarkable events, Jabesh-Gilead, 
Eamoth-Gilead, Peniel, Mahanaim ; bat none 
more renowned than Mount Qilead, the hill 
of balsam-trees, the spot where Jacob and 
Laban made their covenant (perhaps under 
the shade of one of these groves) calling the 
spot " Galeed,*' the heap of witness. It has 
still traces of its former romantic beauty, 
but no one ever finds the balsam-tree. It 
lias disappeared from Gilead, as it has from 
the valley of Jericho. 

This tribe, warlike as it was, no sooner 
joined in the idolatries of Israel than it felt 
itself powerless against Jehovah's anger. It 
was one of the first portions of Israel's 
land that fell under the power of Tiglath- 
pileser, who eventually carried away the 
inhabitants into captivity. The modem Kes- 
torians are in part descended from Grad, for 
comparing 2 Kings xv. 29 with 1 Chron. 
V. 26, we find the region of Gilead was car- 
ried to the far-off mountains and rivers of 
Media and Persia, there described. Tes, 
Oilead, the very heart of Gad, was torn out 



of him, and left to the mercy of strangers, 
all because Jehovah had been forsaken, and 
his covenant-grace rejected. 

** Bless'd tribe of Gad, when Israel'i nek. 
Sought by physician's skill. 
And found ^e balm which healed their wonnds 
On fragrant Gilead>hill, 

" Troops of disease assailed thee then ; 
To scale thy heights they passed ; 
But Gilead*s balm gave health to all. 
* Grad overcame at last.' 

" Now all in vain seek we for cure, 
O Gilead, on thy brow ; 
For TTitti whose grace was Gilead's balm 
Thy nation hateth now. 

" Not even the types of health and joy 

Within thy land remain ; 
f The thorn and thistle have o'erspread 
The mountain and the plain. 

" Messiah, Ho is Gilead's balm« 
He poured for man his blood. 
O Tribes of Israel, welcome Him, 
Welcome the Christ of God. 

*' Long have thy foes, troop upon troop, 
Their chains around thee cast ; 
But welcome Him, and thou art free ! 



< Gad overcomes at last.' " 



Anon. 



THE LAW IN HARMONY WITH THE GOSPEL. 

BY PBOPESSOB M. SACHS. OF ABEEDEEN. 



Since the law is called our schoolmaster, 
to bring us unto Christ, it would appear 
self-evident that the dispensation which it 
characterizes should embody, in a more or 
less developed form, the germ of the leading 
doctrines of Christianity, to qualify those 
who were under its discipline for the enjoy- 
ment of the glorious liberty of the children 
of Gk)d. 

In order to illustrate the above statement 
by a few examples, we would, in the first 
instance, refer to a commandment which, of 
all others, seems to have been best fitted to 
keep alive among Good's ancient people the 
sense of their sinfUness, to make them 
reflect on the spirituality of the law — on 
man's inability to satisfy its requirements — 
and to keep them in mind of the wrath of 
€k>d, revealed from heaven against all un- 
righteousness, that forsaking every refuge 
of lies, they might put their trust in the 
Lord only. 



The commandment to which we thus 
allude is that which prescribes the forms to 
be observed at the execution of the sentence 
of death on the condenmed criminal, in 
reference to which the law ordained as fol- 
lows :— " The hands of the witnesses shall 
be first upon him to put him to death, and 
afterward the hands of all the people" 
(Dent. xvii. 7). 

It was for an important and specific end, 
as may be presumed, that the whole com- 
munity, the witnesses foremost, were re- 
quired to take an active part in the execution 
of the law's last sentence. The law pro- 
nounces a curse upon every man that con- 
tinues not in all the things written in the 
book of the law to do them (Deut. xxvii. 26). 
Therefore every man in Israel who, in com- 
pliance with the commandment, took up a 
stone, was in that awful moment made to 
reflect on his own sin, and on death its 
And the whole body of the people* 



The 8<Mitter«d Nation,! 
Jnly 2, ISM. J 



THE LAW AND THE GOSPEL. 



161 



more especially the witnesses, in case they 
engaged not in that solemn act from a 
sincere regard to the will of the Divine 
Lawgiver, with deep contrition on account 
of their own shortcomings, and a lively faith 
in the Head of the theocracy, by whose 
grace alone they could be justified, did, in 
consequence of their participation in the 
execution of the law's righteous sentence* 
pronounce judgment of death Upon them- 
selves. We thus find in this provision of 
the law, with reference to capital punish- 
ment, a practical exemplification pf the 
principle laid down by the apostle, when he 
says, "Therefore thou art inexcusable, 
man, whosoever thou art that judgest ; for 
wherein thou judgest another, thou con- 
demnest thyself, for thou that judgest doest 
the same things." 

That this is indeed the lesson which the 
commandment under consideration was in- 
tended to^nvey becomes strikingly evident 
from the case of the adulterous woman, 
whom the Scribes and Pharisees brought 
before our Lord, that He might pass judg- 
ment upon her according to the law. ** He 
that is without sin among you," said the 
Saviour, " let him first cast a stone at her. 
And they which heard it, being convicted of 
their own conscience, went out one by one, 
beginning at the eldest even unto the last." 
The self-righteous Pharisees appealed to the 
letter of the law, which signed only the 
death-warrant of the woman caught in the 
very act of adultery; the Saviour referring 
to the spirit of the additional clause, which 
prescribed the forms to be observed at its 
execution, proved her wily accusers to be in 
the same condenmation ; and overawed by 
the presence of Him who knew what was in 
man, they retired conscience-stricken. 

But ancient Israel were to be made sen- 
sible, not only of their sinfulness and their 
state of condemnation by nature ; they re- 
ceived also plain intimations as to how they 
might escape from wrath, control their 
wayward passions, and render a cheerful 
obedience to that gracious Lord who had 
signified his love for them by choosing them 
as his peculiar people, and who thus ex- 
pressed his willingness to help those who 
unreservedly committed themselves to his 
guidance. Directions to that effect present 
themselves again in the Book of Deuter- 



onomy (chap. X. 16 — 17), where we read, " The 
Lord had a delight in your fathers, and He 
chose their seed afber them, even you above 
all people, as it is this day. Circumcise 
therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be 
no more stiffnecked ; for th6 Lord your God 
is Grod of gods, and Lord of lords, a great 
Grod, a mighty, and a terrible, who regardeth 
not persons, nor taketh reward," The deep 
import of this solemn exhortation to evan- 
gelical obedience is enhanced by the consi- 
deration of the peculiar circumstances under 
which it was uttered. The unbelieving 
generation, that had been brought out of the 
land of Egypt, had to the last man fallen in 
the wilderness. Their children, who were 
bom during their sojourn in it, none of 
whom, as we learn from the Book of Joshua 
(chap. V. 5, 6,) had the sign of the covenant 
in their flesh, were the persons here chiefly 
addressed. Moses, about to be taken from 
them was, as it were, in the same posi- 
tion as, at a much later period, his great 
antitype, the Mediator of a better covenant, 
when, afber his resurrection and immediately 
before his ascension, the disciples asked 
Him, " Wilt Thou at this time restore again 
the kingdom to Israel P" What more natu- 
ral, under the circumstances, than that the 
favoured generation, who now listened to 
the parting words of their beloved and 
devoted leader, should expect Him to press 
home upon them the duty of having circum- 
cision, that initiatory and most sacred rite 
of their religion, performed on them on the 
earliest opportunity, it could conveniently 
be done in the promised land? In that 
expectation they were, however, no less 
disappointed than were afterwards their 
more privileged descendants the apostles, on 
the occasion before referred to. The words 
of Moses, " Circumcise the foreskin of your 
heart," pointed in a different direction- 
pointed to the gracious work of the Holy 
Spirit in the heart of those who would 
entirely resign themselves to the will of the 
Head of the theocracy. 

That this circumcision of the heart was 
not an operation that could be performed by 
an effort of the will of sinful man, must have 
become clear to the hearers from what 
Moses said in the sequel with reference to 
the final conversion of the apostate portion 
of the people in the latter days. For so we 



162 



THE LAW AND THE GOSPEL. 



fTbe Seftttered Kstioo, 
L JoU2,lB86. 



read in Deut. xxx. 6, "The Lord thy God 
will circimicise thy heart, and the heart of 
thy seed, to love the Lord thy God with all 
thy heart, and with all thy Bonl, that thou 
mayest live." Thus an Israelite who, ac- 
cording to the commandment, had made the 
law his meditation, might become impressed 
with the necessity of regeneration, and was 
in a position at once to appreciate the teach- 
ing of the apostle when he says, ** He is not 
Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that 
circumcision which is outward in the flesh ; 
but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and 
circumcision is that of the heart in the 
spirit, and not in the letter, whose praise is 
not of men, but of God." The very fiact 
that circumcision was omitted during the 
space of forty years, and that, moreover, at 
the time when Moses himself stood at the 
head of the theocracy, conveyed the practical 
lesson regarding the secondary value of the 
ceremonial, when compared with the moral 
law and of the outward act, when compared 
with the disposition of him that performed 
it. The generation that had come out from 
Egypt were circumcised, yet were they 
excluded from the promised land, because 
they believed not ; their children, who were 
not circumcised, entered it because they be- 
lieved. As the promises were made to 
£aithfril Abraham, not in circumcision, but 
in uncircumcision (Bom. iv. 10 — -12), so did 
likewise the great body of his descendants 
get possession even of the temporal part of 
the promise in uncircumcision because they 
believed, or, in New Testament phraseology, 
" By fidth, not by works of the law." 

The people were, moreover, not left by 
Moses without some data, from which they • 



might reasonably, and with some degree of 
certainty, infer that a dbange of the law and 
a different administration of the covenant 
were impending. The promise that all tiie 
fiunilies of the earth should be blessed in 
Abraham could not possibly be fulfilled so 
long as it was a condition of membership in 
the theocracy that the person should be a 
lineal descendant of Jacob ; nor could the 
promise, made likewise antecedently -to the 
giving of the law on Sinai, agreeably to 
which the people of Israel were to be a royal 
priesthood — kings and prieats to their God — 
be aecomplished, so long as those offices 
were herediUiry, the one in the £Eiinily of 
Aaron, and the other in the &m]ly of sodi 
an one as the Lord would, in case of emer- 
gency, appoint. The scheme that would 
harmonize with the order of things as 
established by Moses, and at the same time 
meet the exigency, wh«reby the (}entiles 
should be fellow-heirs and of i^ same boc^, 
and partakers of the promise made to faith- 
ful Abraham, was indeed a mystery, hidden 
from the wisest and the most prudent; yet 
there oould be no doubt in the mind of the 
intelligent inquirer tiiat it would be of a 
higher order than that under whioih he 
himself lived, and that He who would intro- 
duoe it would be of a higher order than 
Moses. By an effort of the mind, suoh an 
Israelite might conceive the typical nature 
of the external ordinanoes of l^e Mosaie 
economy, and by a revelation of tiie Holy 
Ghost — ^who, as the Father and the Son, 
wrought and worketh always — ^he might get 
some insight into the spiritual realilaee whiefa 
those types pr^gured, and a glimpse of Hnn 
whose day Abraham saw, and was glad. 



The Seatterad IfatioDn 
July 2, 1886. J 



BEBBEW'CRBISTIAN ALLIANCE. 



168 



HEBEEW-CHRISTIAN ALLIANCE.— H. 



BY THE EDITOE. 



Is our last number the promise was made 
to give some more details anent the forma- 
tion of an alliance of Hebrew-Christians. 
It is not my intention to report minutely 
what was said by this or that brother, but 
rather to give a general view of the proceed- 
ings of the day, or siunmary of the subjects 
broughl^ under our notice, and to describe 
the steps which were taken to bring about 
snch a meeting. 

Since April, 1 865, severalJewish Christians 
have met regularly every second and fourth 
Wednesday in each month, and gradually 
formed themselves into a Hebrew-Christian 
Union. Their object was, as stated in our 
first number, to promote social and frequent 
personal intercourse, to stir up and stimu- 
late one another in the endeavour to unite 
with, and work for, our brethren, and to search 
the Scriptures together, relating specially to 
Israel and Israel's Elng. From ten to fifteen 
regularly met; and many a time have we 
felt the presence of the Lord in our midst» 
and rejoiced in his goodness. In these simple 
and unpretending meetings, the necessity 
of a Home was fully discussed, and the 
programme for this periodical was fixed 
apon. God, who delighteth in choosing small 
and weak things to accomplish his glorious 
designs, has thus used and honoured the 
small Hebrew-Christian Union to bring 
fbrih the Jews' Home and ** The Scattebed 
Nation." 

It was then suggested to invite as many 
Hebrew- Christians as could easily be reached, 
to meet on a certain day in the school-room 
of Trinity Chapel, John Street, Edgware 
Boad, and accordingly the following note 
was addressed to brethren belonging to 
difierent denominations : — 

LoNDOK, 4, St. Leonakd^s CUkdxns, 

AptH 25, 1866. 

Dkab Bbothxb,— It has ooonnned to us that 

it would be desirable and profitable that as many 

InaeHtes Wha bolieye in Jesos as can be brought 

together ahonld meet in London on the 23rd of 

Our object is to become aoqnanttad with 
fle-aBofther, and tolie teflt up In otBr hoiy fidth. 



There are special ties which bind va together as 
descendants of Abraham, and we beliere that this 
e(»ferenoe for pester and oonsnltation ndgfat 
iflaae in a permanent onion of Jewish Christian 
brethren in this land. 

We do not come before y«a with any definite 
plans for action, bnt would simply say that, aa 
there exists an Evangelical and a Jewish, an 
Hebrew- Christian Alliance also might be formed. 

We trust that yon feel with ns the desirable- 
ness and importance of snch a meeiang, and that 
we may reckon on joxxr presenee and on yonr 
prayers. 

An eady reply, sent to the address of I>r. 
Schwartz, woald greatty d^lige. 

With the prayer that the Lord may blessns all. 
Dear brother, yours very sincerely, 

(Signed) A. D. Heeschblk. 
H. Liebstein. 

M. MAEeOLIOUTH. 

T. E. Neuman. 

A. PiTOWSKY. 

J. Steinhaedt. 
A. Saphie. 
C. ScirwABrz. 

The Bev. A. M. Meyer, Dr. M. Schnlhof, and 
other brethren, have promised to attend. 

The following was the programtme issued 
on the occasion : — 

Programme of proceedings at the meeting of 
Hebrew-OhristiBDs, to be held on Wednesday, 
May 28, 1866, at the Sohool-room, John Street, 
JBdgware Hoad (Dr. Schwartz's). Morning meet- 
ing at eleven o'dook. Prayer ; Paper on " The 
State of Converted Jews in England," by the 
Eev. Dr. Margolionth ; Paper on "The State of 
Converted Jews on the Continent," by the Bev. 
Dr. Schwartz. Evening meeting at six o'clock. 
Addresses on "The Desirableness and Import- 
anoe of an Hebrew-Christian Alliance," will be 
ddiveved by the Bev. A. M. Meyer, inonmbent 
of All Saints, Dalston, and the Bev. Dr. 
Ginsbnrgf LiverpooL Opportunity will be given 
after each of the above papers and addresses for 
the free expressian of opinion on the part of the 
brethren present. 

AH was done prwaidif, as we thought it 
desirable to begin quietly and nnostenta- 
tionsly. ^e invitation was addressed to 
Hebretw-Chzistiaiis excbusioeh/f in order to 
allow ovmelTOE ftdl freeden in speakiBg 



164 



KEBBEW'GHBISTIAN ALLIANCE. 



Jolj 2, 1806. 



about our Jewish brothren. Our (Jentile- 
Christian brethren cannot always under- 
stand the mind and manners of the Jews, 
just as little as we oan feel exacUy like those 
who have moved in a Christian atmosphere 
from the earliest daj's of their life. Should 
it please Gk>d to favour the Alliance, and to 
give it strength and increase, then it will 
be our privilege and pleasure to invite our 
Grentile-Ohristian brethren, and to tell 
them all we, as Hebrew-Ohristians, wish to 
say to the Church ; and I doubt not that 
many will cordially accept such an invita- 
tion. For I am fully couvinced that thou- 
sands, tens of thousands, of Christians of 
aU denominations in Great Britain love 
Israel for the fathers', for the Lord's sake, 
and are most willing to hear what we as 
Hebrews and as Christians are anxious to 
submit to their kind and prayerful consider- 
ation. If our Jewish brethren who reject the 
claims of Jesus to the Messiahship, could 
perceive how many Gentile-Christians love 
them heartily for that very Jesus' sake, 
in whom they acknowledge the glory of 
Israel, and find their own light, life, and 
salvation ; if they could understand that the 
more a Christian takes that Word which 
testifies to Jesus of Nazareth as the guide 
of his conduct, the more he loves the people 
of the King of Israel, they would then 
understand that the disciples of Jesus are 
their true friends, and that Jesus is the 
hope of Israel. For it has pleased the Lord 
so to connect Israel with Jesus, that Jesus' 
glory will not be complete without the 
restoration of Israel, and Israel's hope can- 
not be realized without the exaltation of and 
entire submission to Jesus. But I must not 
enlarge on this all-important topic, as my pre- 
sent object is rather to tell you something 



about the formation and aim of the Hebrew- 
Christian Alliance. 

Our invitation met with a brotherly re- 
ception, and though several were prevented 
from being with us, all, with one single 
exception, expressed themselves highly gra- 
tified at the prospect of such a meeting, 
and several brethren made a special efibrt to 
be on that day in London. I simply mention 
these facts in order that our readers may 
understand at once that all our brethren 
sympathized with the proposed Alliance, 
and that on the day of the meeting not one 
dissentient voice was heard. All the pro- 
ceedings were characterized by great fruik- 
ness of expression and brotherly cordiality, 
by Hebrew warmth and Christian love 
blended together harmoniously. 

We may boldly say that sudi a gathering 
of corwerted Jews exclusively had not been 
witnessed since the early days of the Chris- 
tian Church, and we could not but feel that 
it behoved us to begin our meeting with that 
glorious song which calls upon all the land to 
make a joyful noise before the Lord, and to 
serve the Lord with gladness. Yes, our 
hearts rejoiced in the Lord, who as our 
good Shepherd had made us to be numbered 
among his sheep, and the joy of our God 
was the strength of our hearts. The voice 
of praise was heard, and heart-stirring 
prayers were sent up to Him who inclines his 
ear to the voice of supplication. We fdt 
the presence, we experienced the precious- 
ness, we were satisfied with the goodness of 
theLord,we spoke of Him to one another,and 
to Him on all that concerns the salvation of 
Israel and the hope of the Church, and on 
our temporal and eternal interests. It 
pleased Him to reveal Himself to our souls 
as He does not reveal Himself to the world. 



THE KAJIAITE JEWS.— L 

BY OXE OF THBlf. 



Investigators into the origin of the Karaites 
fail to trace them to any definite period or per- 
sonal inaognrator, like the followers of Babbi 
Hillel and Babbi Schammai ; so that one of the 
ancient Karaites boasts that those who were left 
behind in the Holy Land daring the varions cap- 
tivities of Israel, and also of Jndah, were the 
Karaites alone ; and he confesses that in his day, 
abont A.D. 780, to be a Karaite was to be as a 
dog to Jew and Gentile. Sach seems to have 
be^ their position until 1681, when Babbi 



Abraham Ben-Dioz thus wrote— I qnote the 
Latin of Triglandius :— " Karaais .... nihil nn- 
qnam boni Israeli prasstifcenmt, neo libnun 
edidenmt nllnm ad legem confirmandam perti- 
nentem, vel nllom aliad sapientiae monnmentnm, 
imo ne canticnm qnidem aut solatimn, sod moti 
snnt canes, qui latrare non possunt;*' which I 
thus translate :— " The Karaites never bestowed 
any good thing npon Israel, not even any book 
tending to confirm the law, or any other evi- 
dence of wisdom — not so much indeed as a book 



July 2, I860. J 



THE KARAITE JEWS. 



1C5 



or a word of consolation — bnt they are dumb 
dogs who know not how to bark.*' 

They strongly deprecate the designation of 
sect, schism, or puiy, and declare that they do 
not connect themselves with any of the yarioos 
sects which are to be found among dispersed 
Israel. 

As their name implies, they are " Beaders," 
and individual or family worshippers, who, since 
the dispersion, have not imposed upon themselves 
any obligatory du^ to attend synagogue or any 
other assembly. Nevertheless, at several Synods 
of the rabbis from all the winds of heaven, 
and especially at the great one in a.d. 606, they 
prescribed, defined, and promulgated philologica] 
roles of grammatical construction, which have 
since been most sedulously taught, as a com- 
parison of one of their discourses a few years 
ago with those of their ancient rabbis — as, for 
instance, Simeon Ben-Schetach~will demon- 
strate, and which operates as a comprehensive 
creed of faith. Attendance at synagogue was 
only recommended where 19 families were living 
within a radius of 1270 cubits— or 1 English 
mile and 145 yards, assuming 18 inches to be a 
cnbit. 

The whole of the Bible (except the writings 
of Job and Solomon, by adults, and the Song of 
Solomon, certain portions of Leviticus, and the 
visions of Ezekiel, by those under the age of 
twenty years) was required to be read through 
by each person in a year, and the adults were to 
read also Job and Solomon during the Week of 
Tabernacles, beginning at Genesis on the New 
Moon Day in April or Passover Moon. From the 
first of Genesis to the twelfth of Exodus is 
divided into thirteen portions of daily reading, 
when the twelfth of Exodus becomes regularly 
in sequence the portion for the eve of the four- 
teenth day of that moon ; and those who do not, 
for any of seventy-two specified causes or hin- 
drances, read to the end of the thirteenth of 
Exodus (as well as other portions selected for 
the affliction day and feast days before the end 
of Passover) are to observe also a second Pass- 
over in the second month or next moon. 

At the beginning of 1500, synagogues were 
established in Asia in considerable nimibers, but 
in Europe there were still few, if any, and a 
fierce contest arose as to the legality of syna- 
gogues, which the European Karaites denied. 
After a search in the historical books of the 
Talmudist Jews, and other extraneous channels, 
without avail, for the ori^n of synagogues, the 
question was, strangely enough, ultimately de- 
cided by the New Testament, as the only histori- 
cal book which showed the unbroken succession 
of the synagogue services from Moses to the 
dispersion. They then ordained that the Scrip- 
tures alone were to be read in the synagogues, 
and every Sabbath and feast day always a portion 
of Moses. 

Before 1600, however, a course of synagogue 
instruction by the rabbis of the youths who 
were between the ages of fifteen and twenty, 
preparatory to their own assumption of their 
'Qwa respective responsibilities to Him, was in- 
stituted; and from the allusions made to the 
teaching of that age, it seems that warning and 
exclusion from the Talmudist Jews, and also 
from Uie Gentiles, was the course pursued. It 



appears also that, undesignedly, a course of ex- 
position arose, from the circumstance, first of 
mothers and guardians remaining in the syna- 
gogue during the time of preaching or expound- 
ing to the youths, and afterwards the whole 
community within the radius of each synagogue, 
and the directions of the Synod of 606 were 
made the basis of the synagogue offices. 

Each New Moon Day was a partial Sabbath, 
when those who possessed the sole control of their 
own actions were, unless they could offer one of 
sixteen excuses — one of which reminds me of the 
man who had bought five yoke of oxen, viz., to have 
acquired anything the day before and intended 
to use it on the New Moon Day— to attend one 
service at the synagogue. The Sabbath claimed 
three full services : evening, morning, and after- 
noon. On a Sabbath feast day an extraordinary 
reading took place at the three services, adapted 
to each especial feast. All the fasts, especially 
the Day of Atonement, were kept by each fSomily 
separately, at home in their own houses, each of 
which fast days was announced during the pre- 
ceding Sabbath's afternoon service by every one 
present audibly residing after the master of the 
synagogue Isa. Iviii. 6 — 13, and at the same time 
holdxQg the very same words, written on vellum 
and enclosed in the totaph enjomed Ex. xiii. 16, 
between their eyes towards heaven, after the 
ordinary service of that Sabbath; hence it is 
said, "a fast is a foast to the poor.4Md heal- 
ing to the sick" — the philology of theKa»Ites 
admits a wide signification to the word " sick," 
so that " healing the sick " means freedom from 
servitude or restraint, and most magnanimous 
acts of liberality on fast days are on record. 

To compute the times, to trace the Messiah, 
or to read the books of others upon the subject, 
are most grave offences, severally liable to ex- 
communication ; and each person is taught to 
" sigh for" (the word) the coming in glory of the 
Messiah before sleeping each night, and again 
this is to be the first thought and "sigh" on 
awaking in the morning. 

The master of the synagogue, officially, solely 
within his own capacity, is to see or visit each 
family once a week, unless debarred by nume- 
rous exemptions;, and the lay elder, who is 
elected yearly, is to look after the state of 
health and finances of the poor also once each 
week, without exemption, because he can ap- 
point whomsoever he chooses to be temporarily 
his substitute. 

The master of the synagogue is to decide 
every quarrel or difference between two persons 
or families, which they evade as much as pos- 
sible, and throw the onus of decision upon the 
elders, when means of reconciliation have failed. 

Marriage in their own community is urgently 
recommended where practicable; but, as they 
are in Europe a scattered people, in any place 
which is distant more than between 21 and 22 
miles from any other place where there are 19 
families, and consequently a synagog^ie, marriage 
with any other sect or race is permitted, upon 
condition that the stranger shall have become, 
previously to the marriage, a fully admitted 
member, whereby the person is dead to his or 
her former race, and circumcised a Elaralte. 

Circumcision is operated on the eighth day, 
by the fiither or other person, without ceremony, 



166 



TEE ANNIVEBSAItlBS. 



p?he 



Jnija^iasa. 



when a notioe is sefnt to the nearest rabbi or 
maetor of a synagogoe, containing the name and 
place of /oircnmciman of the grandfinthers, and 
ather and motiier (if a bom KareUte), and name 
of the ohild, which are yearly collect ; and a 
doien or more years ago (though I have heard 
some alterations have smce been made) tiie cer- 
tificates of circumcision of those bom in Europe 
were transmitted to Constantinople, and those 
of AfHoa to Alexandria. Marriages and deaths 
are similarly forwarded to the an^ves. 

Private feasts at weaning, marriage, or elec- 



tion to be an dder or rabbi, are entirely optiaiial, 
but, where a few families are near, generaL 

There is a prohibition, stigmatized wiUi a 
onrse, npon any commentary, exposition, or exe- 
gesis whatever to the Hebrew S<^ptnres, exoepfe 
by the written permission of a rabbi; aod 
nnder the like cane, every parent is to teacii 
the children to read and write only the Hebrew 
character of letters which is in the printed 
Bibles, fWmi the time of weaning to admiflidon 
of self-reqx)nsibility, in the philological Tnannfir 
settled in 606 a.d. 



THE ANNTVEBSAJaiBS.— IL 



We now publish the concluding notes of these 
meetings, omitted last moni^ fhxm want of space. 

THS BRITISH SOCIKTT FOE FROMOTINO CHRIS- 
TIANITY AMONG THE JfilVS 

Met on May 8 at ihe Hanover Square Booms. 
There was a good, though not crowded attend- 
ance. Lord Calthorpe, President of the Society, 
was absent firom illness, and Mr. B. C. Hanbury, 
H.P., occupied tiie chair. This Society, as its 
name imports, has a similar olirject to that of the 
London Society, but is not like that in connec- 
tion with the Church of England. 

The venerable Secretary, who has read the 
report at the last twenty-three anniversaries, 
with a touching allusion to his advancing years, 
requested the Rev. Mr. Gill to perform that duty. 

The report, which contained many encourag- 
ing fads respecting the progress of the work, 
stated that the income for the past year was 
^619 19s. Of d., being in advance of the previous 
year by £445 6s. 3d. The expenditure was 
£7846 12s. 2id., being £715 13s. 7d. more than 
last year, the increase being mainly caused by 
the appointment of new missionaries and the 
remo^ of old ones. The receipts firom the 
associations this year have exceeded those of the 
year preceding by £481 2s. lOJd., while in sub- 
scriptions and donations there has been a decline 
of£897 4s.Oid. 

The Chairman, in his opening remarks, re- 
feiTed to his visit to the Holy Land, and to the 
fulfilment of prophecy, even in minute particu- 
lars, which ho had there witnessed. Gftie pro- 
phecies, which were yet future, would as surely 
be ftilfilled in their turn, and so a blessing must 
rest npon all who were engaged in the wwk of 
this Society. Whether i£ey belonged to one 
denomination or to another, mattered not; so 
long as they preserved the unity of the Spirit in 
the bond of peace, they would attract both Jew 
and Gtentile. They must all feel that a solemn 
responsibility attended the possession of the 
blessings of the gospel — that of disseminating 
it as widely as possible. 

The first resolution, which rejoiced in ** the 
increasing readiness of the Jewish people to 
receive the message of the gospel," and offered 
praise to Qod that the labours of the missionaries 
had been sustained, and in many instances fol- 
lowed by success, was moved by 

The Bev. J. Glendenning, who spoke of the 
various hindrances to the progress of the gospel 



among the Jews, especially the corrupt fonns of 
Christianity with which they were often mort 
familiar, and of the necessity of reprodncxng in 
these times our religion in its primitive aqpeot 
of holiness and love. 

Major-General Groodwyn, in seconding tbe 
resolution, dwelt upon the gratifying stat^neni 
that the Jews showed increatvng readiness -to 
receive tiie gospel, as a strong inducement to 
press forward more earnestly in the woxk. It 
was right to send missionaries over the world, 
but the whole tenor of the g^ospel murratiYe 
^owed that they ought to be sent ** to the Jew 
firet." They did not expect to bring about a 
national conversion. God would in his own time 
accomplish that, and Jerusalem would yet be the 
metropolis of the vrorld. But in the mean time 
the work of individual conversion went on, and 
the Jewish converts had a strong claim on tiie 
sympathy of Christians. It often hs^ppened thai 
he was called upon literally and absolutely to 
forsake all and follow Christ, and what he 
needed was not the cup of cold water, but i^ 
ministrations of a real and laige-hearted bene- 
volence. 

The second resolution, which set f<»rth the 
importance of earnest and importunate prayer 
for the Divine blessing, vras moved by 

The Bev. C. Bailhache, who in the course of 
his address remarked that the best auxiliaries to 
missionary work among the Jews had been 
raised up outside the Christian Church. The 
removal of Jewish disabilities, which had made 
the Jew socially the equal of the Englishman, 
and tended to divest his mind of former |Hrejii- 
dices, was not the result of a united effort of the 
Chureh, but of other influences. 

Mr. Hahershon seconded the reeolntion. 
When a yoiong believer, his sympathies were 
attracted towards the Jews by reading the wocks 
of Charlotte Elizabeth ; and twenty years after- 
wards he made the acquaintance of tiie late Bev. 
Bidley Herschell, and was privileged to travel an 
the continent with him for nearly a month, and 
witnessed his earnest pleading with those of his 
countrymen whom he met on the journey. Mr. 
Habershon proceeded to picture the trying 
position in which many of the missionaries w^« 
placed, and to advocate earnestly the claims of 
this Society upon Christians, expressing his 
belief that Gk)d's blessing rested in a special 
manner on the head of those who sought to do 
good to Israel. 



Jniy 2, isea. J 



TEE ANNIVEB8AEIES. 



167 



The Bar. J. Stongfatcn moved the third reeo* 
fartion, amd r^atod same interestiiig patitioiilan 
of his joiiRley last year to the H0I7 Land. He 
Bpc^e espeoiaUy of his emotiooB as he ti«velled 
iliroiigh the deeert on ihe Ibototeps of the chil- 
dren of Israel, and at length reached Sinai. He 
eonld not reflect upon all he owed to the Jews 
without feeling that they had strong claims on 
vfl. When he stood beside Jacob's Well, now in 
rmxm, amidst scenery scarcely surpassed in 
Fa i e oti ne, with Mount Gerizim on one aide and 
Mount £bal on the other, and near to ^le stUl 
flourishing oity of Nabloos, he oovdd not bmt 
remember the words which our Loid spoke on 
that Teiy spot, " Sahration is of the Jews." And 
to whom ddd we owe the message of the g«spel 
if not to Jews? Our blessed Lord Himself 
was according to the fledi a Jew, and the 
sposUee and the writers of tiie New Testa- 
neat were Jews. But in order that we 
mi^t Dsel something of the weight of our de^^t 
of gratitude, it was necessary to consider the 
condition in which the Jews are now. He should 
never forget the visit he paid to the Jews' 
Wailing-Place at Jerusalem. He arrived at the 
Holy City on Friday, the Mussulman Sabbath, 
and after resting awhile at an hotel, he at three 
o'clock threaded his way through winding streets 
and dark passages to a durk narrow yard, 
between two walls, one of which was formed of 
gigantic blocks of marble piled one upon the 
other, with wild flowers growing between the 
erevioes. On that spot were gaUiered together 
a number of Jews, old men and old wom^i, 
bi»i vM"g their foreheads against the wall, sway- 
ing to and firo, and uttering the most piteous 
lamentations. Many persons had supposed that 
this was hypocrisy, but he could not conceive of 
these pe<^le as hypocrites, and he was told that 
they often rise in the dead of night, when no eye 
aeea them, to mourn over the desolation of 
Jerusalem. He was glad to learn, in conversa- 
tion with the Episcopal missionaries, that the 
Jews did not exldbit nearly so ibuoh prqjudioe 
against the goipel as they used to do. As it 
had been remarked, the intercourse of Jews and 
OhristiMu showed a gradual removal of preju- 
dice on both sides. lu his view, it was a most 
gratifying fact that the chief magistrate of the 
greatest city in the world was a Jew, and it was 
evident firom the reports <^ his speeches that he 
was a man of no ordinary culture. He (Mr. 
Stoughton) could not conceive of Jews being 
Inroaght into this state of social sympathy with 
Christians without great good resulting from it 
to the Jewish people. He had been struck when 
on the continent with the evidences of increased 
intelligence and culture among the Jews, and 
these things were, he consid^^, fhll of encou- 
ragement to persevere in the labours of this 
Society. 

Mr. Alfred Bookor, of Plymouth, having 
seconded the resolution, it was adopted, as were 
also the preceding ones ; and the proceedings 
ended. 

The last meeting which we shall have occa- 
sion to report was that of 

XHC OPSBATITX JKWISH CONVBRTS' INSTITUTION, 

which took place on May 10 at the London 
Tkvem. Although under difierent management. 



and supported by separate frmds, this Assooia- 
faon is an oflfehoot of the London Society. Tho 
chair was taken by the Hon. Edward Douglas. 

Hie report stated that during the last 85 
years 540 converts have received the benefits of 
the Association. ^Hiere are at present 14 
inmates, and altogether 48 persons have been 
assisted in various ways dming the year. A 
number of inmates have been received, of whose 
conduct the committee are able in some cases to 
report very favourably, and in others the reverse. 
Several have left to enter various employments. 
Tlie Institution has undergone greaf changes 
daring the year, a sum of £200 having been 
spent in adding to Hbe comfort of the inmates, 
tmd a sphrit of content and happiness displays 
itself amongst them. Various unsought proofis ' 
of the ' urafhlness of tiie Institution have 
come under the notice of the committee during 
the past year, lie contributions during the 
year vrere £1027 158. 7d., being an increase 
over the previous year of £479 lOs. Id. The 
receipts for printing were £4422 7s. 4d., an 
increase of £1018 Is. 2d. The treasurer has in 
hand £419 2s. 6d., but £300 will be appUed in 
part payment of the cost of a new steam-engine 
and perfecting machine, and the remainder is 
swallowed up by the increase of current expenses 
consequent on ^e enhanced price of provisions, 
etc. The total cost of the needed improvements 
vrill be £600, and the committee appeal to their 
friends for the balance of £300 required. Clifton, 
Bath, and Liverpool have been added to the list 
of Associations during the year, and other large 
towns are expected to follow. In respect to i£e 
spiritual work, the committee dwell upon the 
difficulty of teaching men of many lands and 
many languages, ignorant of ihe spirituality of 
the Christian religion, and cut off from heme iaes 
and associations. They pcnnt, however, to such 
men as Stem and Bosenthal, once inmates, and 
to other missionaries whom they have sent out 
from the Institution, and who are engaged in 
preaching the gospel in different localities, in 
proof thfS^ the l^iety is one worthy the support 
of all to whom the Lord's work is defu*. 

The first resolution, which was of a formal 
<^iaracter, was moved by 

The Bev. W. B. Fremantle, who said that 
many of the labourers connected with the Society 
gave their woric fineely without remuneration. 
The Jewish converts had a claim upon the Chris- 
tian Church for temporal help, for they were 
frequently out off from all other resources, but 
at tiie same time it was most desirable that this 
aid should be given in a fonn which would be of 
permanent benefit to the recipient, rfnd enable 
him to get his own living. This Society was emi- 
nently practical in its operations, and it went 
back to the ancient custom by which every Jew 
was taught a trade. The example of Paul 
showed how suitable such a training was, 
wbether the inmates afterwards proved them- 
selves fitted for a missionary life or not. It was 
pot improbable that Aquila and Priscilla were 
converted through holding converse with Piaul, 
as he sat, needle in hand, engaged in his work of 
tent-maldng. Paul was never idle. When we 
peruse the account of his shipvrreck we see t^t 
the man who read the purpose of Qod, who 
believed the Word of God, was a tiioroughly 



168 



TEE ALGERIAN JEWS. 



rSeftttflred Vation, 
Jolj 2, 1866. 



practical man, for as Boon as he reached the 
shore we find him gathering sticks to make a fire. 
Snch was the spirit in which this Society endea- 
yom*ed to act. 

The Bev. A. Barker seconded the resolution. 

The Rev. W. H. Sterling moved the second 
resolution, to the efiect that while the evidences 
of the increasing usefubiess of the Society should 
excite a spirit of g^ratitude towards Almighty 
God, the dMculties of the work should stimulate 
Christians to earnest prayer for the promised 
outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon his ancient 
people, nhi the course of his remarks, Mr. Ster- 
ling said, that many who entered the Institution 
were foreign Jews, who had been driven from 
their own country by political or commercial 
difficulties, and who came here in search of 
employment. The Institution endeavoured to 
meet both their spiritual and temporal wants ; 
and it was in aoc(xrdance with the highest prin- 
ciples of political economy to help them — in an 
artificial manner, if need be — to help themselves. 
^ The Society did not hold out a premium to con- 
verts, nor minister to their amWtion, but only 



made them fit to earn a livelihood. It was cal- 
culated to put an end t« the abuse of nominaJIy 
converted Jews g^ng round the country with, 
begging petitions. The best course to take 
with such persons was to recommend them to 
connect themselves with an Institution like this, 
where they would be put in the vray of earning 
a living. 

The Eev. J. G. Tipper, formerly superin- 
tendent of the Institution, in the course of hia 
speech, in seconding the resolution, referred to 
^e journey of Dr. Beke to Abyssinia, with the 
view of procuring the release of the captives. 
He had formed one of a small party who met in 
a little room in Marlborough Street, in October 
last, to pray with Dr. Beke before he set oat ; 
and though it had pleased Grod that the release 
of the prisoners should be accomplished by the 
Government agent, still there was reason for 
thankfalness that Dr. Beke had been sent on 
his journey, for, from the day he left our shores, 
a spirit of prayer had been aroused which he 
believed had been the means of the deUveranoe 
of our brethren. 



THE ALGERIAN JEWS. 

FROM OUE OWN CORRESPOKDENT. 



Algiers, May 22, 1866. 

It may perhaps be interesting to notice, for 
the information of Israel's friends, the pastoral 
letter lately addressed to the Algerian Jews by 
their Chief Babbi here, in consequence of a decree 
of naturalization which was of late promulgated. 
The following is a translation of the address : — 

Dear Co-religionists, — Nearly eighteen cen- 
turies have now elapsed since the dreadful day 
when our forefathers escaped the massacres of 
Titus. They were compelled to focsake their 
beloved country, the Holy Land. To punish their 
crimes — with a twofold view : that of reminding 
them of their duties, and of being the means to 
spread the Mosaic doctrines in the world — 
Divine justice dispersed them throughout the 
four comers of the earth. 

Since then, driven everjrwhere by the tempest 
of hatredand fanaticism,and tossed upon this great 
social ocean, victims of the prejudices of some, 
and of the cupidity and jealousy of others, they 
and their children were thus forced from exile to 
exile, from one martyrdom to another, leaving 
behind all their earthly goods, but preserring 
intact the sacred deposit which Gtod gave to 
them on Horeb, and scattering the seed of our 
holy lawwherever Providence directed their path. 

About seventy-five years ago the mercy of God 
had raised us up a deliverer in the French nation. 
Enlightened by God, it generously acknowledged 
and redeemed its error and injustice towards us 
in the most noble manner — proclaiming the 
equality and fraternity of all men, and adopt- 
ing the French IsraeUtes as their legitimate 
children on the same footing with the rest qf 
their citizens. What France, that messenger 
of God, did in the year 1789 for our fore- 
fiithers in its metropolis she likewise began to 
effect for you in 1830, by emancipating you from 
secular and barbarous oppression; she has 
granted to you, according to the circumstances. 



all the rights and liberties compatible with your 
social education and local circumstances, of our 
colony; she has procured for you a welfiu« 
unknown to your forefathers, and has kindled 
amongst you the quickening torch of instruction 
and civilization, whereby you are by degrees 
warmed and enlightened. The Emperor, reacb^ 
to accede to your solicitations, and appreciating 
your progress and the lawfulness of your wishes, 
was inspired by God, in the impulse of mag- 
nanimity, to accomplish the work of justice and 
kindness commenced in 1830, and to remove the 
last barrier which still separated your generous 
fellow-citizens. By the resolution of the Senate 
of the 14th of July, 1865, on the subject of your 
naturalization, he opened for you widely the gates 
of our glorious country ; by the ministerial regu- 
lations of the 2Ist of April last he invited you to 
enter. 

Dear oo-religionists, you have not been 
deceived in confiding your destinies to imperial 
justice. Show, therefore, to your noble deliverer 
that he too has not been deceived in your senti- 
ments of patriotism ; prove that your petitions 
were sincere, your solicitations true and thought- 
ful, that they were the effect of an earnest desire 
to be raised to the dignity of French citizens, 
to take an active part in the. privations of the 
country, as well as the rights and privileges it 
confers. Show that you do consider it as a great 
favour and honour conferred upon you, to be 
invited to amalgamate in everything that neither 
affects your religion nor your Divine worship 
with the French nation, the most generous and 
the most civilized in the world. And how could 
it be otherwise ? The naturalization, which yon 
have ceased to solicit these twelve years past, 
and to which are attached all the civil and poli- 
tical rights, does it require of you to make any 
sacrifice of your religious and moral faith ? No, 
on the contrary, the French constitution is a 



July 3, 18M. J 



INTELLIGENCE. 



169 



goaraniee for the liberty of oonsoienoe ; the 
exercise of our religion finds a support and 
an all-powerful protection. Will a desire to 
preserve yonr particnlar laws, prevent yon 
from entering on the glorious path opened to 
you? What? Vill you refuse, after you have 
sought as the most precious of blessing^, a 
countiy like France, for the feeble advantages 
which the right of practising polygamy and 
divorce offers — things that are as much repug- 
nant to an enlightened religion as to modem 
civilization. Yes, religion, in tolerating them, 
has only done it by force of circumstances, 
which have materially changed our character 
and sentiments from those of our fathers. Grod 
only gave to Adam one single woman, and 
the Talmud says, " The altar sheds tears for the 
wife that is divorced." But your European 
brethren have renounced many centuries ago 
that right, so little in harmony with the customs 
of modern civilization, and the great msgority of 
you have done so many years ago. Tou will also 



understand, my brethren, that it is an honour 
and a duty for you to be associated in heart and 
soul with your fellow-citizens in the work and 
sacrifice which the country demands ; to watch 
for its safety, and be ready for its defence in 
case of necessity. 

My brethren, we are about to celebrate the 
feast for the giving of the law, the living and 
inexhaustible fountain of moral and intellectual 
freedom for Israel in particular, and for the 
human race in genenJ. Let us join, my 
brethren, to our thanksgiving^ of that solemn 
feast those which you owe, next to God, to 
France, for the civil and political emancipation 
which the Emperor offers to you, and which you 
will readily accept, in blessing your august 
sovereign and your noble fellow-citizens. 
(Signed) L. Cohen, 

The Chief Babbi of the Central 
Algerian Consistory. 

Algiers, May 15, 1866. 



INTELLIGENCE. 



W« read in the " Jewish Chronicle " that at 
a late meeting at Luxembourg succeMful 
attempts were made to apply Arends' system of 
shorthand to Hebrew. 

A Nirw weekly journal in the Polish language, 
entitled <*Izraelita" (The Israelite), has re- 
cently appeared at Yarsovia, under the editor- 
ship of M. S. H. Peltyn. 

In the Mormon city at Salt Lake, it is stated 
that there are forty Jewish inhabitants who form 
a separate community, dwelling in the midst of 
the Mormons unmolested, and are in prosperous 
circumstances. 

The French Academy has awarded the 
fMiTinikl prize for poetry to M. Eugene Manuel, 
for his volume, entitled ** Pages Intimes." 

Babbi Aristide Astruo, colleague of the 
Ghief-Babbi of Paris, has just been nominated 
Chief-Babbi of Belgium. The votes of the Bel- 
gian consistory were almost unanimously in his 
finrour. 

Japan. — Sixteen Jews, the only ones in 
Japan, are at present living at the port of 
Kanagawa. The reports of the existence of a 
numerous tribe in the interior of the country, 
appear to be without foundation. 

New Yoxk. — The Board or Jewish Dele- 
gates. — The "Jewish Messenger" states that this 
Board is steadily growing in strength and influ- 
ence, and anticipates that the annual meeting 
at New York, which was to have taken place 
during the past month, woxdd be more nume- 
rously attended than last year. The Board has 
been constituted for the purpose of effecting 
a union among American Israelites for objects in 
which all have a comndon interest. Its attention 
is at present particularly occupied with the 
question of education, and it aims at the esta- 
blishment of a Hebrew college. 

A Strange Decision. — At Cincinnati, n.S., 
a Jewish husband recently applied to the Court 
of Common Pleas for a divorce, on the ground 
that his wife had been guilty of adultery. The 
judge, however, refused the application, and 



declared that it could not be entertained ; " for 
the Court does not know," he said, " that such a 
crime exists among the Jews." Whatever we 
may think of such a decision in point of law, a 
stronger testimony to the morality of Israel, 
from a source more completely disinterested, 
could scarcely be conceived. 

Jerusalem. — The "Israelite Indeed" (New 
York) quotes the following paragraph from the 
"Herald of Life":— 

" A private letter from Jerusalem informs me 
that the house intended for the residence of his 
Holiness, whenever he feels inclined or forced to 
take another flight, is being built in that city. 
I leave this fiEust to the meditation of the pro* 
phetic students among your readers. Our Jan- 
senists, the only members, I believe, of the 
Catholic Church who make a conscientious study 
of prophecy, declare that Antichrist is to sit on 
Peter's chair at Bome, ' whence evil has ever 
come ;' they will probably regard the possible 
flight of an amiable man, too weak to stem the 
torrent of Ultramontane doctrine and practice, 
as the preliminaxy act in the last grea,t drama of 
darkness, which they daily expect, and which, 
after a terrible sifting-time, is to usher in the 
reformation of religion, the conversion and re- 
storation of Israel, and the personal reign of our 
Lord. I know some who are daily in earnest 
prayer that the Spirit of God may revive and 
reform their Church. I need not repeat that 
these are regarded as black sheep, or worse than 
Protestants, by the real Bomish Church, and 
they 80 far deserve the name that they are not 
on firm, clear ground, but persist in calling 
themselves members of a Church whose inflBdlible 
decrees they disbelieve and reject." 

The Jews at KAi-ruNG-roo. — The interest- 
ing statement of Bishop Smith at Exeter Hall, 
respecting the isolated Jewish colony in China, 
will be fresh in the recollection of our readers. 
A correspondent of the " Jewish Chronicle," at 
Shanghai, furnishes the following additional 
information, obtained by Dr. W. Martin during 



170 



INTELLIGENOB. 



rriie 8<Mttt«red ITstiOB, 
L Jalj 2, 1906. 



a recent visit to Kai-fung-foo, on his jooraey 
from Peking to Hftnko, across the country: — * 
'* There are between 300 and 400 Jews at 
present, inclnding both sexes and all ages, living 
at Eai-fxing-foo, in the province of Honan. 
Their rabbi died fifty or sixty years ago, since 
which time the rite of drcnmciuon has ceased 
to be observed. They are very poor. Daring 
the rebellionin the province, six years ago, they 
pulled down their falling synagogue, and sold 
the timber and stones, to buy food. They hafve 
four rolls of parchments in the Hebrew cha- 
racter, but no one of them is able to read the 
Hebrew. They speak Chinese, and wear tiMir 
(the Chinese) peculiar kind of dress, and are 
gradually being absorbed by Mohammediuiism, 
with which they are surrounded, and by i^iioh 
they have been long oppressed. The great 
stone that was formerly over the door of the 
synagog^, was remoyed to a Hohammedftn 
mosque near at hand. Inhere is a stone tablet 
remaining, which states that they (seventy 
fiamilies in all, of which only seven family names 
now remain) entered China from India with a 
present of cotton to the Emperor of China, and 
settled at that place (Kai-fung-foo). They also 
ooiresponded for many years with Jews that 
formerly lived at Hangchow and Ningpo, who 
were probably descendants of some of the 
seventy families above referred to. The tablet 
also states that they entered China and settled 
at Kai-ftmg-foo daring the Hlen dynasty ; and 
as there were two Hien dynasties — one 200 
years before the Christian era, and one 200 
years after — ^the time is not very definite, 
though it most have been 2000 years ago. Dr. 
Martin supposes that in another generation or 
two all traces of their being of Jewish descent 
will be lost, though now some bear Jewish 
foatures, and a slight knowledge that they are 
not quite Mohammedans. They appear to be 
merging into Mohammedanism, somewhat like a 
stream that gradually loses itself in the desert 
sand." The correspondent adds — ** Dr. Martin's 
lecture before the Asiatic Society, a week or two 
ago, upon the subject, will appear in their publi- 
oation, at the close of this year, here in Snang- 
hai. A missionaiy now belonging to the Ameri- 
can lipiscopal Church, and formerly a Jew, I 
believe, is going to them, with the view of trying 
to intercept Mohammedanism and introduce 
Christianity among them." 

THE OONTINBNT. 

In the fratricidal war which threatens to 
devastate the continent, not only Germans but 
Jews are likely to be found fighting against their 
brethren. A letter from Ferrara says : " On 
the eve of the grave events which are expected 
to complete the unity of Italy and our national 
independence, Jewish life here is more mono- 
tonous than nsual ; the only news is that since 
the election of M. Joseph Zuigi, another Israelite 
has entered the Chamber of Deputies. He is a 
Tuscan ; M. Pervadio, elected at Montepuldano. 
The war which is beginning, and in which the 
Jews will not fail to take their part, will doubt- 
less supply an abundant crop of intelligence. 

A ctiBKiCAL journal of Austria, the " Yolks- 
freund," says : " Necessity has no law ; if the 
State is obliged to depart from the strict line of 



right, it may apply to those into whose hands 
ookiesal fortunes have passed, and who, fiyr tn/m. 
hsving hitherto taken part in the vicissitiides of 
the empire, have only sought to turn them tc» 
their own pn^t." The trraelation of this para- 
graph, aoooiding to the " Arehives* Israelites," is, 
" Let us run to the Jews and rob them." The 
'< Neoseit" of Yiennastates that at Tamow (Qal- 
lioia), the Austrians raised the cry, " Zabime 
»di^' ("Letus kUl the Jews"), and that the^ 
hav« actually ecmumtted aobs of pillage upon 
the Jewish popalofcian. Gommeoting on these 
savage excesses, the " Neuzeit" ealls attention to 
the saoriftoes of money and blood which the 
Austrian Jews made infbrmerwars, aad to tiieir 
uaaoimous dedanttions of devdtedness at the 
present tisM. As s& example of the feeUng^ 
which animates them in this country, where 
they only partially enjoy the rights of oitiizeos, 
it is mentioned that a Jewish banking house att 
Vienna has announced its intention to matntean 
at its own cost 160 men daring the whole of the 
war. 

An act of consideration towards the Jews 
is reported from Wurtemberg, which contrasts 
favourably with the general tenor of continental 
news. Li consequence of the increased cost of 
the necessaries of life, the sum paid hj the 
Government to tutors and officiating ministers 
of the Hebrew persuasion has been increased by 
100 florins per annum. 

The " Presse," of Vienna, lately pointed out, 
in a lengthened article, the need existing for a 
college of Jewish theology in Austria, and called 
upon the Government to establish such an 
institution. There are in the Austrian empire a 
million of Jews, two millions of Greeks^ three 
millions of Protestants, and only forty-six 
thousand Unitarians; and while all the other 
denominations have numerous institutions of 
their own, even the Unitarians, the least 
numerous, possessing a theological institution, 
the Jews have only the institution at Padua, 
founded forty years ago, for the Lombardo- 
Venetian kingdom. This institution only re- 
ceived three new pupils in 1863. The so-called 
Rabbinical School at Presburg is not taken into 
the account, as the Talmud is here the exclu- 
sive subject of study— Biblical exegeaijB, and 
other kindred studies being completely neg- 
lected. In the present position of affairs on the 
continent, it can scarcely be expected that this 
proposal wiU receive immediate attention. 

AccoitDiNG to a correspondence from Servia, 
recently published, the position of the Jews in 
that coimtry has undergone considerable amelio- 
ration since the restoration of the Obrenowicz 
dvnasty to the Gbvemment of this Principality. 
The Jews of Belgrade are in possession of the 
right of voting for members of the Legislature, 
as well as of the Municipal Council, and of the 
thirty-two town-councillors pf Belgrade, three 
are Jews. The Minister of Beligion and Public 
Instruction sanctioned the establishment, in 1864, 
of two normal schools, where more than 200 
Jewish children of both sexes receive instruc- 
tion at the cost of the State. The same 
minister granted, in November last, an annual 
sum of 240 florins, to increase the income of the 
Rabbi of Belgrade. Poor Jews are included in 
the public distribution of alms, and their 






INTELUQENGE. 



171 



wealthier brethren are iavited to the Court 
fostivBls. The "Archhres Israelites/' cora- 
menting on the fbreg<»iig, states that the pictnxe 
ia too highly coloured, and although in some 
respects &yoiirable to the Jews, much of the 
legislation in Serviais less advantageoas to them 
than is represented. 

In the midst of political changes, the Jewish 
question again occupies attention in the Princi- 
palities, the provisional goyemment having sob- 
mitted to the legislatiTe assembly a project of law 
admitting the Jews to t^ engoyment of all civil 
and religions privileges. This beneficial proposal 
encounters, as might be expected, considmble 
opposition, and all kinds of gnevanoes agamst 
t£e Jews are brought forward. Si^>eciallj they 
asre accused of not bearing their share of the 
public bardens by cootribiiiing proportionally 
to the public works, etc. In tbefir replies to 
theee accusations the Jews refer espedally to 
the disabiliiaes under wluUsh ttiey soffer; and it 
becomes a question whether the latter are the 
oanse or eff^ of the former. The argument on 
both sides thus assumes the cfaarMyter of a 
▼idous cirole, the only escape firom which would 
be by the entire removal of those disabilitieB. 

£d is well known that lectures, meetings, and 
oonferencee, after the English fiashion, hove lately 
become popular in Fraaee, and we now learn 
from the '' Archives Israelites" that the Jews of 
Buis are about to adopt this custom, and that 
they propose shortly to commence a series of 
public lectures or conferences on Jewish history, 
literature, morality, criticism, and archssology — 
in a word, on the soienoe of Judaism. The most 
oompetent and able men will take part in these 
oonfereaoes, which are to be held at the Jewiidi 
Seminary at Paris, though, if need be, they may 
also be established elsewhere. The director of 
this establishment, one of the promoters of the 
enterprise, will inaugurate it by delivering a 
biography of the celebrated Hillel, and some 
yosng theologians will afterwards contribute 
papers on the condition of woman, on slavery, 
on the poetry of the middle ages, and on various 
aqpects of the Talmud little understood. The 
'< Archives" hopes that the definitive sanction to 
this project will not be delayed, as much good 
may be anticipated, and no evil can result from 
its adoption, and it will afibrd the Frendi rabbis 
an opportunity of repeUing the accusation oifar 
ments, too often, and not without reason, brou^^t 
against them. 

Thb Bmperw of Bossia received most gra- 
<90usly a deputation from the Jewish oommunity 
of his ci^ital, delegated to present to the monarch 
an address of congratulation on his providential 
escape from the hands of a would-be assassin. 
Tho Jews feel that they possess in their monarch 
a most benevolent protector, who, ever since his 
accession to the throne, has lightened the yoke 
with which his predeoeseors sought to overwhelm 



THB RBLSA8B O? THE ABOBIKIAN CAFTIVXS. 

Tlie news that the Emperor of Abyssinia had 
been at length induced to set at liberty the 
prisoners so long detained in rigorous confine- 
ment, has been ftdly confirmed by dSdal accounts 
from Mr. Bassam, the Gk>vermnent agent, who, 
by the blessing of Qod, has procured their re- 



lease. The liberated captives are eighteen in 
numbar, including the British cooasul, Mr. 
Cameron, and the Bevs. H. A. Stem and H. 
Bosenthal, the Jewish missionaries. 

The latest date from Mr. Bassam, at the time 
of our going to press, was April 9, 1866. He 
was then at Korata vrith the released prisoners, 
and expected to leave with them about the 
middle of the month. In this communication it 
is stated that the petition from the relatives of 
the captives forwarded by Dr. Beke had touched 
the Emperor's heart, and Mr. Bassam expected 
to be consulted about the answer to be given to 
the same when he went to see the Emperor that 
week. It appears, therefore, that the mission of 
Dr. Beke has not been useless, as was infiBrred 
by some from the earlier news, but that ho 
arrived at precisely the fitting moment to con- 
firm the favourable dispositions of the Emperor. 
Thus ^he two missions were providentially made 
to co-operate in bringing about the happy result. 
On being diEonissed by the Emperor, Mr. Bassam 
intended to return by the way of Matamma and 
Kapala, the road across Abyssinia being imprao- 
ticable, and he even contem]dated reaching the 
sea-coast at Perekimo instead of Massowah. Up 
to May 28 no news of the captives had reached 
Massowah. 

JSWIflH MISSION OF THS VBSE OHUSOH OP 
SOOTLAND. 

^e report of the committee on the conver- 
sion of the Jews, presented to the Gl^ieral 
Assembly of the Free Church, contains interest- 
ing details on the progress of the work. 

Mr. Wood, of EUe, in giving in the report, 
noticed the various points in detail, referring, in 
the first instance, to the fiematical outburst of the 
Popish party at Barietta, and to the conduct of 
Mr. Meyer, one of the Free Church agents, who, 
after the massacre, proceeded to Barietta, vindi- 
cated the rights of Protestants, and gathered 
the trembling flock together for public worship 
(see p. 118). He believed the same party were 
prepared to do the same thing ovw the whole of 
Italy ; that they were perfectly ready to cause a 
second St. Bartholomew, if they could thereby 
restore the old influence of their church in Italy. 
With regard to the work in Holland, the com- 
mittee were veiy anxious to send a missionary 
from this country to Amsterdam to supply ths 
place of Dr. Sdiwartz. This they had been 
unable to accomplish ; but Mr. Zigeler, a minis- 
ter of tiie Belgian Church, was supplying the 
pulpit of the Mission Church, ad iiUerim, with 
acceptance. He preaches twice every Lord's 
day, to an audience in the mormng of about 
2000, and in the evening from 1000 to 120D, 
besides other engagements, which fully occupy 
his time. Mr. Joseph J. Brilliant is also labour- 
ing in Amsterdam under the authority of the 
committee, and through his instrumentality 
another Israelite, Abraiuun van Yorst, till lately 
much respected by his own people as an ortho- 
dox Jew, has been brought into the fold of Christ. 
He was baptised October 1, 1866. At Pes& 
there was now an opening for the gospel, and 
during the year 100 Bibles and 100,000 tracts, 
and other evangelical publications, had been dis- 
tributed. At Pesth they had a school attended 
by 416 children, of whom 241 were Jews. Mr. 
Newmann, a colporteur, employed by the com- 



172 



INTELLIGENCE. 



I Julr S, 1896. 



mittee in ooijtmotion with the National Bible 
Sodetj, has sold 1040 Bibles, and portifTns of 
God's Word, including a large proportion of Hun- 
garian Bibles, showing a desire among the Jews 
to read the Bible intelligently, the Hebrew not 
being sufficiently familiar to them for thi^ pur- 
pose. The missionary of the Free Ghurdh in 
Pesth, Mr. Kcenig, has been chosen by the Ger- 
man-speaking congregation as their pastor. They 
have collected £100^ towards the building a 
place of worship j and when the Emperor of 
Austria visited Pesth, they obtained an audience 
and solicited aid. The Emperor seemed in- 
terested in the subject, and iVirther information 
has been asked by the imperial chancery. 
Yarious new translations in Hungarian were in 
preparation. The colporteur at Constantinople 
had left firom ill health, and was much missed, 
although Mr. Tomory the agent, had taken up 
his labours. At Prague, Mr. Van Andel had 
succeeded in awakening an interest in the Mis- 
sion to the Jews in the minds of many of the 
Protestant clergy, and several missionary tours, 
which had been much blessed, had been made by 
him. A depot of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society had been established at Prague, from 
which, during the first eight months of its exist- 
ence, without oolportage, 13,000 copies of the 
Scriptures had been issued. Of these, 5000 were 
bought for free distribution by the Bev. A. 
Henchell, the remainder having been actually 
bought by the people. Upwards of 30,000 
tracts had also been distributed during the last 
eight or nine months. 

JEWISH SUNDAY SCHOOL IN LONDON. 

There was a time when Israel took the lead in 
all movements to glorify God, for they possessed 
what none of the nations had, viz., Jehovah as 
their God, and his Word as their rule. During 
many centuries, however, the nations have taken 
the lead ; and why ? Because they now ei\joy 
the presence and guidance of Him whom Israel 
rejects to this day. Bible and tract, and reli- 
gious knowledge propagation, and other kindred 
societies, are the offspring of a Christian root, 
and the Jews are stirred up by what Christians 
do to establish similar institutions among them- 
selves. A striking instance of this may be seen 
in the following extract firom the " Jewish Chro- 
nicle" :— 

** Some time ago we referred in our columns 
to a report that had been issued by the Went- 
worth Street Bagged School,* wherein it was 
mentioned that as many as 800 Jewish children 
were in the habit of attending there on Sunday 
evenings. The excuse that was made by the 
children and their parents—a very lame one, it 
is true — was to the effect that there existed no 
Jewish school which the children could attend 
on Sunday evenings, which with most of them 
constituted their only leisure evening. It is 
gratiiying to state that as soon as this came 
under the notice of our religious authorities, 
energetic steps wore taken by them to put a 

* The school here mentioned is situated in the 
very heart of the Jewish quarter, and has been 
established by a few Christian friends who pitied 
the Tery deplorable state of neglect existing in that 
quarter, espocially among the yomig. 



stop to this practice of sending tdiildren to 
schools where a faith foreign to their own was 
being taught them, and to supply the want 
which was existing in our community. The 
Baroness de Rothschild, with her warm-hearted 
zeal for the welfare of the poor, had her adult 
school in Wood Street, Spitalfields, opened for 
the boys, who, being at woric the whole week, 
are prevented attending any day school or 
evening school during week days. An average 
of about 100 attend there on Sunday evenings, 
where some religious and secular instruction is 
imparted to them. 

" The Conmiittee of the InfiBnt School have 
kindly allowed their premises to be used as a 
school for girls. The teaching is imparted by 
several ladies and gentlemen, who have kindly 
volunteered their valuable services, and some of 
whom come from the far west of the metropolis 
in order to assist in this labour of love. To show 
how attractive the instruction is to the children 
it need only 1l>e mentioned that while at the 
oonomencement of the year only 85 children at- 
tended, their number amounts now to about 250." 

The school has now been opened about four 
months, and the average attendance is 280. The 
following aooount is given of the teaching ; — 

''The pupils are of the humblest classes, 
work-girls and others, and their ages vaiy from 
eight to eighteen. The}^ meet every Sunday 
from six tiU nine p.m. 'They receive such 
instruction as they may require both in English 
and Hebrew, and when the classes are over 
they all assemble in the large school-room, 
where they are addressed by one and another 
of our ministers. The brief and appropriate 
discourse is followed by some enlivening and 
X)opular tunes, in which Mr. Mombach, with his 
usual readiness for the public g^ood, takes the 
lead, OD. the harmonium of the establishment, 
and is lustily joined in chorus by the voices of 
the hundreds present. The chanting of the 
hymns of Tigdal and Aden 01am, sung with 
great glee by all the pupils, brings the proceed- 
ings to a oonolusion.' " 

An iNquiBY.— "H. B." writes: "In Matt, 
xxiv. our Lord, after speaking of the signs in the 
heavens, and other remarkable things that shall 
take place previous to his coming in ' the clouds 
of heaven with power and great glory,' states in 
the 34th verse that ' this generation (y^wth) shall 
not pass till all these thii^ be fulfilled.' Does 
our Lord mean that the race of Jews then 
existing in Judea shall not have died before He 
comes again ? Or that the Jews, as a people, 
should not have gone out of existence till those 
things had been fulfilled 9 If it alludes solely to 
the Jews of that day, how can it be reconciled with 
our Lord's coming in the ' clouds of heaven' P " 

[We have no doubt that this ffemtratiam 
extends to the whole noHou of Israel. It will 
exist in fathers and children, continue through 
ages, till it welcomes Christ with hosannas. It 
is a prophecy of Christ that the Jewish nation 
shall not be extinguished, but remain even to 
the great day of the Lord. Similar expressions are 
used in Matt. xii. 39, 45 ; xxiii. 36 ; Luke xvii. 
25 ; Acts ii. 40; PhiL iL 15 ; and I Peter iL 9. 
In other words, the dried-up fig-tree wiU remain 
till it blossoms again. — Ed.] 



'^A^ufiwt**'*"'] 2'HB7 WAB BETWEEN PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA. 



173 



THE WAE BETWEEN PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA. 



BY THE BDITOB. 



We do not intend to enter into the merits 
of the political aspect which this war, des- 
tined to bring about great changes in 
Central Europe, presents to any attentive 
mind. We confess frankly that we would 
have delayed writing on this all- important 
subject, if an article in the "Jewish 
Chronicle" of July 20, did not require 
immediate notice. 

We agree partly with the statements 
made, and we first notice them, as it is 
ever our earnest desire to acknowledge, 
frankly and cordially, all that is good 
and right in our brethren after the flesh, 
though we deeply regret that they de- 
prive themselves of that light which tho 
Sun of Righteousness causes to shine 
on us. 

In the struggle which is carried on be- 
tween Prussia and Austria it is supposed 
that 25,000 to 30,000 Jewish soldiers are 
to be found in the Austrian army. In the 
Austrian Empire there are, in round num- 
bers, a million of Jews. This gives 3000 
soldiers for every 100,000 of the Jewish 
population. We may assume that in 
Prussia, and in the belligerent Grerman 
countries, 12,000 Jewish soldiers are to be 
found, so that 42,000 Jews are now fighting 
tinder the respective banners of Austria 
and Prussia. There are two millions and 
a half of Jews in Russia, a hundred thou- 
sand in France, sixty thousand in Holland, 
thirty-five thousand in Italy, in all which 
countries tho Jews are liable to conscrip- 
tion, and furnish a large contingent of 
men. The bulk of these soldiers proceed 
from the Jewish body and are again ab- 
sorbed by it. 

Such a steady infusion year after year 
YOL. L— KO. YIU, 



of military ingredients into the Jewish 
people cannot but exercise, in process of 
time, most important influence on them. 
It may be that this incipient recognition of 
military virtues, conspicuous more espe- 
cially in the days of David and in the 
time of the Maccabees, is a preparation for 
coming struggles wherein it is purposed 
that Israel shall take a very prominent part. 
For that great wars and heavy battles are 
still to take place in and around Jerusalem, 
no attentive reader of GK)d*s Word can 
deny. 

Of much importance is the following 
admission of the Jewish writer. Prussia, 
he says, is the representative of Continental 
Protestantism, while Austria is that of 
Popery. He admits that wherever XJltra- 
montanism predominates, fanaticism is 
fostered and the Jews suffer from it. 
France, Belgium, and Italy are evidently 
free from this fanaticism, but they are only 
liberal in proportion as they are not 
Bomish. There is no instance of a Pro- 
testant population having risen against the 
Jews, even when the general laws do not 
&vour entire Jewish emancipation. 

This is no new statement, but it is 
true, and it is good to repeat it again and 
again in order that those foolish men who 
are anxious for a union with Eome, may 
understand that Eome is the enemy of 
religious as well as of civil liberty, and 
that they must abandon both unless they 
have made up their minds to turn Papists. 

On the other hand, it is of much import- 
ance to all who value the truth of God as 
revealed to us in the gospel of Jesus Christ, 
to all who delight in liberty, not only for 
themselves but also for them that differ, 

9 



17i 



THE WAM BETWEEN PBTT8SIA AND AUSTRIA. 



FTbibSmU&nA KttfoB, 



to bear in mind that every step towards 
Eome is fraught with danger, that it 
threatens all they glory in ; and their own 
safety and the honour of their Lord ought 
to stir them up to resist boldly and stead- 
fastly every advance of Popery; for there 
is a German proverb which very signifi- 
cantly says, " Give the devil a finger and he 
will even take the whole hand." 

But might not our Jewish brethren 
with great advantage put to themselves 
the question. Why does Protestantism 
favour liberty, and refrain from persecut- 
ing the Jews? Is it not because its ad- 
herents try to comply with the requirements 
of the gospel of Jesus of Nazareth P Here 
is a fact worthy the attentive consideration 
of our brethren after the flesh. As far as 
Eomanists are what their name intimates, 
thoy go astray from the gospel and perse- 
cute the Jews. As far as evangelical 
churches correspond to their name, they 
submit to the teachings of Jesus and they 
love the Jews. The more Bomish people 
are, the less they are of the mind of Christ ; 
the more evangelical -people are, the more 
they are like-minded with Christ. 

In the first case they oppose and perse- 
cute, in the latter they befriend, the Jew. 
Does this not suggest, yea, clearly prove, 
that Jesus was the true Feiend op Israel, 
and that in rejecting Him the Jewish 



people cast off their greatest bene&ctor, 
their warmest friend, nay more, their 
glorious King P 

But the Jewish writer throws out a 
difficulty many a time stated and as fre- 
quently refuted, which however we cannot 
help noticing, premising a reply in our 
next number. " How is it," he asks, " that 
war should be possible in our days, and that 
too between nations which profess to be 
guided in their actions and feelings by the 
principles which inspired the Sermon on 
the Mount?" Peace is not yet established 
on earth, and he triumphantly asks, "If 
some of the characteristics by which the 
now prophet was to be recognized have 
not yet become visible, why should we Jews 
constantly be urged to admit his alleged 
Divine mission P" 

Every number of the " Jewish Chronicle" 
that issues from the press contains similar 
attacks on the truths of Christianity, and 
on the claims of Jesus as the Messiah. It 
becomes high time not lightly to esteem 
these assaults, and we trust that God 
will enable us and other friends to give a 
reason for the hope that is within us, and 
to refute the arguments which are ad- 
vanced against the foundation of the con- 
fidence of millions who glory in the name 
of Christ, and in being known as Chris- 
tians. 



^^jSS^SS!^'\^^ST8 of tee fourth iAIW FIFTH MONTHS. 



175 



i^^nnn Dim y^T)T\ 012; 

''THE PAST OP THE FOURTH MONTH, AND THE FAST OF 

THE FIPTH/^'K_I. 



BY THE BIT. DB. HABGOLIOTJTH. 



Ik the coarse of the month which has just 
dosed upon as, the month of Jaly, the chil- 
dren of Tb£ Scatte&bd Nation, throughoat 
their dispersion, have kept two of the most 
calaxnitoos anniversaries in their history. 
The first and the twenty-second ultimo were 
obaeiTed, amongst the loyal members of the 
house of Israel, as days of mourning, weep- 
ing, and &sting. The former was observed 
as the seventeenth day of the month of 
Tunuz, that is, the fourth month of the 
Jewish ecclesiastical year ; and the latter as 
the ninth day of the month of Ab, i.e., the 
fifth month oi the Jewish ecclesiastical 
year.t 

The seventeenth of Tamuz — July 1 — ^was 
observed, according to the Jewish calendar, 
as a last day '' for fire misfortunes happen- 
ing thereon. Ist. Moses broke the first 
tables [Exod. xxxii. 19]; 2nd. The walls of 
Jerasalem destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar 
[Jer. liL 4]; 3rd. The city taken, and siege 
laid to the temple by Titus ; 4th. The daily 
ofiering ceased; 5th. The law burnt by 
Appustamus." Before I describe the ob- 
servance of the liEbst, I feel called upon to 
make a few remarks touching the Jewish 
summary just quoted. The first and fifth 
misfortunes said to have befallen Israel on 
that day I do not deem it to be my vocation to 
animadvert upon, for obvious reasons. The 
second misfortune, however, we have proof 
positive did not happen on the seventeenth 
day of the fourth month, namely, Tamuz. 
If the late erudite E. H. Lindo, the compiler 
of the large Hebrew almanack, in 1888, for 

• Zech. Tiii 19. 

t Strictly ^)eaking, the seventeentli of the 
month Tamuz, and the ninth of the month Ab, fell 
respectively Uus year on Saturday June 80, and 
Saturday Jnly 21. fiat as no fasting is permitted, 
by the Jewish law, on the Sabbath-day, the melan- 
choly commemorations were postponed to the fol- 
lowing day, according to the Jewish technical 
tenn for each postponement, rflTO Nidchehj poshed 
forward. 



sixty-four years, or the compiler of VaUen- 
tine's annual "Hebrew and English Alman- 
ack,"* had ocmsulted the very chapter they 
referred to, they would have perceived, from 
verses 6 and 7, that the walls of Jerusalem 
were not destroyed by Kebuchadnezzar oa 
the seventeenth, but on the ninth day of the- 
fourth month. In Shulchcm Artich, Orach 
ChoAfim, — the ritualistic code of laws, as 
observed by The Scatteebd Nation— chap. 
54(9, it is distinctly stated, " Notwithstanding 
that it is recorded* in Scripture, 'In the 
fourth month, in the ninth day of the month, 
the city was brok^i up,' yet we fast not on 
the ninth day, but on the seventeenth. For 
though the destruction of the first city took 
place on the ninth day of the fourth month, 
yet, as the destruction of the second dty 
occurred on the seventeenth day of that 
month, they [the Eabbies] ordered that day 
as a &st day, inasmudb as the loss of the 
second temple is the most severe blow to 
us." It is true there is a passage in the 
Talmud-Jerusalem that " the destruction of 
the first oity took place on the seventeenth 
day, but by reason of the troubles [that 
befell the nation, the sacred writers] erred 
in computation."t But no soimd critic 
would endorse the Talmudist's ipse ducU, in 
defiance of the sacred text. 

Dr. Stanley followed a blind leader when 
he asserted that "the ninth day of the 
fourth month — answering to July — ^was still 
kept as a fast by the Jewish nation." (" Lec- 
tures on the History of the Jewish Church," 
Part II. p. 551.) The ninth day of the fourth 
mcmth, as has been shown, is not kept as a 

* Ab the time draws near for the pnblication of 
Mr. Yallentine's new almanack, the writer would 
ventore to saggeat, to the compiler of the same, a 
little more carefnl aoonracy than he has bestowed 
upon his nsefnl little work hitherto. 

t Alas, the Synagogue has as many sceptics 
in verbal inspiration as the Church can possibly 
muster. 



176 



FASTS OF THE FOURTH AND FIFTH MONTHS. [^^^^^J^^* 



fast amongst The Scattered Nation now-a- 
day ; though it must have been observed as 
such during the Babylonish captivity, as 
Zech. viiL 19, plainly intimates. The fast 
observed at present in the fourth month 
is in sorrowful commemoration of the taking 
of the Holy City, the cessation of the daily 
sacrifice, and of the laying siege to the 
temple, under Titus. 

Dr. Milman's difficulty is one of his own 
making. According to the Roman calendar 
those disastrous events just named occurred 
on the fifth of July. Upon which the 
learned author of the " History of the Jews," 
vol. ii. p. 358, annotates, "There is here 
a difficulty about the day. This event [the 
razing the tower of Antonia to the ground, 
etc.] is commemorated on the seventeenth 
of July, the day indicated by Josephus, but 
it cannot easily be reconciled with history." 
The Jews then,^ as now, computed time ac- 
cording to their own calendar. Josephus 
does not name July. Let me give here his 
own words : — " And now Titus gave orders 
to his soldiers that were with him to dig up 
the foundations of the tower of Antonia, 
and make him a ready passage for his army 
to come up : while he himself had Josephus 
brought to him (for he had been informed 
that on that very day, which was the seven- 
teenth day of Panemus [Tamuz], the sacri- 
fice called * the Daily Sacrifice' had failed, 
and had not been offered to Grod for want of 
men to offer it, and that the people were 
grievously troubled at it).*** The seven- 
teenth day of Tamuz, a.d. 70, synchronized 
-with the fifth day of July, as it did a.d. 
1863, whilst in a.d. 1866 it happened 
to synchronize with the thirtieth of June. 
It is rather startling that two such ad- 
vanced critics, as both the eminently 
learned Deans of the Metropolitan Ca- 
thedrals unquestionably are, should now 
and then be betrayed to set down aught 

• "Wars of the Jews,** Book VI. chap. ii. 1. 
'Whiston's note on the abore is so interesting that I 
cannot forbear t-ansferrinjf it here:— ** This was a 
Tery remarkable day indeed, the seventeenth of 
Panemus [Tamuz], a.d. 70 when according to 
DanieVs prediction, 600 years oefore the Bomans, 
^ in half a week, caused the sacrifice and oblation to 
cease,' Dan. ix. 27 ; for from the month of February, 
A.D. 66, about which time Vespasian entered on this 
war, to this very time, was just three years and a 
hal£" 



untenable in their great works. I have had 
occasion to animadvert on the peculiar cir- • 
cumstanoe before.* However, for a graphic, 
vivid, and glowing description — character- 
ized by " thoughts which breathe and words 
that bum"— of the f3all of Jerusalem under 
!N'ebuchadnezzar, I unhesitatingly refer the 
readers of" The Scattered Nation" to Dean 
Stanley's fortieth lecture (Part II.) on "The 
History of the Jewish Church." 

The fast of the fourth month, hitherto 
spoken of, may be considered as a sort of 
introduction to the fiwt of the fifth, which, 
as has been intimated, is kept just three 
weeks after the former, and will come under 
treatment presently. Only truly patriotic 
and loyal Israelites observe the former; it 
was therefore indifferently kept by the mass 
of the Jews in England, France, and Ger- 
many, whilst it was most strictly observed 
by the bulk of The Scattered Namok in 
Russia, Poland, Palestine, North Africa, etc., 
etc. The fiwt amongst the latter was not a 
make-belief fast, but a bona fide abstinence 
from meat and drink of every kind and 
description. 

The fast of the fourth month is, however, 
less stringent than that of the fifth; the 
former does not commence with the pre- 
ceding evening, as does the latter. The 
ritualistic and liturgical service is also much 
milder in the former case than in the latter. 
There are only a few elegies, besides the 
79th Psalm, and pathetic petitions, added to 
the ordinary common daily service, on the&st 
of the fourth month ; whilst there is almost 
a distinct ritualistic and liturgical service on 
the fast of the fifth month. The principal 
burden of the special elegies for the former 
is a recounting of the five great disasters, 
enumerated above, which overtook the peo- 
ple of Israel, the many troubles which over- 
whelmed them since they became a Scattered 
Nation, mingled with heartfelt confessions 
that they had justly incurred the tremen- 
dous chastisements, by reason of their many 
and great sins, praying earnestly at the 
same time for speedy deliverance, and 
restoration to Divine fevour. 

One of those elegies, alphabetically 
arranged — partly historical, partly confes- 
sioni^ partly supplicatoty — concludes thus : 

* See Part L p. 9. 



'^a^^?^]FA8T8 of the fourth AND FIFTH M0NTH8. 



177 



pDw ni»^i> man') ppii^ i3»wp 

J pDini !Ttal> liini *pVi 
pDHo i3^m mn» »«*> 
:pttmn nrrow? Mb "poM nona luw m^aan 

: nonw nniB i>a.i«o "u^nYinfii pp 
noVK JTUpb n»Jtt> fT* r|»DVi 
: norm Ty^rtm* g)^ \ib *pBM noni •mwru^aan 

*' Rock, look npon our soul, for it is bowed down, 
And toiii the serenteenth of Tamus to us into a 

daj of joy.* 
We have stiffened our neck, and wiaftK^Af aocu- 

mulated upon us. 
And hence we have been given over to spoliation 

and oppression. 
See, O Lord, and deliyer us from harm. 
And torn the seventeenth of Tamus to us into a 

day of joy and gladness. 
Regard us, on account of Thy name, Thou that 

dwellest on high. 
Qather our scattered ones from the four comers 

of thd earth. 
Let Thy hand once more purchase the dignified 

nation. 
And turn the seventeenth of Tamus to us into a 

day of salvation and consolation." 

I proceed now to describe " the £&st of 
the fifth month,*' the ninth day of the 
Jewish month Ab, which was observed, by 
The Scaitbked Nation, on the 22nd ult., 
and styled by the English Jews, ** the Black 
Fast." It deserves well the designation. 
According to the Hebrew calendar and 
almanack, already quoted, the fast is 
" kept [1] in commemoration of the death 
in the wilderness of the rebellious (Num. 
xiv. 36). [2] The destruction of the temple 
by Nebuchadnezzar ( Jer. lii. 12, 13). [3] The 
burning of the second temple by Titus. 
[4] The taking of Either by Severus." 

I may be permitted — ^before I describe 
the way in which the fast is kept — to indulge 
in a couple of observations on the imique 
character of the institution of the four fasts 
mentioned in Zech. viiL 19, of which those 
treated in this paper are two. They were 
ordained to commemorate — with woes, 
mourning, and weeping — the disasters and 
catastrophes which befell the people of Israel. 
In these lamentable anniversaries do God's 
ancient people not only appear " a marvel to 
the world," but almost an inexplicable para- 
dox to themselves. One can hardly resist 
* Zech. TuL 19. 



the exclamation, "Verily Tub Scatteaed 
Nation are a peculiar people!" Let us 
construe the Divine predicate in any way we 
may think fittest, and we must come to the 
conclusion that the sacred writer gave an 
accurate description of Israel, when he pre- 
dicated of the nation, saying, "The Lord 
hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto 
Himself, above all the nations that are upon 
the earth."* 

By way of illustration, let me ask the 
readers of our monthly to contemplate the 
Jewish people throughout their dispersion, 
as they appeared on last Sunday week, when 
they commemorated their national down- 
fall and humiliation. What nation in the 
" wide wide world " is known to commemo- 
rate such an anniversary in its annals? 
Other nations commemorate the anniversa- 
ries of their splendid victories, when they 
celebrate, with melodious song and eloquent 
speech, their vaunted prowess, and boast 
their unequalled bravery and matchless 
achievements; whilst the vanquished writhe 
in agony at the recollection, and frown at 
their victors for keeping up the memory of 
the discomfitures and defeats of which they, 
the vanquished, were the victims. How 
angry the people of France used to be at 
the people of England for the celebration of 
the anniversary of the battle of Waterloo ! 

Verily, the Jews " are a peculiar people I " 
On the evening of last Saturday week, every 
loyal and patriotic Jew, no matter whether 
he be knight or baron, alderman or Lord 
Mayor of London, costermonger or banker, 
might have been seen sitting in a gloomy 
comer of his house, on the ground, without 
shoes on his feet, with his hat drawn over 
his brow, in the attitude of a disconsolate 
mourner, eating a bit of musty bread and 
some cold hard-boiled egg, dipped in ashes. 
Do the Gentile students of The Scatteeeb 
Nation inquire, "What mean the Jewish 
people by the extraordinary service?" I 
answer, they inaugurate the Black Fast of 
the fifth month, to commemorate their sins, 
and their consequent humiliation. Eeader, 
imagine yourself ten or eleven days younger, 

* Dent xiv. 2. The literal signification of tho 
Hebrew word, nijJlD 8'guUahy which has been 
translated, in onr version, peculiar, is, special pro- 
perty, and correctly rendered (Exod. ziz. 5; Ps. 
oxxzT. 4), "peculiar treasure." 



178 



FA8TB OF TEE FOUETE AND FIFTH M0NTS8,[^SiSty^^^ 



accompany me then to any synagogue, in 
any part of the world ; watch with me the 
comers ; see how sad they look, some have 
rents in their coats ; their sorrowfxd looks, 
and their torn garments, betoken a grief too 
sad for many words. See how qnietly they 
put off their shoes, and sit down on the 
bare ground. The synagogue is now 
thronged, and yet stillness — ^almost the 
stillness of death — pervades the sacred 
building. List! What is that exquisitely 
sad strain, so low, so plaintive, so musical 
in its sadness? The synagogue precentor 
is chanting the Book of the Lamentations of 
Jeremiah. This is followed by several elegies 
and dirges, of post-Biblical dates, each of 
which describes the sins winch, as a nation, 
they have committed, and the chastisements 
which they have endured — namely, the de- 
struction of their city and temple, and their 
own dismemberment and dispersion over 
the world. I said, they described their sins, 
except one, the greatest sin of aU — ^the rejec- 
tion of their Messiah. Come, though for a 
moment, to the Judffio-Spanish synagogue. 
Harkl— 

: iTiD wfiia roan "j^jj^ js!) 

"Bemember, Lord, for the sake of 
Him who is called the Messiah, whose body 
was made like a sieve ; there remained not 
an arrow which was not shot at Him; 
therefore, on His account, I weep with a 
bitter soul; on account of this calamity are 
all hands enfeebled, round about Jerusa- 



lem."* So mudi for the eve of the '^lack 
Fast" 

Let me now ask you to picture to your- 
self the congregation of the Jewish syna- 
gogues throughout the world, on the follow- 
ing day, that is, last Sunday week. Whilst 
we, in our different churches, sent i^ our 
prayers, praises, and thanksgivings to our 
Creator, Bedeemer, and Sanctifier, for un- 
speakable nokercies of redeeming love, the 
children of Israel, in their places of worship, 
presented a spectacle of woful emaciation and 
wretchedness. Every loyal Jew had fested 
— ^in the strictest sense of the word— ever 
since he ate the ash-dipped bit of musty 
bread, and hard-boiled egg, the preceding 
evening; he will be fasting till the going down 
of the sun, until he can clearly discern three 
stars in the sky. He is moaning a variety 
of heart-rending elegies, which graphically 
describe the multifarious sins of his nation, 
and the terrible punishments which over- 
took his people. The rvM^p Keenaik, Lament^ 
as the Utnrgical service for the day is called, 
of both the Spanish and German syna- 
gogues, are replete with wailing accusations 
against the mourners fhemsebes whilst 
they also implore for deliverance SEud res- 
toration. Dear reader of ^ The Scattebed 
Nation," if you understood all which the 
Jewish mourner is breathing out, your heart 
would swell with as much loving sympathy 
for that people as the heart of the writer. 

* My attention was first atfcraoted to ihiM veine 
whilst standing and list^ing to aa aged Jewish 
moomer at the " Plaee of WaiHng," JeroMlem. 
(See "A Pilgrimage to the Land of my Fathara,** 
vd. ii p. 868.) I afterwards found itin the Liturgy 
of the Spanish Synagogoefor the Ere of the Etast of 
the Fifth Month. . 



{To he cotUinued,) 



ABfwt 1, 18tk J 



A JBWiaS MESSIANIC FAMILY. 



179 



A JEWISH MESSIANIC FAMILY. 



Is a desolate part of the Bokowina in 
Austria, not far from the large town of 
Czemowitz lies a solitary and (Srty village 
inhabited by Jews, called Sada^ra. There 
is little goine on here except a brisk trade 
in cattle with Moldavia and Wallachia, and 
the objects that chiefly attract observation 
are people dressed in caftans, with long hair 
covered with Polish fnr-caps, and their 
&oes betraying a too ^reat partiality for the 
brandy-bottle. Yet there is one peculiarity 
connected with this place which gives it 
importance, because it exerts much influence 
over a large portion of the Jewish race, and 
it is that here resides a family out of which, 
according to old traditions and chronological 
rasters, the Jewish Messiah is to spring. 

There are many such famOies in the 
Jewish towns of Bussia, the heads of which 
are called Zaddikim, or saints, and their influ- 
ence is widely extended. The origin of such 
families has been traced to the year 1666, 
when a false Messiah arose in Smyrna, in 
the person of the fanatical Sebbathai Zebi.* 
This man caused great excitement amongst 
aU the Israelites throughout the world, and 
was followed by many disciples; and even 
lifter he had lost his prestige, and had em- 
braced thedoctrines of Mohammed, thousands 
stiU swore by his name. A large number of 
his adherents formed a sect, which at this 
day comprises a great manv of the Jews 
dwelling in Sclavonia. The founder of this 
so-called Messianic sect, which is known by 
the name of Chasidim, was Isrolka of Podo- 
lia, who proclaimed himself to be a desoend- 
ant of tne royal family of David, whence 
they expected the Messiah. The man who 
is at the head of these Chasidim — ^the patri- 
arch of the family, and consequently the 
forerunner and representative of the Mes- 
siah — Is Bebbiche (or little Babbi) Isrolka^ 
a blear-eyed decrepit man, now living in 
Sada^ra^ and held to be the richest Jew in 
Bussia and Poland. 

The Isrolka family has during the last 
oentury amassed millions through the cre- 
dulity of the Sclavonic Jews. Sadi^ra is 
now the holy spot of ground to which pil- 
grims flock from Pol^d, Bussia, GhJlicia^ 
jBukowina, Moldavia, and Wallachia. The 
adherents of this fiunily consider it a sacred 
duty to present their personal homage to its 
head at least once in their lives, and offer 
tribute. It is not, therefore, to be wondered 
at that Bebbiche Isrolka inhabits a gorgeous 
palace, the grandeur of which is the more 
conspicuous from its contrast with the 

* This remarkable man, being one of the many 
false Hessialis who have deluded the people of Israel 
amoe they regeotod the claims of Jesus of Nazareth, 
18 worthy of our attention* and we shall give a sketch 
of his lize in anotiier number. 



wretched hamlets of which the rest of the 
village is composed. In the immediate 
neighbourhood is a collection of small but 
comfortable houses, inhabited by Isrolka's 
married children. The magniflcence of this 
palace is truly regaL One apartment, called 
the Silver Boom, contains the richest iiirni- 
ture of every age and every fashion, valued 
at many thousand roubles. The sitting- 
rooms are adorned with the finest Turkev 
and Persian carpets, and the richest damask 
curtains; all gifts presented by the Sclavonic 
Jews. The park is extensive, and terminates 
in hothouses arranged with great taste and 
beauty. But who is the possessor of all this 
splendour P the patriarch, from whose family 
Messiah must spring, the idol who is wor- 
shipped as holy, and the sight of whom can 
only be purchased by the most costly gifts ? 
A poor imbecile old man. In plain English, 
Bebbiche Isrolka is an idiot. Those white 
hairs cover a head incapable of thought; in 
this breast beats no heart capable of svmpa- 
thizing with human loy or sorrow. Though 
still in the prime of Ufe, he is prematurely 
aged. He cannot even walk without help, 
not from bodily weakness, but from mental 
incapacity; and his speech is so inarticulate 
that it is onlv intelligible to the members of 
his own family and to his private secretary. 
Yet when this man appears in public, the 
event is announced some hours beforehand ; 
and every window and door, every street 
and square, are filled with men; nay, even 
the trees and roofs of houses are thronged 
with peopK eager to behold the patriarch of 
the Messianic family. 

Bebbiche Isrolka has a wife and children. 
His daughters were married young to suitors 
chosen for their wealth, who submitted to 
the condition that they should reside in 
Sadagora^ and build houses near their 
father-in-law's palace. His sons wear the 
richest caftans, and their wives are clothed 
in velvets and silks. The young children 
are educated like princes by tutors and 
governesses who are Drought from England, 
France, G^ermany, and Bussia. Many sec- 
retaries are employed in transacting the 
business of the house, which mainly consists 
in receiving the offerings of the pious. In 
the forenoon the patriarch gives audience; 
that is to sa^» he receives in the presence of 
his secretaries some of the pilgnms whose 
names have often been inscribed on the lists 
many days previously. He allows himself 
to be looked at without uttering a syllable, 
and receives the usual gifts, the value of 
which must be at least ten Austrian florins 



(about a sovereign of our money)- 
Isrolka's ancestors lived in Bussia. 



His 



great-grandfather took it into his head one 
day to nave a bodyguard of twenty Cossacks, 



180 



LYBA EXPEOTANTIUM. 



rh» 8catta«d Katkm, 
August 1, 1866. 



who attended liiin whenever he drove out. 
The Czar forbad it, and when Isrolka had 
the audacity to repeat the offence, com- 
manded him to be thrown into prison at 
Kiev. By the means of his numerous ad- 
herents and great wealth he contrived to 
make his escape and to reach Sadagora. 
The Czar insisted that the Austrian govern- 
ment should deliver him up ; but again the 
power of money prevailed over the power of 
the Czar : twelve peasants of the Bukowina 
solemnly swore that Isrolka was bom at 
Sadaficora, and he was saved. 

Tne present Isrolka also has come into 
collision with the authorities. Bad money 
was traced to his house, and he was accused 
of uttering false coin. In spite of all the 
exertions of his family and followers he was 
Beized, cast into prison, and the few Chris- 



tians in the place were in delight. The 
populace were excited, broke into the palace, 
smashed the splendid mirrors, tore the fine 
carpets, and injured the furniture. The trial 
came on, but from Eebbiche Isrolka not 
one word could be extracted. Meantime his 
friends and relations moved heaven and 
earth to deliver him, but the presiding 
judfi^e was an honest man, and would take 
no bribe whatever. They then sought to 
displace him by false accusations before the 
higher courts; but this failing also, they 
endeavoured to ^t him out of Sieir way by 
promotion, and in this they succeeded. A 
deputation went to Vienna; the obnoxious 
judge was given the highest appointment in 
the province, and the holy man was acquitted^ 
as no evidence appeared against nim. — 
(From ** Baheiiru**) 



LYEA EXPBCTANTITJM.— No. IV. 

BY W. STONE, M.A. 



JEEirSALEM'S LAMENT AND HOPE. 
(See Pfl. lixix. 1, 4, 5 ; di. 13—17.) 



Jebusalex! thy long-fam'd harp has on the 

willows htmg ; 
The hollow breeze, for many a year, has moaii'd 

its chords among ; 
Thy banish'd sons are gathering round thy min'd 

walls again,* 
And bitterly, as once by Babel's streams, to 

HeaVn complain : — 

** O God ! against thy hallowed shrines see how 

the heathen rage ! 
How wantonly they trample down thy sacred 

heritage! 
Thy oonrts they tread, defiling them with 

mock'ry and with scorn. 
Behold how thy Jerosalem sits widow'd and 

forlorn ! 

* In allnsion to the aimiyersary, on the 22nd 
of July, of the destruction of Jemaalem by the 
Bomans, a.I). 70, on which occasion the poor out- 
cast Jews meet " amid the desolations of their father- 
land, and beside the rains of their ancient sanctuary,'* 
and chant some of the above psalms and other 
elegies. 



"Arise, O Lord! remember us, maintain thy 

righteous cause. 
And let not hateful Moslem hands profiane thy 

holy laws. 
For ever shall thy wrath severe against ihy 

people bum ? 
Oh speedily to Israel, with Mercy's smile return 
" Thy Temple, Lord, to build again, oh haste in 

these our days ! 
Then from our overflowing heart shall swell the 

song of praise ; 
Our tears of mournful penitence shall then be 

tum'd to mirth. 
When our onoe-pierc'd Messiah * Prince' deecenda 

fipom heaVn to earth." 
Let angry nations stay their strife, take pleasure 

in thy dust. 
And thou, beloy'd Jerusalem, be foxmd among 

"the just"! 
Be plenty 'mid thy palaces ! within thy walls be 

peace! 
Thy Zion's ** great prosperity" begin, and never 

cease! 



The Sflittand Nfttioibl 
Aoffort 1, 1866. J 



THE TWELVE TBIBE8. 



181 



THE TWELVE TRIBES. 



BY THl BBY. ANDBBW A. BONAB. 



ASHEB. 



It is a peculiarity of Hebrew names that 
tiiey almost always express the feelings, or 
refer to the circumstances, of the parent at 
the time of the child's birth. In Leah's 
case there was a good deal that spoke of her 
dependence on the Lord in the earlier part 
of her fiynily life; there is little of this 
looking np to Grod to be found afterwards. 
Her handmaid Zilpah (Gren. xxx. 12, 13) 
bears another son, and Leah expresses her 
joy, exclaiming, "This is among my happy 
things," or, " Happy am I, for the daughters 
will congratulate me on my good fortune." 
And thus it was that this son got the name 
*'A8her,*' the Happy One. 

His blessing in Gren. xlix. 20, corresponds 
with his name at birth, still speaking of 
felicity — 

" Out of Agher cometh fixtnen as lUs bread. 
And he giveth royal dainties*' 

He reoeiyed a very firuitful soil for his lot; 
the lowlands of Carmel, abounding in olive 
oil and wheat, "bread and &tness." Some 
think that it was Asher's territory that fur- 
nished the ''twenty thousand measures of 
wheat " that were sent to Hiram by Solomon 
(1 Kings Y. 11). His vicinity to Tyre and 
Zidon enabled him to bring in royal luxuries 
("a king's delights") fi*om these princely 
cities, and to distribute them among the 
tribes; this may be meant by his ^'givmg*' 
His territory was a narrow strip of land 
comparatiyely, but all the more remarkable 
is its abundance, tempting his people to 
indolent enjoyment, as Deborah complained 
in her song — 

" Asher eontimied on the seashore. 
And ahode in his creM* (Jndg. t. 17). 

His happy lot, so fJEur as the produce of the 
soil went, is again celebrated in the last 
words of Moses (Deut. xxxiii. 24, 25) — 

" Asher is hlessed above the sons (t. 0., peoaliarly 
blessed among the other sons of Jacob), 
Favov/red among his brethren. 
And he dips his foot in oil" 

The Plain of Acre (or Accho) was his; a 



plain the weeds of which at this day are the 
richest and rankest in all Palestine, and its 
crops most luxuriant, on account of the 
moisture of the soil. Thus was he pecu- 
liarly favoured. Then oH, emblematic of 
richness and fatness, is referred to with 
Special appropriateness, because Asher's hills 
were not clothed with the vines that en- 
riched Judah, but were planted with the 
olive-tree; every slope presenting a grove 
of vigorous olives to the view of the passer 
by. 

" Thy shoes (or» thy bolts, or oastles) shall be iron 
<ind braas, 
And thy langvid rest shall be as thy days" 

Bolted in, as it were, by his hills (hills 
that produced iron and copper, and may 
have at early periods helped to supply 
Zidon, which Homer calls "woXwffoXicoj"), this 
tribe was not to be distinguished in war, but 
so long as it continued to be a tribe was to 
be noted only for this plenty of bread. This 
''languid rest" (as the word is generally 
understood to mean) was to be a feature of 
Asher to the last; and that it was so very 
early we have proof in the passage quoted 
from Deborah's song. It may further be 
noticed that Asher's "warriof^s shoes,*' or 
** strong'harred fortresses,** which seem to 
signify his mountains, were his protection 
against the men of Tyre and Zidon (Josh. 
xJT. 28, 29), who remained unsubdued even 
in Solomon's days, and must often have 
threatened to disturb this tribe's repose. 

A sort of restful contentedness, we have 
seen, was a feature of this tribe. Its one 
noble deed was that mentioned in 1 Chron. 
xii. 86, when it sent forth its forty thousand 
warriors, "expert in war," to the help of 
David. But liiey fought no battle ; and so 
it seems to have been with those mentioned 
1 Chron. viL 40; their prince's "choice and 
mighty men of valour," and the twenty-six 
thousand men "apt to the war and to 
battle." 

Some of the names given to those of this 
tribe are interesting, as we find them in 1 
Chron. viL 30. There is "Imnah," pros- 
perity, or right-handedness ; and his sister 

9* 



182 



THE TWELVE TBIBE8. 



fThe Soattend VaUob* 



** Serah," abundance. Another female of the 
tribe (ver. 32) bears the name " Shna»" the 
wealthy one. And then we have (ver. 37) 
"Bezer," the golden one; ** Hod," honour ; 
"Shamma," renown; "Ithran," eminence; 
and the list of names ends with (ver. 39) 
" Bezia»" acceptableness, or favour, as if re- 
ferring to Moses' blessing (Dent. xzziiL 24). 
In all this there is something very diarac* 
teristic of Asher, the Happy One. 

In Moses' blessing Asher is brought in 
last, and he (Deut. xxxiiL 29) exclaims, 
"Hajppy (Asher-like) art thou, O Israel!" 
There may be here an allusion to the tribe 
and his peculiar blessing, for in its essence 
it belongs to all IsraeL Indeed, it belongs 
to the £amily of Ood, whether we take his 
name in itself, or the blessings showered 
down upon him. The fiEunily of God are 
-^* Asher," happy, because of pardon, as Ps. 
xxxii. 1, sings. They have seen th^ sins 
•limried in ihe depths, and "the daughters of 
. Jerusalem " congratulate them on tiieir 
ielicity. The family of God are Asher, 
^&ppy» because of holiness begun, as sung 
. of in Ps. cxix. I ; they have entered on the 
conquest of all their passions, and are get* 
ting into the inheritance of holy conformity 
to God*s likeness. The family of Gbd are 
Asher, happy, amid troubles and trials, for 
all dbastening works for their good, aa Ps. 
zoiv. 12, has sung. Happy are they in 
death, for the voice from heaven bids us 
write on their tomb, "Happy" (Bev. xiv. 
13); and happy above all at the Lord's 
coming again, when they shall be greeted 
with the welcome, "Happy are they who are 
called to the marriage supper of the Lamb " 
. (Rev. xix. 9). Oh, true Ash^s, eat your royal 
• damties. Tour bread is fktness; you are 
4>le6sed above angels your brethren. Dip 
your foot in oil, and fear no change, fbr thy 
walls and bulwarks are salvation, better 
than the warrior's shoes or the strongest 
bars of the mountain fortress, and your rest 
shall continue endless as eternity. Who 
would not be an AeherUe? Receive Gk>d's 
testimony to his Son ; believe as Abraham 
believed, and all this is yours. 

And yet again, we cannot but see in 
Asher's blessing a sample of what all Israel 
shall enjoy, undisturbed and unchanging, in 
the latter days, returning home from all 
lands. The "daughters"— mei on earth and 



angels above — shall call them blessed; they 
shall have their bread, and £E^ess, and oil; 
they shall be blessed above their brethren 
the Gentile nations; and they shall rest in 
their lot secure while sun and moon endure. 
This shall be yours. Oh people of Israel, 
whensoever you, as a nation, welcome Him 
who is Earth'H true "Asher"; whensoevor 
you oall Him blessed, uttering to Blm your 
heart's acceptance, "Blessed is He that 
oometh in the name of the Lord" (Matt. 
rD]i89). 

One has sung of this tribe in the follow- 
ing strain: — 

"A land of plenty AshflT had. 
With ohre-grove and vineyard oladi 
And God's own promiM as his plea 
That ^as his days his strength should be.' 

"Sqnipped ktt warfara Aahsst mm 
With shoes of iron and of brass. 
In God Jehovah's name to smite 
The heaven-defying Amoiite. 

" Enamoured of the fertile soil. 
He dipped his foot in com and oil ; 
To ease he gave his soul a prey, 
In sloth he spent probatioa's ds^. 

" He saw the Canaanite command 
His pnrple sea, his golden strand ;* 
Nor quenched in blood of hanghty Tyre 
Pale Ashtaroth and Baal's fire. 

"And when the voioe of Barak's war 
Went thundering o'er his rooks afiur, 
He sat and listened by his eraek, 
Thzovgh love of ease enthralled and weak. 

" Supine amid his folds he lay, 
And slept the promised strength a«vay; 
Nor ventured on the mighty plea, 
'And as thy days thy strength shall be.' 

"For this Assyria's eagle oame, 
For this, in land of miknown name, 
His coward sloth and guilty fears 
He mourns with unavailing tears. 

" But not for aye. From sands and snow 
Of Orient pilgrim streams shall flow; 
And Jacob's sons shall turn again 
To the returning latter rain. 

"Baal aaid Ashtaroth no more 
Shall light their temples on his shore, 
When Asher's feet again shall sedc 
His olive-hills and ancient cieek. 



' Awake* ye alumberers in Zion ; 

Think not that ease is hairiness ! 
But seek the rest of Judah's Lion 

When He shall come, the Prince of Peace." 

Pauliw. 

* Judg. i. 81, oompozed Tfith JodL six. 2L 



TW8M«tand irattoa,! 
IflfMt 1,1866. J 



EBAaONS FOB EBMAmnSfG A JEW. 



183 



REASONS FOE REMAINING A JEW. 



BT THl 

They are neither few nor indifferent. We 
will now try to mention one or two which 
seem to deserve special consideration : 

L In order to remoMh what one is. In 
the whole creation, the power of HabUUy 
(vM mertim) is of great importance. Every 
one prefers qoietness to motion, and, unless 
stirred up by special causes, would never 
think of quitting his position, physical or 
xnoraL You are surrounded by certain 
persons firom your very childhood ; you are 
used to them, have adopted their manners 
and modes of thinking; you are familiar 
with their expressions and way of acting, 
and it is certainly no easy matter to abandon 
those with whom one is cimnected by l^e 
ties oi blood and faith, with whom one has 
shared weal and woe, and is united in one's 
Tiews of the nature of Judaism and in oppo- 
sition to Christianity. 

Every change may easily bring about 
many complications, losses, and diss^point- 
ments. We cannot be held responsible for 
what be&Us us in circumstances which we 
have not created ourselves, but into which 
we were, so to speak, bom. It is altogether 
different with those we have an active part 
in, and hence it cannot be thought strange 
tiiat many Jews, deeply impressed with the 
responsibility they would incur if they 
themselves broke their present ties, and 
•endeavoured to enter into a new relationship 
with the Gentiles, prefer to remain Jews as 
they are by birth. 

2. Many remain Jews because Judaism is 
ih& religion of the fathers. We shall not at- 
temptat present to point outthediscrepanciee 
which exist between modem Judaism and 
the religion of Moses and the prophets. 
We grant for argument's sake that the Jews 
believe them to be identical, and then it is a 
very strong reason indeed to remain a Jew. 
For Uie institutes of the Old Testament 
are not the arbitrary inventions of men, but 
the revelation of the living and true Grod. 
Judaism is not the work of a day, but it is 
the result of many centuries, and its mar- 
vellous history tells the tale of Idie most 
astounding manifestations of GKkL's nugesty 



IDITOB. 

and mercy. For He has not dealt with any 
nation as He did with Israel, unto which 
He gave his statutes »id his judgments. 
Nowhere is the power of Gkni in the guid- 
ance of a ^ole nation so strikingly seen 
as in IsraeL They have believed much, 
confessed and fought much, yea, they have 
suffered much. And there are not a few 
Jews— and they may be reckoned among 
the noblest sons of Israel— who suppose 
that they may not separate from a people 
that has suffered so long and much, lest they 
should be suspected of lack of courage and 
generosity, seeking to esci^ suffering and 
unkindness for themselves. If it were true 
that a Jew who believes in Christ apostatizes 
from the religion of his fathers, then surely 
he would not only forsake his fathers, but 
even their Gkxl, as the feith of the saints 
of the Old Testament was built on the 
testimony of Jehovah. 

Everything has been done to strengthen 
the impression that Christianity is opposed 
to the religion of Israel ; for many so-called 
Christians, learned and unlearned, look on 
the Old Testament as a book useful for the 
Jews, but of very little consequence to the 
Christian; yea^ not a few go even so fiir as to 
say that the Gk>d of the New is not the same 
with the Holy One of Israel ; for whilst the 
first is a merciful Father, the latter is only 
a jealous God. Simple people express it in 
these words — ** Every one must remain in 
the religion wherein he was bom, and we do 
not like persons that change their faith." 
All Uiis is known to the Jews, and induces 
tiiem to remain in the religion of their 
fore&thers. 

3. They remain Jews out of fa/noMcism, 
and supposed corwicHon. A great many Jews 
do not know the religion they profess, and 
this holds true, not only of the great multi- 
tude, but also of those who in all other 
respects have obtained a great deal of know- 
ledge and abOity. They do not readjbhe 
Talmud on which the present Judaism rests, 
and have never studied the writings of those 
Babbis who exercise so great an influence 
on their daily life. Many have but a super- 



184 



EEA80N8 FOB EEIIAININQ A JEW. 



L August 1, I860. 



ficial knowledge of Moses and the Psalms, 
and liave probably never read the prophets. 
Jewish ladies and gentlemen who would feel 
ashamed of not being well versed in Shaks- 
peare and Dickens, would be quite surprised 
if you supposed them to know Isaiah and Job. 
And if liey know so little of the Old Testa- 
ment, how much less are they acquainted 
with the writings of the New Testament P 
They remam in Judaism, which, they hcuve 
never known thorcmghlnf, cmd repudiate Ohris' 
tiamty, after which they have never inquired. 
When one knows that the leaders of the 
Jews use all efforts to misrepresent the gos- 
pel, and that they tell their people that the 
mere uttering of the name of Jesus hindebs 
the acceptance of their prayers for portt days 
-:-then it is not strange that they drmk in 
prejudices against Christianity as it were 
with the mother's milk, and fancy they 
must remam Jews. 

4. They remain Jews on account of mone- 
tary adocmtages. The fiunily ties are very 
strong among the Jews ; and to their honou 
be it said that the mutual relation of husband 
and wife, and of parents and children, reflects 
in general great credit on the nation. They 
are very intimately connected with one 
another in all the transactions of daily life 
and they assist one another very much and 
very frequently. Even the poorest Jew can 
get on among his brethren, and they will 
not allow him to sink altogether when he 
tries to do his duty. Put the same man in 
the midst of Christian society, and he is at 
a loss what to do with himself. Let him 
be a bom Englishmui, still his accent be- 
trays him; his features, gesticulations, man- 
ner of thinking, and of expression, tell you 
at once who he is ; and though he may do 
business with the Oentiles, he does not feel 
ai home among them. They cannot fcdly 
enter into his difficulties, do not understand 
his customs, and suspect him of dishonest 
dealings, though their baptized neighbour 
has deceived them ten times more than the 
poor Jew. 

Were the poor Jew to be seen entering a 
church or a chapel — were he suspected of 
reading the New Testament, and of inquiring 
into the truths of Christianity — all help 
would at once be refused, and the doors of 
the rich Jews, once open to him, would soon 
be closed against him, to say nothing of 



actual persecutions he would be exposed to. 
I know of cases where rich Jews left large 
legacies to members of the family under the 
express condition that they should never be- 
come Christians. Theparents knew that their 
profession of Jesus would deprive them and 
their young children of the part of the le- 
gacy due to them, and a large sum it was. 
Can you be surprised when you are told 
that it cost them a hard struggle to lose the 
money, not only for their own persons, but 
also for their young children — too yoxmg to 
decide for themselves P It is one instance of 
many which all go to prove that a Jew caa 
much easier get on amoug his brethren after 
the flesh than among those to whom he is a 
stranger, and therefore chooses to remam a 
Jew. 

5.' Many remain Jews because of a greater 
and surer advancement. Every one knows- 
that the Jews value highly learning and 
professional attainments. A Jew who is -ac- 
quainted with the writings of the Rabbis^ 
and is able to preach a decent discourse 
once a week, has a very fSsdr chance of 
being appointed to a synagogue; and his 
congregation honours him and pays him 
welL He has a better prospect before 
him than any dissenting minister of equal 
gifts. 

Then, agun, the Jews en^oj all political 
rights, and we rejoice in it. Many Chris- 
tians are desirous to see Jews in all the 
branches of legislature, in all city and state 
offices, not so much out of love to Israel aa 
to religious equality^the great boast of this 
age. I speak of equality, not of religions 
Uherty. The flrst (equality) proceeds on the 
revolutionary principle that all religions are 
alike, and that it is indiflerent what one 
believes, provided (?) one does all he can (P) ; 
the second (liberty) rests on the conviction 
that there is only one way of salvation, but 
gives freedom to those i^t are in error, 
as even error must be allowed to say all it 
can advance in its favour, and never be put 
down by carnal weapons. 

In consequence, then, of religious 
equality, Jews are not only admitted to, but 
promoted in, offices, and asked to take part in 
all great social undertakings. People delight 
in a Jew being a Lord Mayor, though it may 
be strange that he has a chaplam, and occa- 
sionally— 'Of course as Lord Mayor, and not 



The 8estt«nd iratJonn 
Aaguat 1» 1868. J 



THE WAVING OF TEE SHEAF. 



185 



as a Jew — attends special services in a church 
where prayer is offered in the name of that 
Jesns whom he believes to be an impostor. 
Let a converted — or rather, as the general 
phrase runs, a hapUssed — Jew be appointed, 
and the Jews would never forget that he 
was baptized, and many Christians would 
scarcely venture to approve it lest they 
should be supposed to be intolerant, and 
animated with the spirit of proselytiz- 
ing. 

The Jews are fully acquainted with these 



facts ; and is it not very natural that they 
choose to remam Jews P 

Let Jews and Christians consider these 
reasons, whidb can easily be greatly in- 
creased. Then they will perhaps understand 
that the gospel must indeed be a power of 
GK)d unto salvation if ever a Jew counts all 
things for loss compared with the excellency 
of the knowledge of Jesus Christ, and sub- 
mits to the double reproach of being called 
by Jews an apoaiatey and by many Christians 
a hapbiKed Jew, 



THE WAVING OP THE SHEAF AND THE FEAST OF PENTECOST. 



B7 E. S. CALHAN^ ESQ. 
(Formerlj of JeroMleio.) 



Although the substance of what I am going 
to observe I had occasion to add at the end 
of a little work, published a good many 
years ago, in the form of an explanatory 
note in connection with the Feast of Pente- 
cost, yet having found it recently, on perus- 
ing it, in not only of its not being fiiUy or 
clearly expressed, but also of the probabiHty 
of its being made capable of illustrating 
and explaining some collateral subject con- 
nected with the said feast, as well as that 
connected with the waving of the sheaf, had 
the effect of leading me to rewrite it, and of 
presenting the subject-matter of the notes 
alluded to in the present enlarged form, 
withcmt the apprehension of rendering my- 
self culpable to the charge of plagiary, unless 
I should come forward to indict myself of 
such a charge. 

We read in Lev. xxiii. 9 — 17, in connec- 
tion with the keeping of the Feast of the 
Unleavened Bread, that a sheaf of the first 
ripe firuits of the field was to be offered 
before the Lord, " on ike morrow after the 
Sabbath.** The conmiand in reference 
thereunto, together with that in reference 
to the time of the keeping of the Feast of 
Pentecost, are found comprised within the 
s^d verses of the said chapter, which I 
shall for convenience' sake quote: "And 
the Lord spake unto Moses, saying. Speak 
unto the children of Israel, and say unto them. 
When ye be come into the land which I give 
unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof. 



then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits 
of your harvest unto the priest: and he 
. shiJl wave the sheaf before the Lord, to h& 
accepted for you: on the morrow after the 
Sabbath tho priest shall wave it. . • . And 
ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched cora» 
nor green ears, until the self-same day that 
ye have brought an offering unto your GU)d. 
And ye shall count unto you from the mor' 
row after the Sabbath, from the day that ye 
brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven 
weeks shall be complete : even vaUo tha 
morrow after the seventh Sabbath shall ye 
number* fifty days ; and ye shall offer a new 
meat offering unto the Lord" (Lev. xxiii» 
9—17). 

The import or meaning of the expression,, 
of the morrow aft/er the Sabbath, forms a 
subject of dispute or controversy between, 
the Babbinical Jews — ^that is, those Jews 
who take tradition as their guide — and their 
brethren the KarBitea, who protest against 
tradition, and profess to adhere to the literal 
expression of the Scriptures. In accordance 
with the former, and which being generally 
followed by Christian commentators, the 
expression of " the mmrow after the Sabbath'* 
means nothing more than the second day of 
the Feast of the Unleavened Bread; the 
first day of the feast, say they, is called a 
Sabbath, because it is observed as a Sab- 



• The fifty days 
morrow after the seventh 
Feast of Pentecost itself. 



with the 
Sabbath, or with the 



186 



TES WAVma OF THE 8HSAF. 



rrkm fl e rttw t d ITaftioa, 
L AttgOBt 1,1861. 



ba^h; oon8equ6ntly» on the morrow after, 
^hich being the 16th of the month, the 
«heaf wu to be offered. 

Aooording to the latter— that is, the 
XaraSte Jews— with them the term Sabbath 
in the text means nothing else than the 
Satordaj, the weekly Sabbath, the seventh 
<lay of the week, and hence the expression 
<£ *'th6 morrow after the Sahhaih'* means 
^e first day of the we^ on which day only* 
«nd on no other, the sheaf was to be waved, 
and the seven weeks, at the termination of 
which the Feast of Pentecost is to be kept, 
is to be completed. 

Two reasons seem to present themselves 
.to one's mind in favour of the supposition of 
the last, the Karaite Jews, in reference to 
the expression of the morrow after the Saib' 
hath, and to militate against that of the 
former, the Rabbinical Jews, involving an 
Interesting inquiry, without, to be hoped of, 
ft barren result. 

The first and the most natural question* 
which forces itself on one's mind in refer- 
•enoe to the time in which the Feast of Pen- 
tecost was to be celebrated, is this — ^namely, 
how it came to happen that the Divine 
Legislator, in fixing the time of the celebra- 
tion of the various festivals, the day of the 
month was respectively specified P For 
instance, the Feast of the Unleavened Bread 
was to be kept on the 15th day of the first 
month ; the Feast of the Trumpets on the 
Ist day of the seventh month ; the day of 
the Atonement on the 10th day of the same 
month; and the Feast of the Tabernacles 
on the 15th day of the same month ; whilst 
the only exception to this seemed general 
rule is, that of the Feast of Pentecost, which 
was commanded to be celebrated at the end 
of seven weeks, which was to commence 
firom " the morrow after {he Sahbaih,** when 
the sheaf was to be waved P 

The solution of the question, or the 
reason for such a deviation on the part of 
the Divine Legislator, in reference to the 
time of fixing of the Feast of Pentecost, 
seems to lie on the very surface, needing not 
deep digging in search of one. For how 
could the day of the month in which the 
Feast of Pentecost should be kept, seeing 
that the day of the month from whence the 
seven weeks are to be counted, at the termi- 
nation of which the said fbast is to be kept, 



oould be fixed neither P For example, if the 
first day of the Feast of the Unleavened 
Bread, whidi is to be kept on the 15th day 
of the first month, was to happen to &I1 <hi 
a Monday, in such a case, in acoordancewith 
the sense which theEJaraXte Jews give to 
the expression of '*ihe morrow after the 
Sahhaih/* the waving of the sheaf would 
have to be postponed to the Sunday follow- 
ing the 21st day of the month, and when 
the termination of the seven weeks, at the 
close of which the Feast of Pentecost is to 
be kept, would bring us to the 11th day of 
the third month, caJled fi^D. Again, if the 
first day of the Feast of the Unleavened 
Bread should happen to be on a Tuesday, 
the waving of the sheaf would have to be 
delayed to the Sunday of the 20th, and ihe 
Feast of Pentecost would then be kept on 
the 10th of third month. Ij^ again, the 
first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread 
should happen to &11 on a Wednesday, the 
waving of the sheaf would be delayed till 
the Sunday of the 19th, and the Feast of 
Pentecost would then have to be kept on 
the 9th of third month. Again,ifonaThnrs- 
pay, the offering of the sheaf would be 
delayed to the Sunday of the 18th of the 
month, and the Feast of Pentecost would 
then be kept on the 8th of the third month. 
If on a IViday, the offering of the sheaf 
would be postponed to the Sunday of the 
17th of the month, and the Feast of Pente- 
cost would in that case be kept on the 7th of 
the third month. Lastly, if on a Saturday, 
the sheaf would be offered on the next day, 
the first day of the week, the 16th day of 
the month, in that case the seven weeks 
would end on the 5th, and the day following, 
the 6th day of the third month, the Feast of 
Pentecost would be kept. Under circum- 
stances as just stated, it would have been 
impossible for the Divine Legislator to have 
fixed the day of the month in which the 
Feast of Pentecost should be kept ! 

On the other hand, if the expression of 
"the morrow aft>er the Sahhath'* is to be 
taken in the sense which the Babbinical 
Jews want to have it, as having reference 
to the second day of the Feast of the Un- 
leavened Bread, the 16th of the first month, 
which being the day of the month in which 
the sheaf was always to be waved, and the 
seven weeks to the Feast of Pentecost to be 



1 1, 18W. J 



THE WA7IN0 OF THE 8HEAF. 



187 



oommenoed, which fixes the said feast to the 
6th of the third month, on whidi day the 
fiabbinical Jews always keep it-^he ques- 
tion then remains, "Wherefore did the 
Divine L^^islator, if He understood the 
expression of ' the morrow after the Sahhatk* 
in the sense of the Babbinical Jews, not fix, 
like them, the Feast of Pentecost on the 6th 
day of the third month, instead of leaving 
it in that ambigaoos way P" 

Nor, indeed, is that the only reason 
wfakh could be advanced to strengthen the 
position of the KunUte Jews in referenoe to 
the subject in question, and which will be 
rendered apparent by reading vers. 15 and 
U of the said chapter together. Yer. 15: 
''And ye shall count unto you from ihe 
worrow after the Sahhaih, from the day that 
ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; 
seven Sabbaths shall be complete: ev^i 
onto the morrow after the seventh Sahhaih.** 
Kow if the expression of ** the m^nrow after 
ihe Sahhalh *' in ygt. 15 means the day fol- 
lowing the first day of the Feast of Unlea- 
vened Bread, how then is the identical 
expression in the next verse, "even wUo the 
mxrrrwo after the seventh Sabbath," to be taken, 
there being no feast preceding it so as to 
qualify such an expression P Again, if we 
take this last expression, as it must be done 
to mean the day succeeding the weekly 
BabbaUi, the first day of the week — ^for there 
being no feast preceding it, what in the 
worid should make the same expression in 
the preceding verse to mean not the day 
following the weekly Sabbath, but that of 
the second day of the Feast of the XJnlea- 
Tened Bread?* 

* JoeepliTis mentions incidentally in Book Alii. 
9, 4, ''That on the oocamon of John Hyrcanns 
Iwnting an aoxiliftry Jewish army, taJBed in aid of 
AniiodinB Sidatns, he had to halt in hia maroh for 
two snoceesive days, on which they conld not piroceed. 
^The Sabbath' was one of them, and there immedi- 
3ielj succeeded the day of Pentecost, which in like 
manner is kept sa a Sabbath." Althongh this oonld 
not be brought forward as a oondnsiTe argmnent in 
£aTonr of that feast having been kept always on ihe 
first day of the week, yet it tends to afford a kind 
«f inresumptive evidence that the case most likely 
might have been so; especially in taking it in con- 
nection with the fact that the Karaite Jews keep to 
this day the Feast of Penteoost on the first day of 
the week. There being no need for me to mention 
in addition that the Pentecost which succeeded the 
resurrection of our Lord happened also on the first 
day of the week. The reason which induced the 



Allow me, then, to remark after what 
had been said on the subject, that if the 
expression of " ihe morrow after ihe Sabbath'* 
in both instances— whether that which stands 
in connection with the waving of the sheaf, 
or that with the Feast of Pentecost— be 
granted to mean the first day of the week ; 
and i^ again, the waving of the first ripe 
fruit of the sheaf be intended by the 
Divine mind, as it is supposed to be, to 
typify the resurrection of our Lord, who 
was the firstfhiits of them that sleep ; and 
that again of the waving of the two loaves 
on the Feast of Pentecost of the firstfruits 
of the wheat harvest, were to typify that of 
the outpouring of the firstfruits of the Spirit 
on the apostles, both of these glorious events 
have taken place on the first day of the 
week, on ihe morrow after the Sabbath, then 
this something more than mere coincidence 
may not only tend to starengthen the sup- 
posed typical character of both these sig- 
nificant ceremonies, but also make us to 
exclaim, in referenoe to the day itself, to this 
the Tuorrow after ihe Sabbaih, to this glorious 
first day of the week, with the sweet Psalmist 
of Israel, " this is the day which the Lord 
hath made, we will rejoice and be glad in it/' 

The preceding explanatory remarks may 
not at aU unlikely tend to throw some lig^t 
on somewhat a kindred subject in oonneo- 
tion with a narrative in the Oospel of St. 
Luke, where we find as follows: "And it 
came to pass on the second Sabbaih after the 
first, that Jesus went through the com fields ; 
and his disciples plucked the ears of com, 
and did eat, rubbing them in their hands. 
And certain of the Pharisees said unto 
them. Why do ye that which is not lawfhl 
to do on the Sabbath days P" (Luke vL 1, 
2). There are various opinions as to what 
the expression of the *' second Sabbaih after 
ihe first " had reference to. Some take it to 
refbr to the second, others to the last, day of 
the Feast of the .Unleavened Bread; some 
take it to refer to the Feast of Pentecost, 
the Passover being the first Sabbath and 
Pentecost the second; and some to the first 

Babbinical Jews to keep it at any of^er day may 
most likely have its origin in their intuitive hostility 
to Christianity, which sought to deprive the first day 
of the week of its pre-eminence, by f4>plying the 
expression of "the morrow after the Sabbath" to 
any day of the week, not exclusively to the first 



188 



TEE WAVING OF THE SHEAF. 



rriM Scftttared IfsiioD, 
L Angiut 1, 1966. 



Sabboiih which followed the second day of 
the Feast of the Unleavened Bread; and 
others again have thought that the first 
grand Sabbath was the first Sabbath of the 
civil year in the seventh month, and that 
the second was the first Sabbath of the 
ecclesiastical year. All of which seem to be 
mere suppositions as on what Sabbath the 
event of the plucking of the ears of com 
had taken place, without even venturing so 
much as a supposition as for what object 
and purpose the said Sabbaths were l^us 
specified. 

Let us but for a moment suppose that 
the arguments advanced in favour of the 
expression of " the morrow after the Sabhaih " 
wherein the waving of the sheaf, which was 
to render the use of the new ripe fruit of 
the field lawfrd to eat, a$ hemg the first day 
of the weeh, to be well foxmded, and which 
day, as it had been shown before, may 
happen to be any of the intermediate days 
of the month between that of the 16th to 
that of the 21st, and will, for illustration 
sake have reoourse once more to the follow- 
ing example: for instance, when the first 
day of the Feast of the Unleavened Bread 
should hi^pen to Ml on a Monday, the new 
fruits of the field would continue unlawful 
to be eaten during every one of the inter- 
vening days between that of Monday and 
the Sunday of the 21st of the month when 
the sheaf, which was to render the new fruit 
lawful for meat, was waved; though the 
Saturday preceding it being the first Sabhaih 
of the Feast, yet the new fruits of the field 
could not have lawfully been eaten during 
it, for the sheaf was not to be waved till the 
day after. 

. This preliminary remark may most 
likely help us both to explain what the Evan- 
gelist means to convey by the expression 
of the second Sahhath after the first, and to 
discover the reason for the spedfication of 
the same. 

All agree regarding the event which the 
Evangelist narrates to have taken place 
during the Feast of Unleavened Bread, 
which being the only occasion wherein the 
Jewish people have been ex^joined to re- 
member their Sabbath (Lev. xxiiL 15). 



What the Evangelist means &.iher to convey 
or to obviate by the said expression of the 
second Bdbhath aftefr the first, most likely was 
this — namely, that the charge brought by 
the Pharisees against the disciples of ChriBt» 
on their plucking the ears of com, and did eat 
them, were done solely and exclusively on the 
ground of its being a pro&nation of the 
Sabbath, and that not on account of thdr 
having partaken of the first new fruits of 
the field previous to the waving of the 
sheaf, which was to have rendered the new 
produce of the field lawful to eat— a cir» 
cnmstanoe similar to that which the Evan- 
gehst has alluded to if occurring on the 
first Sabbath of the Feast of Unleavened 
Bread, as shown before, could not but have 
partaken of the first ripe fruits of the field 
unlawfully—but by specifying that the 
event of plucking and eating of the ears of 
com to have taken place on the second 
Sabbath after the first, all doubts as it 
regards the lawfulness of eating the new 
fruits of the field is thereby removed ; the 
waving of the sheaf which was to have done 
so must have taken place on the Sunday 
that preceded it. Hence the charge of the 
Pharisees against the disciples of Ghnst^ 
I would repeat again, could only have been 
on the ground of being a profanation of the 
Sabbath, and that on no account of the 
unlawfidness for using the new firuits of the 
fields for food, which the Evangelist means 
to avoid. And would only add, before 
closing, that the apparent redundancy of the 
words of "./t4% come,'* in the first verse of 
the second chapter of the Acts of the 
Apostles, in connection with the Feast of 
Pentecost, may also most likely have refer- 
ence to the peculiarity as it regards the 
time of the keeping of the said feast^ which 
though it might be kept, as abready shown, 
at the expiration of seven weeks, which, 
however, if the same being commenced from 
any other day of the week than that of the 
first day of the week, it could then not have 
been used concerning it, the expression of 
^* fvUy come,*' a term which could only be 
applicable when the computation of the 
seven weeks commenced with the first 
Sunday of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. 



The 8oftti«r«d I7Ation,~| 
August 1, ltM6^ J 



PAUL, A WITNE88 FOB CHEI8TIANITY. 



189 



PAUL, A WITNESS FOB OHEISTIAinTY TO JEWS AND GENTILES. 



BY THE EDITOB. 



The Eer. J. W. Bonlding had been requested 
by the Committee of the British Sooietj for the 
Fropagation of the Gk>8pel among the Jews, to 
preach the Anmversary Sermon. He did so on 
the 14th of May, and the sermon is now published 
under the title placed at the head of these 
remarks. 

The conyersion of Saol has been many a 
time appealed to as one of the strongest testi- 
monies for the power and truth of the gospel 
of Jesus of Nazareth. Even the most reckless 
■writers on the continent could not but acknow- 
ledge the authenticity of the Epistles to the 
Bomans, Galatians, Corinthians, and Thessa- 
lonians. Dr. Aubelon, one of the most able 
and pious professors of Germany, who has now 
entered into his eternal rest, has tried to con- 
struct the life of Pftul on those epistles beyond the 
reach of cavil, and the results he arrires at are 

00 astounding, that the whole Paul, as described 
in the Acts and the other epistles generally 
attributed to him, rises up before us, and we 
recognize the old known, revered father. If 
there were any honesty to be found regarding 
divine truth among natural men, the single fetct 
ought to be sufficient to convince them of the 
reality of Saul's conversion, and of the power 
of that gospeL But they are blinded and do 
not see it, though their very blindness confirms 
the truth of Paul's sayings — " The natural man 
IB filled with enmity against (Jod," and he cannot 
" discern spiritual things spiritually." 

Well do I recollect that many years ago I 
delivered a discourse in the presence of many 
Jews at Pesth on the nature qf the law ofMoeee. 

1 tried to impress on them that the law could 
not be given in order to be transgressed, and 
that, on the other hand, the great Lawgiver 
knew that it could not be fulfilled, and that He 
therefore gave it in order to cause Saul to 
acknowledge its weakness and guilt, and to look 
out for those on whom all the shadows of the 
Old Testament were to become a reality, and all 
the promises to be made, yea and amen. The 
Jews seemed to be delighted with what I had 
said, but no sooner did I add that this was not 
a discovery of mine, but the great principle of 
the once Pharisaic Saul, and afterwards Apostle 
Paul, than they began to mock at it and to find 
it rather childish. Such is the state of the 
natural heart. 

If anything proves the reality of Saul's 
conversion it is the method and manner of 
his writing. It is frequently lost sight of 
that Paul was not only a Jew, but a disciple 
of Gamaliel, and hence was trained after the 
manner of the Babbinical Jews. Their logic, 
their way of reasoning, quoting, explaining and 
applying Scripture, is altogether peculiar. They 
have a manner of their own with which nothing 
else can be compared. All the epistles of Paul 
prove clearly to any one who is acquainted 
with Babbinical writings that Saul sat at the feet 
of the then most renowned Babbi. His manner 
is that of a Babbinical adept, his matter the 



most opposed to all Babbinical tenonrs. If he 
did not reason like a disciple of CkunaUel, you 
might doubt the authenticity of the statements ; 
if he in any way tampered with the truth as it 
is in Jesus, you might doubt the thoroughness 
of the change that has come upon him. But 
trace the doctrine of rigJUeouenefe hy faith stated 
after the manner of eelfMghieovM teachers, the 
oneness of form and total difiference of contexts 
with the writings of the Babbis is one of the 
most striking proofs which can be adduced in 
favour of the authenticity of Paul's writings, 
the truthfulness of his conversion, and the power 
of that gospel which brought about this mar- 
vellous change. 

But I may not enlarge on this all-important 
topic, but rather try to state briefly what Mr. 
Bonlding lays before us in his very clear and 
forcible sermon. The text is Acts ix. 6, 20—22. 
He therefrom endeavours to prove the reality 
and genninenesM of PanCt conversion, and founds 
his proofs in the change which took place in his 
prayers, as indicated in the words addressed to 
Jesus of Nazareth — ** Lord, what wilt Thou have 
me to do f* II. In the change which took place in 
the object of his zeal, as in<Ucated in the words — 
" Straightway he preached Christ in the vpiB^ 
gogues, that He is the Son of God." III. In 
the permanence of the change, as indicated in the 
woids — '* Saul increased the more in strength." 
Striking extracts might be given from eeick 
of these parts, but as our space is so very 
limited, we must content ourselves with giving 
one extract, wherein after a description that 
the conversion of Saul to Christianity was the 
most improbable event that could occur, the 
preacher then proceeds . — 

« Let us, then, place before you two pictures. 
Behold the young man, Saul, gazing with savage 
satisfaction on the dying agonies of the martyr 
Stephen — entering into every domestic circle, 
and wrenching husbands from their wives, and 
mothers from their children, while neifcher the 
wails of helpless women, nor the cries of tender 
infknts, can move to pity his stem and iron 
heart — see him hasting from scene to scene, on 
his woA of butchery, till every city has been 
stained with the blood of his victims, and all 
Judea is filled with the terror of his name — see 
him journeying to Damascus, armed with the 
letters of ecclesiastical authority, and ' breathing 
out threatenings and slaughter,' as he spurs his 
steed along the Damascus road ; and, as the city 
rises in the distance on his sight, his cruel eye 
flashing like a vulture's, when it hastes to swoop 
down upon its defenceless prey. 

" But behold— he falls ! God's bolt of thunder 
has surely struck the monster down. Nay, bolts 
of thunder there are none : but a voice which, 
in its pathetic sweetness, is mightier than all 
the bolts of God—* Saul, Saul, why persecutest 
thou me P* Jesus of Nazareth has struck down 
the foe, and the arrow which has smote him has 
sped from his cross. He prays, he weeps — the 
letters have fallen from his palsied grasp— the 



190 



TKE KARAITE JEWS. 



rTh« Scattered Kation, 
L Aofott 1, 18M. 



heart, which woman's helpless misery could not 
more, has melted now. He breathes no longer 
threatenings, but prayers, and he who fell^ the 
earth a persecutor rises fh)m the ground a dis- 
ciple ; and, instead of entering Damascus to lead 
off multitudes to prison and to death, he passes 
through its gateway blind and helpless, a pri- 
soner of Christ, led to those very abodes of 
discipleship which he had come, like a wolf, to 
waste and to devour. Behold him, a few days 
after, preaching Christ in the synagogua, thai 
He is the Son of God, confounding the Jews 
which dwelt at Damascus, and making himself 
the victim of persecution and scorn. Behold 
him, a short time after, being let down by night 
in a basket from the waJls of that very Damascus 
which he had entered as the agent of ecclesias- 
tical persecution; let down, perhaps, by the 
very disciples whom he had come to carry c^penly 
into chains, and returning to Jerusalem to fill 
the theatre of his bloodiest deeds with the fame 
of his discipleship and the eloquence of his testi- 
mony. Behold him, in the theatre at Ephesus, 
fighting with savage beasts or equally savage 
men ; on Mars' HiU, at Athens, reasoning with 
the philosophers ; in the prison at Bome, nourish- 
ing the church in the ho